6-response of the cardiovascular       system to exercise  Advanced Nutrition and Fitness            Dr. Siham Gritly
Cardio-vascular system        Dr. Siham Gritly
Definitions to be learn• aerobic physical activity: activity in which the body’s large muscles  move in a rhythmic manner ...
• moderate-intensity physical activity: physical activity that requires some increase in  breathing and/or heart rate and ...
• vigorous-intensity physical activity: physical  activity that requires a large increase in  breathing and/or heart rate ...
The Cardiovascular System and Exercise• The heart is a muscle that is required to  contract continuously throughout the li...
• Exercise places an increased demand on the  cardiovascular system to pump more oxygen to  supply the working muscle to p...
The human heart 3D ANIMATION OF WORKING OF HEARTHuman Anatomy - Heart circulatory system        How the Heart Works       ...
Functions of The Cardiovascular Systemduring exerciseThe cardiovascular system serves five important  functions during exe...
Response and Adaptation of the       Cardiovascular System to Exercise•   1-Heart rate•   2-Stroke volume•   3-Cardiac out...
1-Heart Rate• Heart Rate  Resting heart rate averages 60 to 80 beats/min  in healthy adults.• In sedentary, middle aged in...
Anticipatory response• Anticipatory response (increased heart rate before  exercise) Caused by the release of epinephrine•...
2-Stroke volume• Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected  per beat from left ventricle and measured in  ml/beat.• Str...
• during intense, physical activity stroke volume  increasing up to 110-130ml/beat• In elite athletes resting stroke volum...
3-Cardiac output• Cardiac Output  Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped  by the heart in 1 minute measured in L/min...
• Cardiac Output remains relatively unchanged  or decreases only slightly following endurance  training.• During maximal e...
4-Blood flowThe vascular system can redistribute blood to those  tissues with the greatest immediate demand for  energy su...
5-Blood Pressure• Blood Pressure  At rest, a typical systolic blood pressure in a  healthy individual ranges from 110-140m...
Cardio-respiratory endurance• “Cardio respiratory endurance is the ability of  the body’s circulatory and respiratory syst...
• the most important benefit to increases cardio  respiratory endurance is an increased VO2max  which is the body’s abilit...
Aerobic capacity and Cardiorespiratory                system• Aerobic capacity is defined as “the  maximum amount of oxyge...
Cardiorespiratory;- &Type of Activity Aerobic activitythat uses large muscle groups and can be maintainedcontinuously. 5 t...
Cardio-respiratory and aerobic physicalactivity• aerobic physical activity:Aerobic activity, also called endurance activit...
Cardio-respiratory and moderate-intensity physical activity:• moderate-intensity physical activity:  physical activity tha...
Cardio-respiratory and vigorous-intensity physical activity• vigorous-intensity physical activity: physical  activity that...
Measurement of Cardio-respiratory endurance          (maximal aerobic capacity)• To measure maximal aerobic capacity,an ex...
The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurancelevel, the more oxygen has been transported to and usedby exercising mu...
The cardiorespiratory system responds to the muscles’ demandfor oxygen by building up its capacity to deliver oxygen.Resea...
Maximum oxygen consumption• An important measure of sports fitness is  aerobic capacity or VO2 max, which is the  amount o...
• there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake and,  therefore, above a certain work rate oxygen  consumption reaches a maximu...
Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood• Energy production through Kerbs cycle or  mitochondrial respiration depend on  cont...
• A reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity in  conditions such as anaemia produces fatigue  and shortness of breath and...
Respiratory Quotient (RQ)• respiratory quotient-is the ratio of carbon  dioxide expired/moles of oxygen consumed• The resp...
• The ratio between CO2 / O2 is known as the  respiratory exchange ratio (RER).                    Dr. Siham Gritly
Indirect calorimeter       Dr. Siham Gritly
The benefits of cardio-respiratory to                 exercise   The benefits of cardio-respiratory, (aerobic,  exercise) ...
