12 13-body composition

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12 13-body composition

  1. 1. 12-Body Compositionweight gain and loss for performance Nutrition and Fitness Dr. Siham Gritly
  2. 2. People’s bodies are shaped by the activities they perform Dr. Siham Gritly
  3. 3. Composition of body weight Dr. Siham Gritly
  4. 4. Nutrition, fitness and body composition• Nutrition and fitness are closely interrelated factors;• * to body composition,• * muscular capability• * respiratory and cardiovascular capacity• Body composition is the term used to describe the different components such as muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person’s total body weight. Dr. Siham Gritly
  5. 5. • Water is the most abundant chemical compound in living human cells, accounting for 65-90% of each cell.• All organic compounds contain carbon, which is why carbon is the second most abundant element in the body.• Six elements account for 99% of the mass of the human body: oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.• Although aluminum and silicon are abundant in the earths crust, they are found in trace amounts in the human body Dr. Siham Gritly
  6. 6. Body composition and physical fitness• In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages;-• * fat,• * bone,• * muscle• Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness (non fat weight).• Two people of equal height and body weight may look completely different from each other because they have a different body composition. Dr. Siham Gritly
  7. 7. components of body composition• A two-component of body composition divides the body into;• 1-fat component• 2-fat-free component (Lean body mass) Dr. Siham Gritly
  8. 8. Fat component• Body fat is the most variable constituent of the body. The total amount of body fat consists of essential fat and storage fat.• Fats, the energy reserve of body stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue and under the skin and around internal organs (bone marrow, lung, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestine, heart and lipid rich tissues in nervous system)• Adipose tissue is located under the skin (storage fat)• Triglycerides are the main fat depot Dr. Siham Gritly
  9. 9. • Fat in the marrow of bones, in the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys, intestines, muscles, and lipid-rich tissues throughout the central nervous system is called essential fat, Dr. Siham Gritly
  10. 10. • Fats functions are provision of energy and It provides protection for different body organs and serves as an insulator to conserve body heat.• excess body fat may impair physical performance and activity. Dr. Siham Gritly
  11. 11. • Body fat, or adipose tissue, is composed of a mixture of mostly fat, some protein, and water.• A pound of body fat (454 g) is approximately 87% fat, or (454 0.87) 395 g, and 395 g 9 kcal/g = 3555 kcal. Dr. Siham Gritly
  12. 12. Lean body mass (muscle, bone, and organs)• Lean body mass represents the weight of muscles, bones, ligaments, tendons, and internal organs.• Lean body mass includes a small percentage of essential fat. Dr. Siham Gritly
  13. 13. weight gain and loss for performance• To maintain healthy body weight, balance kcalories from foods should be balance with kcalories expended.• When energy in balances with energy out, a person’s body weight is stable Dr. Siham Gritly
  14. 14. • Weight loss, is a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. Dr. Siham Gritly
  15. 15. Weight-Management Strategies, For Weight Loss• * Energy out should exceed energy in by about 500 kcalories/day. your physical activity enough to spend more energy than consume from foods.• *Eat small portions.• *Limit high-fat foods. Make legumes, whole grains, vegetables, and fruits central to your diet plan. Dr. Siham Gritly
  16. 16. • *Limit concentrated sweets.• * Drink a glass of water before you begin to eat and another while you eat. Drink plenty of water throughout the day.• * Keep a record of diet and exercise habits• * Learn alternative ways to deal with emotions and stresses.• *Eat slowly. Dr. Siham Gritly
  17. 17. Weight-Management Strategies For Weight Gain• *Energy in should exceed energy out by at least 500 kcalories/day.• *Increase your food intake enough to store more energy than you expend in exercise.• * Exercise and eat to build muscles.• * Expect weight gain to take time (1 pound per month would be reasonable). Dr. Siham Gritly
  18. 18. • * Eat at least three meals a day.• *Eat large portions of foods and expect to feel full.• * Eat snacks between meals.• * Drink plenty of juice and milk. Dr. Siham Gritly
  19. 19. how to estimated energy requirement (EER),• To determine estimated energy requirement (EER), the appropriate equation is use,• For men 19 years and older:• EER = [662 − (9.53 × age)] + PA × [(15.91 × wt) + (539.6 × ht)]• • For women 19 years and older:• EER = [354 − (6.91 × age)] + PA × [(9.36 × wt) + (726 × ht)] Dr. Siham Gritly
