Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web

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Presentation given at DocEng 2006, ACM Symposium on Document Engineering, October 2006

ABSTRACT: Citations form the basis for a web of scientific publications. Search engines, embedded hyperlinks and digital libraries all simplify the task of finding publications of interest on the web and navigating to cited publications or web sites. However the actual reading of publications often takes place on paper and frequently on the move. We present a system Print-n-Link that uses technologies for interactive paper to enhance the reading process by enabling users to access digital information and/or searches for cited documents from a printed version of a publication using a digital pen for interaction. A special virtual printer driver automatically generates links from paper to digital services during the printing process based on an analysis of PDF documents. Depending on the user setting and interaction gesture, the system may retrieve metadata about the citation and inform the user through an audio channel or directly display the cited document on the user’s screen.

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Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web

  1. 1. Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web Moira C. Norrie, Beat Signer and Nadir Weibel Institute for Information Systems, ETH Zurich 8092 Zurich, Switzerland http://vub.academia.edu/BeatSigner October 2006
  2. 2. Scientific Web of Publications  Citations build the basis for a scientific web of publications  Use of web technologies  convert citations and bibliography items into hyperlinks  Paper documents still heavily used for reading October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 2
  3. 3. Print-n-Link  Extend the web to span paper and digital document spaces  obtain the best of both worlds  Easy navigation between paper and digital media  Maintain affordances of paper (e.g. mobility)  Handle arbitrary existing PDF documents October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 3
  4. 4. Print-n-Link … October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 4
  5. 5. Anoto Functionality  Unique pattern space  60 million km2  Pen manufacturers  Sony Ericson  Logitech  Nokia  Maxell October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 5
  6. 6. Print-n-Link Architecture Interactive Paper Architecture Desktop (x,y) Coordinates iSERVER iPAPER Active Content Text-to- Speech iPaper iPaper Plug-in Client Link DB Publish Positions and Active Content Definition Document Retrieval Print-n-Link Engine Web Search Citation Document Services Retrieval Lookup Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web Semantic Mapper Printing Moira C. Norrie Beat Signer Nadir Weibel Dept. of Computer Science Dept. of Computer Science Dept. of Computer Science ETH Zurich ETH Zurich ETH Zurich 8092 Zurich, Switzerland norrie@inf.ethz.ch 8092 Zurich, Switzerland signer@inf.ethz.ch 8092 Zurich, Switzerland weibel@inf.ethz.ch Publish Display ABSTRACT Citation DB Citations engines and web browsers. The ease with which we can Citations form the basis for a web of scientific publications. not only find documents on the web, but also follow links Search engines, embedded hyperlinks and digital libraries to related documents is considered to be one of the main all simplify the task of finding publications of interest on advantages of working with digital documents as opposed the web and navigating to cited publications or web sites. to paper equivalents. Y many studies have shown that et However the actual reading of publications often takes place paper is still the preferred med ium when it comes to reading on paper and frequently on the move. We present a system documents for reasons of comfort, mobility and also ease of Print-n-Link that uses technologies for interactive paper to annotation. enhance the reading process by enabling users to access dig- In this paper, we show how emerging technologies for in- ital information and/or searches for cited documents from a teractive paper enable a bridge to be built between paper printed version of a publication using a digital pen for inter- and digital document spaces that allows users to travel back and forth between the two using the medium most appropri- iDOC action. A special virtual printer driver automatically gener- ates links from paper to digital services during the printing ate to the current task and sit uation. Users can print doc- process based on an analysis of PDF documents. Depend- uments for reading and, by activating hyperlinks on paper ing on the user setting and interaction gesture, the system with a digital pen, they can not only access digital informa- may retrieve metadata about the citation and inform the tion about related documents, but also initiate web searches user through an audio channel or directly display the cited to retrieve copies of those documents. The retrieved docu- document on the user’s screen. ments may in turn be printed for reading with automatically generated embedded hyperlinks on the paper. Mobility is supported by providing disconnected users on the move with Categories and Subject Descriptors audio information about