3- maintenance of a healthy body weight and  body fat percentage4- management of stress, and decreased blood  cholesterol ...
6- Increased muscle tone (quality) and enhanced  physical appearance7- low-resistance exercises (e.g., biking) train the  ...
Diseases of Cardio-vascular system and                exercise• examples• 1-Blood Pressure (hypertension)  2-Coronary Hear...
1-Blood Pressure (hypertension)• hypertension: higher-than-normal blood  pressure. Two types;• Essential or primary hypert...
• The high blood pressure is above normal, the  risk of death from CVD.• Low blood pressure, on the other hand, is  genera...
Arterial Blood Pressure         Expressed as systolic/diastolic• The Cardiac Cycle or Arterial Blood Pressure :   includes...
if the resting blood pressure is above normal, thereading should be repeated before confirming thediagnosis of hypertensio...
Classification of blood pressure for adults                    (WHO)category         Systolic(mmHg) Diastolic             ...
How Exercise Lowers Diastolic BloodPressure• Aerobic exercise, like  running, walking, swimming, and using cardio  machine...
Dietary Strategies;- Hypertension &                  CHD• The following dietary plans based on;-• USDA (United States Depa...
Dietary Strategies to Stop Hypertension                    (DASH)• The Dietary Strategies to Stop Hypertension  (DASH) rec...
• the DASH diet lowers total cholesterol and  LDL cholesterol.• Compared to the typical American diet, the  DASH eating pl...
The DASH Eating Plan             and the USDA Food Guideadapted from; Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing...
• These diet plans are based on 2000 kcalories  per day. Both DASH and the USDA Food  Guide recommend that fats and sugars...
• Salt/Sodium Intake control;• The combination of the DASH diet with a limited  intake of sodium, however, improves blood ...
• Weight Control to reduce high blood  pressure• Weight loss alone is one of the most effective  nondrug treatments for hy...
• Physical Activity• Physical activity helps with weight control, but  moderate aerobic activity, such as 30 to 60  minute...
Lifestyle Modifications to Reduce BloodPressureadapted from; Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Understanding Nutrition...
2-Cardiovascular Disease (atherosclerosis)• Cardiovascular Disease• The major causes of death ,are diseases of the  heart ...
• Atherosclerosis : a type of artery disease  characterized by plaques (accumulations of  lipid-containing material) on th...
•   Major Risk Factors for CHD•    High blood LDL cholesterol•    Low blood HDL cholesterol•    High blood pressure (hyper...
Dietary Strategies to Reduce Risk of CHDEnergy: Balance energy intake and physical activity to prevent weight gain and to ...
Soluble fibers:  a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains,  and other foods high in soluble fibers. Potassium and s...
Added sugars: Minimize intake of beverages and foods with added sugars.Fish and omega-3 fatty acids: Consume fatty  fish r...
Soy: Consume soy foods to replace animal and  dairy products that contain saturated fat and  cholesterol.Alcohol: If alcoh...
Lifestyle Choices• Physical activity: Participate in at least 30  minutes of moderate-intensity endurance  activity on mos...
cardio machines                  Dr. Siham Gritly
cardio machines    Dr. Siham Gritly
Ellipticals and ergometer stepper                     Dr. Siham Gritly
List of Cardiovascular Exercises• Swimming -- Swimming is anexcellent cardiovascular/muscular defining exercise.• Football...
• Hockey Hockey is a great sport that can be played by  just about anyone at any age.• Skiing Skiing is an incredible card...
• Treadmill This is the most popular cardiovascular exercise. Due to the impact on the knees and other joints,• Running or...
• Recumbent Bike This exercise is very popular  for people who do not want to jog and run.• Elliptical or Cross TrainerThi...
• Housework or Cleaning While most people  wouldnt call this a cardiovascular exercise, it  certainly is one.• Dancing Dan...
• Cross-Country Skiing Similar to the elliptical machine but this  exercise is a sport. It is mostly performed at a slower...
references• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutrition  and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Mel...
• Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley; Theory and  Application to Fitness and Performance, 6th edition.  EXERCISE PHYSIOLOG...
• Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under  standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011,  2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learnin...
Measurement of blood pressure           Dr. Siham Gritly
Glossary• flexibility: the capacity of the joints to move  through a full range of motion; the ability to  bend and recove...
• cardiorespiratory endurance: the ability to  perform large-muscle, dynamic exercise of  moderate to high intensity for p...
• progressive overload principle: the training  principle that a body system, in order to  improve, must be worked at  fre...
• duration: length of time (for example, the  time spent in each activity session).• Hypertrophy; growing larger; with reg...
• aerobic physical activity: activity in which the  body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic  manner for a sustained period...
• Anaerobic exercise is short-lasting, high-intensity  activity, where your body’s demand for oxygen exceeds the  oxygen s...
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6 response of the cardiovascular system to exercise

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6 response of the cardiovascular system to exercise

  1. 1. 6-response of the cardiovascular system to exercise Advanced Nutrition and Fitness Dr. Siham Gritly
  2. 2. Cardio-vascular system Dr. Siham Gritly
  3. 3. Definitions to be learn• aerobic physical activity: activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time.Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Brisk walking, running, swimming, and bicycling are examples. Dr. Siham Gritly
  4. 4. • moderate-intensity physical activity: physical activity that requires some increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends 3.5 to 7 kcalories per minute. Walking at a speed of 3 to 4.5 miles per hour (about 15 to 20 minutes to walk one mile) is an example. Dr. Siham Gritly
  5. 5. • vigorous-intensity physical activity: physical activity that requires a large increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends more than 7 kcalories per minute.• Walking at a very brisk pace (>4.5 miles per hour) or running at a pace of at least 5 miles per hour are examples. Dr. Siham Gritly
  6. 6. The Cardiovascular System and Exercise• The heart is a muscle that is required to contract continuously throughout the life to deliver oxygen to all organs in the body and breathe out carbon dioxide• Blood vessels connect the heart and lungs so that carbon dioxide can be removed from the blood and oxygen can be added to the blood.• The heart then pumps this blood throughout the body. Dr. Siham Gritly
  7. 7. • Exercise places an increased demand on the cardiovascular system to pump more oxygen to supply the working muscle to produce energy (aerobic oxidation).• Oxygen demand by the muscles increases, more nutrients are needed and more waste is created. Dr. Siham Gritly
  8. 8. The human heart 3D ANIMATION OF WORKING OF HEARTHuman Anatomy - Heart circulatory system How the Heart Works Dr. Siham Gritly
  9. 9. Functions of The Cardiovascular Systemduring exerciseThe cardiovascular system serves five important functions during exercise:• 1- Delivers oxygen to working muscles 2- Deoxygenates blood by returning it to the lungs 3- Transports heat from the center to the skin 4- Delivers nutrients and fuel to active tissues 5- Transports hormones Dr. Siham Gritly
  10. 10. Response and Adaptation of the Cardiovascular System to Exercise• 1-Heart rate• 2-Stroke volume• 3-Cardiac output• 4-Blood flow• 5-Blood pressure• 6-Blood Dr. Siham Gritly
  11. 11. 1-Heart Rate• Heart Rate Resting heart rate averages 60 to 80 beats/min in healthy adults.• In sedentary, middle aged individuals it may be as high as 100 beats/min.• In elite endurance athletes heart rates as low as 28 to 40 beats/min Dr. Siham Gritly
  12. 12. Anticipatory response• Anticipatory response (increased heart rate before exercise) Caused by the release of epinephrine• Before exercise even begins heart rate increases in anticipation (expectation). This is known as the anticipatory response.• It is mediated through the releases of neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline (adrenal gland) Dr. Siham Gritly