  20. 20. • For example, consider an active 30-year-old male who is 5 feet 11 inches tall and weighs 178 pounds. First, converts his weight from pounds to kilograms and his height from inches to meters, if necessary:• 178 lb ÷ 2.2 = 80.9 kg• 71 in ÷ 39.37 = 1.8 m Dr. Siham Gritly
  21. 21. • Next, considers his level of daily physical activity and selects the appropriate PA factor from the previous table.• Then, inserts his age, PA factor, weight, and height into the appropriate equation:• EER = [662 − (9.53 × 30)] + 1.25 ×[(15.91 × 80.9) + (539.6 × 1.8)]• (A reminder: Do calculations within the parenthesis first.) He calculates:• EER = [662 − 286] + 1.25 × [1287 + 971]• (Another reminder: Do calculations within the brackets next.) Dr. Siham Gritly
  22. 22. • EER = 376 + 1.25 × 2258• (Do multiplication before addition.)• EER = 376 +2823• EER = 3199• The estimated energy requirement for an active 30-year-old male who is 5 feet 11 inches tall and weighs 178 pounds is about 3200 kcalories/day.• His actual requirement probably falls within a range of 200 kcalories above and below this estimate. Dr. Siham Gritly
  23. 23. • age in years,• weight (wt) in kilograms,• height (ht) in meters,• physical activity (PA) factor from the reference table.• To convert pounds to kilograms, divide by 2.2;• to convert inches to meters, divide by 39.37 Dr. Siham Gritly
  24. 24. Physical Activity Equivalents and Their PA Factors sources; Melvin- Nutrition for Health, fitness & SportPhysical Descriptio Physical Activity Men, Wom Boys Girls,activity n Equivalents 19+ yr en, 1 , 3– 3–18 yrlevel PA PA 18yr PA Factor Facto PA Factor r19+ Fact yr or1.0 to Sedentary Only those physical 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.01.39 activities required for typical daily living1.4 to Low active Daily living + 30–60 min 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.161.59 moderate activity1.6 to active Daily living + ≥ 60 min 1.25 1.27 1.26 1.311.89 moderate activity1.9 and Very Daily living + ≥ 60 min 1.48 1.45 1.42 1.56above active moderate activity and ≥ 60 min vigorous activity or≥ 120 min moderate activity Dr. Siham Gritly
  25. 25. Body composition and obesity• Obesity is defined as a total body fat percentage over 25%(men) or 35%(women), or a body mass index of 30 or more.• Increase in Body fat will be lead to the risk of coronary heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure and cancer.• Aim to reduce body weight slowly, with a weight loss of 5-10kg over 12 weeks.• Dr. Siham Gritly
  26. 26. Body mass index (BMI)• Body mass index (BMI) is a simple ratio of weight-for height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults.• It is calculated as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in metres (kg/m2).• BMI Calculator and Formula• Metric BMI Formula: weight (kg) / [height (m)]2• Example: Weight = 68 kg, Height = 165 cm (1.65 m)• Calculation: 68 / (1.65)2 = 24.98 Dr. Siham Gritly
  27. 27. Classification of Body mass index (BMI) WHO recommendation BMI less than 18.4 is classified as underweight for height BMI 18.5 – 24.9 is classified as normal weight for height• BMI 25.0 – 29.9 is classified as overweight• BMI 30.0 – 39.9 is classified as obese• BMI more than 40 is classified as severely obese Dr. Siham Gritly
  28. 28. • body builder will have a lot of muscle and therefore weigh more than a non-active individual.• His BMI may be higher, but his body fat will be low.• Therefore, the BMI calculation is only a useful index of the body fatness and should be used in conjunction with other measures of fat distribution e.g. waist circumference Dr. Siham Gritly
  29. 29. Assessing Body Composition and Percent Body Fat• Practical methods of assessing body composition• the two-component (fat and fat-free mass) assess by;-1-Underwater Weighing or Hydrostatic Weighing2-Skinfold Thickness Measurement3-Bioelectrical Impedance Dr. Siham Gritly
  30. 30. Other techniques for assessing body composition• Height & Weight• Circumference Measurements• Waist Girth & Waist-to-Hip Ratio• Body Mass Index Dr. Siham Gritly
  31. 31. 2-bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA),• Bioelectrical impedance Estimate body fat content by sending a painless, low energy electrical current through the body. Dr. Siham Gritly
  32. 32. • Bioelectrical impedance is another common method of assessing body fat percentage.• This method determines total body weight, the percent and amount of body fat, muscle mass, water, Dr. Siham Gritly
  33. 33. Bioelectrical impedancemeasures body fat by using a low-intensity electrical current. Because electrolyte-containingfluids, which readily conduct an electrical current, are foundprimarily in lean body tissues, the leaner the person, the lessresistance to the current. The measurement of electricalresistance is then used in a mathematical equation toestimate the percentage of body fat. Dr. Siham Gritly
