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Introduction - Web Technologies (1019888BNR)

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This lecture is part of a Web Technologies course given at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

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Introduction - Web Technologies (1019888BNR)

  1. 1. 2 December 2005 Web Technologies Introduction Prof. Beat Signer Department of Computer Science Vrije Universiteit Brussel http://www.beatsigner.com
  2. 2. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 2September 29, 2017 Course Organisation  Prof. Beat Signer Vrije Universiteit Brussel G.10.731d +32 2 629 12 39 bsigner@vub.ac.be wise.vub.ac.be/beat-signer  Reinout Roels Vrije Universiteit Brussel G.10.731f +32 2 629 11 03 rroels@vub.ac.be wise.vub.ac.be/reinout-roels
  3. 3. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 3September 29, 2017 Prerequisites  Note that the 6 ECTS version of this course in an advanced Bachelor level course and the official course description lists the following required previous knowledge  basic programming skills  basic knowledge in modelling and querying data (e.g. design and use of databases)  It is not impossible to follow the course without these prerequisites, but in this case you should not complain about the potential additional workload!
  4. 4. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 4September 29, 2017 Exercises  The course content is further investigated in the exercise sessions  the topics covered in the exercise sessions will also be helpful for the assignment  Weekly exercise sessions  assistant: Reinout Roels, (rroels@vub.ac.be)  2 groups (starting on October 3) - 6 ECTS version: Tuesday 16:00–18:00 in E.1.02 - 3 ECTS version: Friday 16:00–18:00 in E.1.02  Additional content might be covered in exercise sessions  strongly recommended to attend all exercise sessions!  exam covers content of lectures and exercises
  5. 5. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 5September 29, 2017 Course Material  All material will be available on PointCarré  lecture slides, exercises, research papers, tutorials, ...  Make sure that you are subscribed to the Web Technologies course on PointCarré  https://pointcarre.vub.ac.be/index.php?go=course_view er&application=application%5Cweblcms&course=15509  Handouts are on PointCarré the day before the lecture  slides from the previous year are already available on SlideShare - https://www.slideshare.net/signer/presentations  Similar information is also available on the WISE website  https://wise.vub.ac.be/course/web-technologies
  6. 6. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 6September 29, 2017 Lecture Schedule (6 ECTS) Exercise 1: Vannevar Bush Paper & Assignment 3 4 5 6 Lecture 2: Web Architectures Lecture 3: HTML5 and the Open Web Platform Exercise 2: HTTP Lecture 4: Web Application Frameworks Lecture 7: XML and Related Technologies Interim Project Presentations D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 E.1.02 E.1.02 E.1.02 7 8 Exercise 5: CSS3 E.1.02 Lecture 1: Introduction 2 No Exercise Exercise 3: HTML E.1.02 D.2.23 Lecture 5: CSS3 and Responsive Web Design Exercise 4: Java Servlets and Modern Web Application Frameworks D.2.23 E.1.02 Lecture 6: JavaScript and jQuery D.2.23
  7. 7. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 7September 29, 2017 Lecture Schedule (6 ECTS) … Lecture 9: Semantic Web Exercise 8: AJAX and Google Maps 10 11 12 13 14 Lecture 10: Web Search and SEO Lecture 11: Security, Privacy and Trust Exercise 9: Semantic Web Lecture 12: Future Trends and Course Review Exercise 7: XML and Related Technologies 9 Exercise 10: PageRank and Security Exercise 6: JavaScript and HTML5 APIs Final Project Presentations TBA Lecture 8: Web 2.0 Patterns and Technologies D.2.23 E.1.02 E.1.02 E.1.02 E.1.02 E.1.02 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23
  8. 8. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 8September 29, 2017 Lecture Schedule (3 ECTS) Exercise 1: Vannevar Bush Paper 3 4 5 6 Lecture 2: Web Architectures Lecture 3: HTML5 and the Open Web Platform Exercise 2: HTTP Lecture 4: Web Application Frameworks Lecture 7: XML and Related Technologies No Exercise D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 E.1.02 E.1.02 7 8 Exercise 5: CSS3 E.1.02 Lecture 1: Introduction 2 No Exercise Exercise 3: HTML E.1.02 D.2.23 Lecture 5: CSS3 and Responsive Web Design No Exercise D.2.23 Lecture 6: JavaScript and jQuery D.2.23