  13. 13. 2-Stroke volume• Stroke volume is the amount of blood ejected per beat from left ventricle and measured in ml/beat.• Stroke volume increases proportionally with exercise intensity.• In untrained individuals stroke volume at rest it averages 50-70ml/beat Dr. Siham Gritly
  14. 14. • during intense, physical activity stroke volume increasing up to 110-130ml/beat• In elite athletes resting stroke volume averages 90-110 ml/beat increasing to as much as 150-220ml/beat . Dr. Siham Gritly
  15. 15. 3-Cardiac output• Cardiac Output Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart in 1 minute measured in L/min.• It is a product of; stroke volume and heart rate (SV x HR).• If either heart rate or stroke volume increase, or both, cardiac output increases also. Dr. Siham Gritly
  16. 16. • Cardiac Output remains relatively unchanged or decreases only slightly following endurance training.• During maximal exercise on the other hand, cardiac output increases significantly. This is a result of an increase in maximal stoke volume as maximal heart rate remains unchanged with training. Dr. Siham Gritly
  17. 17. 4-Blood flowThe vascular system can redistribute blood to those tissues with the greatest immediate demand for energy such as muscles (Skeletal muscle receives a greater blood supply)• At rest 15-20% of circulating blood supplies skeletal muscle.• During vigorous exercise this increases to 80- 85% of cardiac output. Dr. Siham Gritly
  18. 18. 5-Blood Pressure• Blood Pressure At rest, a typical systolic blood pressure in a healthy individual ranges from 110-140mmHg and 60-90mmHg for diastolic blood pressure.• During exercise systolic pressure, the pressure during contraction of the heart (known as systole) can increase to over 200mmHg and in highly trained, healthy athletes. Dr. Siham Gritly
  19. 19. Cardio-respiratory endurance• “Cardio respiratory endurance is the ability of the body’s circulatory and respiratory systems to supply fuel during sustained physical activity”• Cardio-respiratory endurance; is the amount of oxygen individuals are able to take in and oxidized it for energy production to be used for working muscles. Dr. Siham Gritly
  20. 20. • the most important benefit to increases cardio respiratory endurance is an increased VO2max which is the body’s ability to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the cells, lead to;.• Lower risk of heart disease• Reduced Risks of type 2 diabetes• Lower Blood pressure Dr. Siham Gritly
  21. 21. Aerobic capacity and Cardiorespiratory system• Aerobic capacity is defined as “the maximum amount of oxygen the body can use during a specified period, usually during intense exercise”. This is the function of Cardiorespiratory system include the heart, lungs and blood vessels;-• 1-cardiorespiratory performance• 2-the maximum ability to remove and utilize oxygen from circulating blood.. Dr. Siham Gritly
  22. 22. Cardiorespiratory;- &Type of Activity Aerobic activitythat uses large muscle groups and can be maintainedcontinuously. 5 to 7 days per week. Intensity Moderate(equivalent to walking at a pace or speed of 3 to 4miles per hour). Duration At least 30 minutes.running, cycling, swimming, inlineskating, rowing, powerwalking, skiing, kickboxing, jumping rope; sportsactivities such asbasketball, soccer, racquetball, tennis, volleyball Dr. Siham Gritly
  23. 23. Cardio-respiratory and aerobic physicalactivity• aerobic physical activity:Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardio-respiratory fitness.• Quick walking, running, swimming, and bicycling are examples. Dr. Siham Gritly
  24. 24. Cardio-respiratory and moderate-intensity physical activity:• moderate-intensity physical activity: physical activity that requires some increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends 3.5 to 7 kcalories per minute.• Walking at a speed of 3 to 4.5 miles per hour (about 15 to 20 minutes to walk one mile) is an example. Dr. Siham Gritly
  25. 25. Cardio-respiratory and vigorous-intensity physical activity• vigorous-intensity physical activity: physical activity that requires a large increase in breathing and/or heart rate and expends more than 7 kcalories per minute.• Walking at a very fast pace (>4.5 miles per hour) or running at a pace of at least 5 miles per hour are as example Dr. Siham Gritly