related documents and the option D.2.11 [ Software Engineering ]: Software Architectures; of adding them to a request list to be processed when recon- H.4.m [ Information Systems Applications ]: Miscella- nected. neous; H.5.m [ Information Interfaces and Presenta- As an application, we take the everyday academic task of tion ]: Miscellaneous reading scientific publications. Whether the reading activ- Semantic Mapper ity is for the purpose of knowledge discovery or reviewing, readers regularly look up citations to other publications by General Terms flicking to the reference list at the back of the paper. In some Design, Algorithms, Experimentation cases, a search for the cited publication may follow and, if found, often it is printed and added to a pile of documents to Keywords be read. Citations are the established means of providing the links that form the basis of the scientific web of publications Publish Interactive paper, document integration, digital library, ci- that spans the digital and paper worlds. Just as citations tation management within digital documents can be used to automatically gen- 1. INTRODUCTION erate hyperlinks to cited documents, we can automatically generate links within paper documents through an analysis Citation Printer Nowadays we are all familiar with the notion of hyperlinks as a means of creating interconnected document spaces that of the PDF file when the document is printed. Section 2 presents a more detailed look at the activity of reading scientific publications and a discussion of related Document Print Driver can be easily searched and navigated with the help of search work. Section 3 describes the digital pen and paper tech- nologies and how these can be used to support interaction Analyser Pattern between paper and digital services. We then present the Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for general functionality of our enhanced reading system in Sec- personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are tion 4 and the overall architecture in Section 5. Details of not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies the virtual printer component used to analyse PDF docu- bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to ments for automatic link generation as well as printing are republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee. given in Section 6. Concluding remarks follow in Section 7. DocEng’06, October 10–13, 2006, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Copyright 2006 ACM 1-59593-515-0/06/0010 ...$5.00. Document DB October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 6
  7. 7. Interactive Paper Architecture Print-n-Link: Weaving the Paper Web Moira C. Norrie Dept. of Computer Science ETH Zurich 8092 Zurich, Switzerland norrie@inf.ethz.ch Beat Signer Dept. of Computer Science ETH Zurich 8092 Zurich, Switzerland signer@inf.ethz.ch Nadir Weibel Dept. of Computer Science ETH Zurich 8092 Zurich, Switzerland weibel@inf.ethz.ch HTTP Request ABSTRACT Citations form the basis for a web of scientific publications. engines and web browsers. The ease with which we can not only find documents on the web, but also follow links ID, Page, (x,y) Encoded Search engines, embedded hyperlinks and digital libraries to related documents is considered to be one of the main all simplify the task of finding publications of interest on advantages of working with digital documents as opposed the web and navigating to cited publications or web sites. to paper equivalents. Y many studies have shown that et However the actual reading of publications often takes place paper is still the preferred med ium when it comes to reading on paper and frequently on the move. We present a system documents for reasons of comfort, mobility and also ease of Print-n-Link that uses technologies for interactive paper to annotation. enhance the reading process by enabling users to access dig- In this paper, we show how emerging technologies for in- ital information and/or searches for cited documents from a teractive paper enable a bridge to be built between paper printed version of a publication using a digital pen for inter- and digital document spaces that allows users to travel back and forth between the two using the medium most appropri- Position action. A special virtual printer driver automatically gener- ate to the current task and sit uation. Users can print doc- XIMA ates links from paper to digital services during the printing process based on an analysis of PDF documents. Depend- uments for reading and, by activating hyperlinks on paper ing on the user setting and interaction gesture, the system with a digital pen, they can not only access digital informa- may retrieve metadata about the citation and inform the tion about related documents, but also initiate web searches user through an audio channel or directly display the cited to retrieve copies of those documents. The retrieved docu- document on the user’s screen. ments may in turn be printed for reading with automatically generated embedded hyperlinks on the paper. Mobility is supported by providing disconnected users on the move with Categories and Subject Descriptors audio information about related documents and the option D.2.11 [ Software Engineering ]: Software Architectures; of adding