  9. 9. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 9September 29, 2017 Lecture Schedule (3 ECTS) … Lecture 9: Semantic Web Exercise 8: AJAX and Google Maps 10 11 12 13 14 Lecture 10: Web Search and SEO Lecture 11: Security, Privacy and Trust No Exercise Lecture 12: Future Trends and Course Review No Exercise 9 Exercise 10: PageRank No Lecture No Exercise Exercise 6: JavaScript and HTML5 APIs Lecture 8: Web 2.0 Patterns and Technologies D.2.23 E.1.02 E.1.02 E.1.02 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23 D.2.23
  10. 10. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 10September 29, 2017 Assignment (6 ECTS Only)  Web 2.0 Web Application  application about topic of your choice - a number of functional and technical requirements - create, view, manage, search and share information - integration of existing web resources - map-based interface - examples: movie application, fitness application, games, ...  Assignment handed out in week 3  group project with 3 students per group - send an email with the 3 group members to Reinout Roels by Friday, October 6 (rroels@vub.ac.be) - deadlines: final presentation (December 22), report (December 23)  assignment counts for 40% for the final grade - students have some flexibility in distributing the grades (±2 points)
  11. 11. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 11September 29, 2017 Exam  Oral exam in English  covers content of lectures and exercises  counts 60% for the overall grade  5 mins questions about the assignment  15 mins questions about the course content (no preparation time)  Overall grade = oral exam (60%) + assignment (40%)  Students following the 3 ECTS programme will only have an oral exam (100%) and no assigment  covers content of lectures and exercises  15 mins questions about the course content (no preparation time)
  12. 12. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 12September 29, 2017 Course Outline 1. Introduction  history of the Web 2. Web Architectures  HTTP protocol  client-side and server-side processing  multi-tier architectures 3. HTML and Related APIs  brief history of HTML  Document Object Model (DOM)  HTML5 and the Open Web Platform
  13. 13. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 13September 29, 2017 Course Outline … 4. Web Application Frameworks  Model-View-Controller (MVC)  client- and server-side frameworks 5. CSS3 and Responsive Web Design 6. JavaScript and jQuery  syntax and examples 7. XML and Related Technologies  XML, XPointer, XPath, XSLT, XQuery and XLink 8. Web 2.0 Patterns and Technologies  Web 2.0 basic terminology and applications  Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs) and mashups  Rich Internet Applications (RIAs)
  14. 14. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 14September 29, 2017 Course Outline … 9. Semantic Web and Web 3.0  RDF, RDFs, OWL, SPARQL, …  Linked Data  semantic web applications 10.Web Search and Retrieval  search engine architecture  Google PageRank  search engine optimisation (SEO) 11.Security, Privacy and Trust  HTTP Authentication and public key cryptography  web logging and user profiling 12.Future Trends and Course Review
  15. 15. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 15September 29, 2017 Reading Wheel (Bookwheel)  Described by Agostino Ramelli in 1588  Keep several books open to read from them at the same time  comparable to modern tabbed browsing  The reading wheel has never really been built  Could be seen as a predecessor of hypertext
  16. 16. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 16September 29, 2017 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC)  Library classification system  developed by Melvil Dewey in 1876  Hierarchical classification  10 main classes with 10 divisions each and 10 sections per division  total of 1000 sections  After the three numbers, decimals can be used for further subclassification
  17. 17. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 17September 29, 2017 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) ...  Documents can appear in more than one class  however, there is normally only one physical copy (one main class)  Different alternatives  Library of Congress (LC) classification  Universal Decimal Classifi- cation (UDC) by Paul Otlet and Henri La Fontaine
  18. 18. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 18September 29, 2017 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) ... 000-099 Computer Science, Information and General Works 000 Computer Science, Knowledge and Systems 000 Computer Science, Knowledge and General Works ... 005 Computer Programming, Programs and Data ... 009 [Unassigned] 010 Bibliographies ... 100-199 Philosophy and Psychology 200-299 Religion 300-399 Social Sciences 340 Law 341 International Law 400-499 Language 500-599 Science 600-699 Technology 700-799 Arts 800-899 Literature 900-999 History, Geography and Biography