  26. 26. Measurement of Cardio-respiratory endurance (maximal aerobic capacity)• To measure maximal aerobic capacity,an exercise physiologist or physician use a VO2 max test,• The individual is typically connected to a respirometer to measure oxygen consumption• The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurance level, the more oxygen has been transported to and used by exercising muscles• the higher the aerobic capacity, the higher the level of aerobic fitness. Dr. Siham Gritly
  27. 27. The higher the measured cardiorespiratory endurancelevel, the more oxygen has been transported to and usedby exercising muscles, and the higher the level ofintensity at which the individual can exercise Dr. Siham Gritly
  28. 28. The cardiorespiratory system responds to the muscles’ demandfor oxygen by building up its capacity to deliver oxygen.Researchers can measure cardiorespiratory fitness by measuringthe maximum amount of oxygen a person consumes per minutewhile working out, a measure called VO2max Dr. Siham Gritly
  29. 29. Maximum oxygen consumption• An important measure of sports fitness is aerobic capacity or VO2 max, which is the amount of oxygen your body can consume and turn into energy.• Maximum oxygen consumption;-VO2 is the Ability to Deliver and Use Oxygen• As work rate is increased, oxygen uptake increases linearly, No further increase in VO2 with increasing work rate Dr. Siham Gritly
  30. 30. • there is an upper limit to oxygen uptake and, therefore, above a certain work rate oxygen consumption reaches a maximum. This is termed the maximal oxygen uptake.• Physiological factors influencing VO2max – Ability of cardio-respiratory system to deliver oxygen to muscles – Ability of muscles to use oxygen and produce ATP aerobically Dr. Siham Gritly
  31. 31. Oxygen carrying capacity of the blood• Energy production through Kerbs cycle or mitochondrial respiration depend on continuous supply of oxygen.• Enhanced oxygen delivery and utilization during exercise will improve mitochondrial respiration and subsequently the capacity for endurance exercise Dr. Siham Gritly
  32. 32. • A reduction in the oxygen carrying capacity in conditions such as anaemia produces fatigue and shortness of breath and affect performance. Dr. Siham Gritly
  33. 33. Respiratory Quotient (RQ)• respiratory quotient-is the ratio of carbon dioxide expired/moles of oxygen consumed• The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), measured by indirect calorimeter using respirometer• The respiratory quotient (RQ) is calculated from the ratio:• RQ = CO2 expired / O2 consumed Dr. Siham Gritly
  34. 34. • The ratio between CO2 / O2 is known as the respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Dr. Siham Gritly
  35. 35. Indirect calorimeter Dr. Siham Gritly
  36. 36. The benefits of cardio-respiratory to exercise The benefits of cardio-respiratory, (aerobic, exercise) include:1- A stronger heart and lower resting heart rate.2- Fitness and performance benefits, such as increased aerobic capacity and muscle endurance. Dr. Siham Gritly
  37. 37. 3- maintenance of a healthy body weight and body fat percentage4- management of stress, and decreased blood cholesterol and fat (triglycerides) levels5-Increased performance in physically- jobs such as lift-and-carries. Dr. Siham Gritly
  38. 38. 6- Increased muscle tone (quality) and enhanced physical appearance7- low-resistance exercises (e.g., biking) train the heart and muscles to use oxygen more efficiently. Dr. Siham Gritly
  39. 39. Diseases of Cardio-vascular system and exercise• examples• 1-Blood Pressure (hypertension) 2-Coronary Heart Diseases (CHD) Dr. Siham Gritly
  40. 40. 1-Blood Pressure (hypertension)• hypertension: higher-than-normal blood pressure. Two types;• Essential or primary hypertension; Hypertension that develops without an identifiable cause• Secondary hypertension; hypertension that is caused by a specific disorder such as kidney disease Dr. Siham Gritly
  41. 41. • The high blood pressure is above normal, the risk of death from CVD.• Low blood pressure, on the other hand, is generally a sign of long life expectancy and low heart disease risk.• The high blood pressure contributes to more than a million heart attacks and half a million strokes each year. Dr. Siham Gritly