them to a request list to be processed when recon- H.4.m [ Information Systems Applications ]: Miscella- nected. neous; H.5.m [ Information Interfaces and Presenta- As an application, we take the everyday academic task of tion ]: Miscellaneous reading scientific publications. Whether the reading activ- ity is for the purpose of knowledge discovery or reviewing, Response readers regularly look up citations to other publications by General Terms flicking to the reference list at the back of the paper. In some Design, Algorithms, Experimentation cases, a search for the cited publication may follow and, if AC found, often it is printed and added to a pile of documents to Keywords be read. Citations are the established means of providing the links that form the basis of the scientific web of publications Interactive paper, document integration, digital library, ci- that spans the digital and paper worlds. Just as citations tation management within digital documents can be used to automatically gen- erate hyperlinks to cited documents, we can automatically 1. INTRODUCTION generate links within paper documents through an analysis Nowadays we are all familiar with the notion of hyperlinks of the PDF file when the document is printed. as a means of creating interconnected document spaces that Section 2 presents a more detailed look at the activity iPaper can be easily searched and navigated with the help of search of reading scientific publications and a discussion of related work. Section 3 describes the digital pen and paper tech- nologies and how these can be used to support interaction between paper and digital services. We then present the Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for general functionality of our enhanced reading system in Sec- personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are tion 4 and the overall architecture in Section 5. Details of not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies the virtual printer component used to analyse PDF docu- bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, to ments for automatic link generation as well as printing are republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific given in Section 6. Concluding remarks follow in Section 7. Link DB permission and/or a fee. DocEng’06, October 10–13, 2006, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Copyright 2006 ACM 1-59593-515-0/06/0010 ...$5.00. Interactive iPaper Client and Document Output Device October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 7
  8. 8. Traditional Anoto Document Production 1 2 Source PDF Document Document PDF Renderer PS Anoto Document License PostScript Anoto Printer FDT 4 3 October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 8
  9. 9. iDoc Printer Driver  Based on Anoto Paper SDK  Pad and Print Generation Module (PPGM)  One-step publishing without Acrobat plug-in  regular printer driver  Automatic allocation of Anoto pattern space  multiple iPaper pages on a single Anoto license page  Colour management (e.g. black reduction) October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 9
  10. 10. Interactive Paper Authoring  iServer/iPaper interfaces  Java API  XML-based specification  Web Service interface  Manual link authoring  Content-driven publishing  Automatic link authoring  semantic mapper October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 10
  11. 11. Semantic Mapper  Automatic link authoring  Calculate position of text elements within PDF  based on iText (free Java-PDF library)  Export link metadata to iServer  Plug-in mechanism  iPublish plug-in (EdFest)  Citation Analyser plugin (Print-n-Link)  … October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 11
  12. 12. iServer Export <rectangle id="umics04_shape" resource="10639_page1"> <name>umics04 shape</name> <upperLeft><point><x>129</x><y>102</y></point></upperLeft> <size><width>4</width><height>4</height></size> </rectangle> <activeComponent id="umics04_ac"> <name>umics04 ac</name> <properties> <parameter><key>ac:oid</key><value>umics_04</value></parameter> </properties> <identifier>ch.ethz.printnlink.CITATION_REQUEST</identifier> </activeComponent> <link id="umics04_link" sources="umics04_shape" targets="umics04_ac"> <name>umics_04 link</name> </link> October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 12
  13. 13. Print-n-Link Printing Process October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 13
  14. 14. Document Retrieval  Check metadata for a URI pointing directly to the document  Document lookup based on metadata  digital library  Google scholar  CiteSeer  … October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 14
  15. 15. Print-n-Link Settings  In the office  desktop computer with monitor  network access  printer  On the move  minimal equipment  no network access October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 15
  16. 16. Conclusions  Print-n-Link application  Automatic augmentation of existing documents  PDF document analysis  citation retrieval service  iDoc printer driver  integrated Anoto document production  enhanced handling of Anoto pattern space  Other documents (e.g. printed web pages) October 2006 DocEng 2006, Beat Signer, signer@inf.ethz.ch 16

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