  34. 34. 3-Hydrostatic UnderwaterWeighing• Underwater weighing is based upon Archimedes Principle which states that the floating force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the fluid that is displaced by the object.• this principle is used to determine a persons percentage of body fat because the density of fat mass and fat-free mass are constant.• Lean tissue, such as bone and muscle, are more dense than water, and fat tissue is less dense than water. Dr. Siham Gritly
  35. 35. • Basically, muscle sinks and fat floats. Therefore, a person with more body fat will weigh less underwater and be more floating. Someone with more muscle will weigh more underwater.• A special calculation is then used to determine lean weight and fat weight and determine a persons percentage of body fat. By volume fat weighs less than muscle, and pound for pound fat and muscle each have a constant mass and displace a specific amount of water.• Dr. Siham Gritly
  36. 36. During underwater weighing, the person exhales as much air aspossible and then holds his or her breath and bends over at thewaist. When the person is totally submerged, under waterweight is recorded . Body volume is calculated by entering thisvalue and weight in air into formula Dr. Siham Gritly
  37. 37. Air displacement plethysmography estimates bodycomposition by having a person sit inside a chamber whilecomputerized sensors determine the amount of air displacedby the person’s body Dr. Siham Gritly
  38. 38. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) uses two low-dose X-rays that differentiate among fat-free soft tissue (lean bodymass), fat tissue, and bone tissue, providing a precisemeasurement of total fat and its distribution in all butextremely obese subjects Dr. Siham Gritly
  39. 39. Youtube• An instructional video on how to use the Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) machine• Getting Hydrostatic body fat test measurements at Fitness Wave Dr. Siham Gritly
  40. 40. 2-Skinfold ThicknessMeasurement• Because underwater weighting it is complicated and requires special equipment, most exercise physiologists use simple skinfold measurements to determine body fat percent. The American College of Sports Medicine says that when performed by a trained, skilled, tester, they are up to 98% accurate. Dr. Siham Gritly
  41. 41. • Skinfold thickness (SFT) is defined as a measure of the double thickness of the epidermis, underlying fascia and subcutaneous adipose tissue Measured at four sites:• 1-biceps (midpoint of front upper arm),• 2-triceps (midpoint of back upper arm),• 3-subscapular (directly below point of shoulder blade at angle of 45 degrees),• 4- supra‐iliac (directly above iliac crest in mid‐axillary line). Rapid surveys often involve only biceps. Dr. Siham Gritly
  42. 42. supra‐iliac (directly above iliac crest in mid‐axillary line(waistline). Measured horizontally with the subjectbreathing gently Dr. Siham Gritly
  43. 43. triceps skin fold thicknessTriceps: A mark is made at the mid-upperarm, midline of the posterior aspect of the arm overthe triceps muscle, measured with the elbow bent at90o, used for identifying the biceps and triceps SFT.During the measurement, the arm should be hangingfreely by the side, palms inwards towards the thighs. Dr. Siham Gritly
  44. 44. Biceps skin fold thickness Biceps: Measured midline of the anterior aspect ofthe arm, over the biceps muscle, mid-point on the armas below. Dr. Siham Gritly
  45. 45. Subscapular: Found just below and lateral to thebottom tip of the scapula, measured in a 45o angle.Subjects stand with their arm relaxed by their side. Thescapula was palpated with the fingertips to find thebottom of the bone and the SFT is then measured in thenatural crease. Subject’s shoulders are relaxed Dr. Siham Gritly
  46. 46. References• Ellie Whitney and Sharon Rady Rolfes; Under standing Nutrition, Twelfth Edition. 2011, 2008 Wadsworth, Cengage Learning• Sareen S. Gropper, Jack L.Smithh and James L. Groff; 2007. advanced Nutrition and Human Metabolism, fifth ed. Wadsworth CENGAGE learning• Brodie, D. A. (1988). Techniques of measurement of body composition Part II. Sports Medicine, 5, 74-98. Heyward, V. H. (1991). Advanced fitness assessment & exercise prescription. Champaign: Human Kinetics Publishers. Dr. Siham Gritly
  47. 47. ReferencesJackson, A.S. & Pollock, M.L. (1985) Practical assessment of body composition. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 13, 5, 76-90• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9th ed, McGraw Hill• World Health Organization Report (WHO 1987) Dr. Siham Gritly

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