  42. 42. Arterial Blood Pressure Expressed as systolic/diastolic• The Cardiac Cycle or Arterial Blood Pressure : includes all of the events between two consecutive cycles;- 1 -Systole: contraction phase;-systolic pressure- the blood pressure in the arteries when the heart is contracting and pumping blood (the pressure at which a sound of heart beat heard) 2 -Diastole: relaxation phase;-diastolic pressure- the blood pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest between beats (the pressure at which the sound disappears) Dr. Siham Gritly
  43. 43. if the resting blood pressure is above normal, thereading should be repeated before confirming thediagnosis of hypertension Dr. Siham Gritly
  44. 44. Classification of blood pressure for adults (WHO)category Systolic(mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg)Normal < 120 < 80Pre-hypertension 120-139 80-89Hypertension*Stage one 140-159 90-99*Stage two > 160 > 100 Dr. Siham Gritly
  45. 45. How Exercise Lowers Diastolic BloodPressure• Aerobic exercise, like running, walking, swimming, and using cardio machines, has a positive impact on diastolic blood pressure.• Oxidation of fat for energy decrease fat body mainly cholesterol (LDL) which will lower blood pressure.• Releasing water and salt through sweating might reduces blood pressure. Dr. Siham Gritly
  46. 46. Dietary Strategies;- Hypertension & CHD• The following dietary plans based on;-• USDA (United States Department of Agriculture)• the American Heart Association Dietary Strategies to Stop Hypertension (DASH) , Dr. Siham Gritly
  47. 47. Dietary Strategies to Stop Hypertension (DASH)• The Dietary Strategies to Stop Hypertension (DASH) recommended that;-• diet rich in fruits, vegetables, nuts, and low-fat milk products and low in total fat and saturated fat have positive effect on blood pressure. Dr. Siham Gritly
  48. 48. • the DASH diet lowers total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.• Compared to the typical American diet, the DASH eating plan provides more fiber, potassium, magnesium, and calcium and less red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages Dr. Siham Gritly
  49. 49. The DASH Eating Plan and the USDA Food Guideadapted from; Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standingNutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011 Food Group DASH USDA Grains 6–8 oz 6 oz Vegetables 2–2 c 2c Fruits 2–2 c 3c Milk (fat-free/low- 2–3 c 2 c fat Lean meats, poultry, 6 oz or less 5. oz fish Nuts, seeds, 4–5 oz per week combines nuts, legumes seeds, and legumes with meat, poultry, and fish. Dr. Siham Gritly
  50. 50. • These diet plans are based on 2000 kcalories per day. Both DASH and the USDA Food Guide recommend that fats and sugars be used sparingly (carefully) and with discretion (caution) Dr. Siham Gritly
  51. 51. • Salt/Sodium Intake control;• The combination of the DASH diet with a limited intake of sodium, however, improves blood pressure better than either strategy• the lower the sodium intake, the greater the drop in blood pressure.• Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended no more than 1500 mg of sodium per day and to meet the potassium recommendation• Dr. Siham Gritly
  52. 52. • Weight Control to reduce high blood pressure• Weight loss alone is one of the most effective nondrug treatments for hypertension.• Those who are using drugs to control their blood pressure can often reduce or discontinue the drugs when they lose weight. Even a modest weight loss of 10 pounds can lower blood pressure. Dr. Siham Gritly
  53. 53. • Physical Activity• Physical activity helps with weight control, but moderate aerobic activity, such as 30 to 60 minutes of brisk walking most days, also helps to lower blood pressure directly.• Those who engage in regular aerobic activity may not need medication for mild hypertension. Dr. Siham Gritly
  54. 54. Lifestyle Modifications to Reduce BloodPressureadapted from; Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Understanding Nutrition (2008),Modifi cation Recommendation Expected Reduction in Systolic Blood prssureWeight reduction Maintain healthy body 5–20 mm Hg/10 kg lost weight (BMI below 25).DASH eating Adopt a diet rich in fruits, 8–14 mm Hg vegetables, and 8–14 mm Hglow-fat milk products with reduced saturated fat intake.Sodium restriction Reduce dietary sodium 2–8 mm Hg intake to less than 2–8 mm Hg 2400 milligrams sodium (less than 6 grams salt) per day. Dr. Siham Gritly