  19. 19. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 19September 29, 2017 "As We May Think" (1945) When data of any sort are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found (when it is) by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used; one has to have rules as to which path will locate it, and the rules are cumbers- ome. Having found one item, moreover, one has to emerge from the system and re-enter on a new path. The human mind does not work that way. It operates by association. ... Vannevar Bush
  20. 20. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 20September 29, 2017 "As We May Think" (1945) … ... It affords an immediate step, however, to associative indexing, the basic idea of which is a provision whereby any item may be caused at will to select immediately and automatically another. This is the essential feature of the memex. The process of tying two items together is the important thing. ... Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, Atlanic Monthly, July 1945 Vannevar Bush
  21. 21. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 21September 29, 2017 "As We May Think" (1945) …  Bush's article As We May Think (1945) is often seen as the "origin" of hypertext  The article introduces the Memex  memory extender  store and access information  follow cross-references in the form of associative trails between pieces of information (microfilms)  prototypical hypertext machine  trail blazers are those who find delight in the task of establishing useful trails Memex
  22. 22. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 22September 29, 2017 Scientist of the Future ...
  23. 23. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 23September 29, 2017 Video: Memex
  24. 24. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 24September 29, 2017 Hypertext (1965)  Ted Nelson coined the term hypertext  Nelson started Project Xanadu in 1960  first hypertext project  non-sequential writing  referencing/embedding parts of a document in another document (transclusion)  transpointing windows  bidirectional (bivisible) links  version and rights management  XanaduSpace 1.0 was released as part of Project Xanadu in 2007  OpenXanadu demo/deliverable released in 2014 Ted Nelson
  25. 25. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 25September 29, 2017 Digital Documents as a Paper Simulator? Most people don't understand the logic of the concept: "What You See Is What You Get" is based on printing the document out ("get" means "get WHEN YOU PRINT IT OUT"). And that means a metaphysical shift: a document can only consist of what can be printed! This re-froze the computer document into a closed rectangular object which cannot be penetrated by outside markings (curtailing what you could do with paper). No marginal notes, no sticky notes, no crossouts, no insertions, no overlays, no highlighting - PAPER UNDER GLASS. Ted Nelson, Geeks Bearing Gifts: How the Computer World Got This Way, Mindful Press 2009 Ted Nelson
  26. 26. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 26September 29, 2017 Transpointing Windows Mockup (1972) [http://www.xanadu.com.au/ted/TN/PARALUNE/paraviz.html]
  27. 27. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 27September 29, 2017 OpenXanadu (2014) [http://xanadu.com/xanademos/MoeJusteOrigins.html]
  28. 28. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 28September 29, 2017 Video: Ted Nelson Explains XanaduSpace
  29. 29. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 29September 29, 2017 Hypertext Editing System, HES (1967)  Early hypertext system  developed at Brown University (1967) by Andries van Dam and his team  Ted Nelson was a visitor at Brown University a that time  Limitations  unidirectional links  non-overlapping links  only embedded links  File Retrieval and Editing System, FRESS (1968)  follow-up project taking ideas from HES and NLS  first system introducing 'undo' functionality  bidirectional links
  30. 30. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 30September 29, 2017 The Mother of All Demos (1968)  Douglas Engelbart and his colleagues at the Stanford Research Institute developed the oNLine System (NLS) as part of the Augment Project  vision about the future of interactive computing  NLS was demonstrated at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in 1968  showed first practical use of hypertext  computer mouse  remote collaboration (connected computers)  raster-scan video monitors  screen windows  ... Douglas Engelbart