  55. 55. 2-Cardiovascular Disease (atherosclerosis)• Cardiovascular Disease• The major causes of death ,are diseases of the heart and blood vessels, collectively known as cardiovascular disease (CVD).• Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common form of cardiovascular disease and is usually caused by atherosclerosis in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle.• Atherosclerosis is the accumulation of lipids and other materials in the arteries Dr. Siham Gritly
  56. 56. • Atherosclerosis : a type of artery disease characterized by plaques (accumulations of lipid-containing material) on the inner walls of the arteries Dr. Siham Gritly
  57. 57. • Major Risk Factors for CHD• High blood LDL cholesterol• Low blood HDL cholesterol• High blood pressure (hypertension)• Diabetes• Obesity (especially abdominal obesity)• Physical inactivity• Cigarette smoking• An “atherogenic” diet (high in saturated fats• and low in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains Dr. Siham Gritly
  58. 58. Dietary Strategies to Reduce Risk of CHDEnergy: Balance energy intake and physical activity to prevent weight gain and to achieve or maintain a healthy body weight.Saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol: Choose lean meats, vegetables, and low-fat milk products; minimize intake of hydrogenated fats. Limit saturated fats to less than 7 percent of total kcalories, trans fat to less than 1 percent of total kcalories, and cholesterol to less than 300 milligrams a day Dr. Siham Gritly
  59. 59. Soluble fibers: a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and other foods high in soluble fibers. Potassium and sodium: a diet high in potassium-rich fruits and vegetables, low-fat milk products, nuts, and whole grains.• with little or no salt (limit sodium intake to 2300 milligrams per day). Dr. Siham Gritly
  60. 60. Added sugars: Minimize intake of beverages and foods with added sugars.Fish and omega-3 fatty acids: Consume fatty fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids (salmon, tuna, sardines) at least twice a week. Dr. Siham Gritly
  61. 61. Soy: Consume soy foods to replace animal and dairy products that contain saturated fat and cholesterol.Alcohol: If alcohol is consumed, limit it to one drink daily for women and two drinks daily for men. Dr. Siham Gritly
  62. 62. Lifestyle Choices• Physical activity: Participate in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity endurance activity on most days of the week.• Smoking cessation (end): Minimize exposure to any form of tobacco or tobacco smoke. Dr. Siham Gritly
  63. 63. cardio machines Dr. Siham Gritly
  64. 64. cardio machines Dr. Siham Gritly
  65. 65. Ellipticals and ergometer stepper Dr. Siham Gritly
  66. 66. List of Cardiovascular Exercises• Swimming -- Swimming is anexcellent cardiovascular/muscular defining exercise.• Football American football is americas most popular sport and involves high intensity exercise for usually around 30 seconds• Golf Golf is the most popular sport for people over the age of 40 and is growing rapidly.• Boxing This is definitely one of the most intense cardiovascular exercises known to man.• Aerobics Aerobics is the most popular aerobic exercises performed mostly by women. Dr. Siham Gritly
  67. 67. • Hockey Hockey is a great sport that can be played by just about anyone at any age.• Skiing Skiing is an incredible cardiovascular workout that is usually around 5-10 minutes• Squash Squash is a great anaerobic exercise that can be played by all ages• Stepper This exercise was madepopular by the popular myth ofspot reducing Rowing Ergometer Dr. Siham Gritly
  68. 68. • Treadmill This is the most popular cardiovascular exercise. Due to the impact on the knees and other joints,• Running or Jogging Jogging is probably one of the most popular exercises in the world• Biking or Cycling Biking or cycling is a tremendous cardiovascular workout and requires very little equipment which most people have• Walking While intense walking is a good aerobic exercise it is probably more used as a weight loss tool than it should be. Dr. Siham Gritly
  69. 69. • Recumbent Bike This exercise is very popular for people who do not want to jog and run.• Elliptical or Cross TrainerThis is the newest in cardiovascular equipment, Dr. Siham Gritly
  70. 70. • Housework or Cleaning While most people wouldnt call this a cardiovascular exercise, it certainly is one.• Dancing Dancing is an excellent cardio workout that can be done by anyone at any level.... Dr. Siham Gritly
  71. 71. • Cross-Country Skiing Similar to the elliptical machine but this exercise is a sport. It is mostly performed at a slower intensity for a long.• Baseball, this sport is known around the world as a moderate intensity• Sprinting Sprinting involves 100% intensity followed by a period of rest. This could be deemed a high intensity interval training ...• Soccer Soccer is the worlds sport as it is officially the most Dr. Siham Gritly popular sport in the world. Usually this sport is called football
  72. 72. references• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9th ed, McGraw Hill•• Heymsfield, SB.; Baumgartner N.; Richard and Sheau-Fang P. 1999. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease; Shils E Maurice, Olson A. James, Shike Moshe and Ross A. Catharine eds. 9th edition• Guyton, C. Arthur. 1985. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6th edition, W.B. Company Dr. Siham Gritly
  73. 73. • Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley; Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance, 6th edition. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY• Sports Fitness Advisor: The Cardiovascular System and Exercise• Read more: http://www.livestrong.com/article/192489- immediate-effects-of-exercise-on-the-cardiovascular- system/#ixzz1miWxuYrs• Diastolic Blood Pressure During Exercise | eHow.com• Lactate Theshold Training. Len Kravitz, and Lance Dalleck, Dr. Siham Gritly
  74. 74. • Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning Dr. Siham Gritly
  75. 75. Measurement of blood pressure Dr. Siham Gritly
  76. 76. Glossary• flexibility: the capacity of the joints to move through a full range of motion; the ability to bend and recover without injury.• muscle strength: the ability of muscles to work against resistance.• muscle endurance: the ability of a muscle to contract repeatedly without becoming exhausted. Dr. Siham Gritly
  77. 77. • cardiorespiratory endurance: the ability to perform large-muscle, dynamic exercise of moderate to high intensity for prolonged periods.• conditioning: the physical effect of training; improved flexibility, strength, and endurance.• training: practicing an activity regularly, which leads to conditioning. (Training is what you do; conditioning is what you get.) Dr. Siham Gritly
  78. 78. • progressive overload principle: the training principle that a body system, in order to improve, must be worked at frequencies, durations, or intensities that gradually increase physical demands.• frequency: the number of occurrences per unit of time (for example, the number of activity sessions per week).• intensity: the degree of exertion while exercising (for example, the amount of weight lifted or the speed of running). Dr. Siham Gritly
  79. 79. • duration: length of time (for example, the time spent in each activity session).• Hypertrophy; growing larger; with regard to muscles, an increase in size (and strength) in response to use.• Atrophy: becoming smaller; with regard to muscles, a decrease in size (and strength) because of disuse, under-nutrition, or wasting diseases Dr. Siham Gritly
  80. 80. • aerobic physical activity: activity in which the body’s large muscles move in a rhythmic manner for a sustained period of time. Aerobic activity, also called endurance activity, improves cardiorespiratory fitness. Brisk walking, running, swimming, and bicycling are examples. Dr. Siham Gritly
  81. 81. • Anaerobic exercise is short-lasting, high-intensity activity, where your body’s demand for oxygen exceeds the oxygen supply available.• Examples of anaerobic exercise include: heavy weight- lifting, all types of sprints (running, biking, etc.), jumping rope, hill climbing, interval training, isometrics, or any rapid burst of hard exercise.• Anaerobic exercise relies on energy sources that are stored in the muscles and, unlike aerobic exercise, is not dependent on oxygen from (breathing) the air. Dr. Siham Gritly

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