  31. 31. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 31September 29, 2017 NLS Demo
  32. 32. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 32September 29, 2017 Aspen Moviemap (1978)  Early hypermedia system  developed at MIT by Andrew Lippman and his team  hypermedia = extension of hypertext with other media types (e.g. images, sounds)  Virtual tour of Aspen  pictures taken every 10 feet while driving through the city  additional linked media (e.g. images and sounds)  Similar concept now used in Google Street View
  33. 33. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 33September 29, 2017 HyperCard (1987)  One of the early widespread hypermedia systems  Released by Apple Computer Inc. (as part of System Software 6)  developed by Bill Atkinson  Information is stored in a series of cards that are arranged into stacks  Links can be defined between different cards  HyperCards may contain text, pictures, audio and video  HyperTalk programming language is used to execute commands and jump to other cards
  34. 34. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 34September 29, 2017 ARPANET (1969)  Advanced Research Projects Agency Network  created by DARPA (US Department of Defense)  first operational packet switching network  first ARPANET link esta- blished in November 1969  ARPANET applications  Email (1971), Ray Tomlinson  FTP (1973) ARPANET Team
  35. 35. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 35September 29, 2017 ARPANET Map (March 1977)
  36. 36. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 36September 29, 2017 Worldwide Number of Hostnames 1,805,060,730 hostnames in September 2017, source: http://news.netcraft.com
  37. 37. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 37September 29, 2017 TCP (1974)  Transmission control protocol  replacement of Network Control Protocol (NCP)  'A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection'  by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn  Reliable and ordered transmission of byte stream between two endpoints  Migration of ARPANET to TCP/IP in 1982 Vint Cerf Bob Kahn
  38. 38. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 38September 29, 2017 TCP/IP (1978)  4 abstraction layers  each layer offers functionality to the above layer  separation of concerns  Application layer  HTTP, FTP, POP, ...  Transport layer  TCP, UDP, ...  Internet layer  addressing hosts and packet routing  IP, ...  Link layer
  39. 39. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 39September 29, 2017 TCP/IP Layers Link Internet Transport Application Link Internet Link Internet Transport Application Link Internet Ethernet EthernetSatellite, ...
  40. 40. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 40September 29, 2017 World Wide Web (WWW)  Networked hypertext system (over ARPANET) to share in- formation at CERN  first draft in March 1989  The Information Mine, Information Mesh, …?  Components by end of 1990  HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)  HyperText Markup Language (HTML)  HTTP server software  Web browser called WorldWideWeb  First public "release" in August 1991 Tim Berners-Lee Robert Cailliau
  41. 41. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 41September 29, 2017 WordWideWeb Browser (1993)
  42. 42. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 42September 29, 2017 WWW and Hypertext  WWW is mainly a network-enabled version of the HES hypertext model  unidirectional links between heterogeneous resources  is it more than just a digital version of paper documents with links?  What about all the richer functionality researched by the hypertext community?  bidirectional links  transclusion and external (non-embedded) links  version management  …  Is there something wrong with the WWW?
  43. 43. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 43September 29, 2017 Mobile Web  New forms of connectivity and information exchange  P2P networks  New requirements and functionality  location-based services  voice navigation  Access the Web from anywhere at anytime
  44. 44. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 44September 29, 2017 Web 2.0  User becomes an author and shares information  tagging  Wikis  social networking  mashups  ...  Not a new technology!  Why did some of these things not happen earlier?  limitations of the original World Wide Web?
  45. 45. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 45September 29, 2017 Semantic Web (Web 3.0)  Add explicit semantics to web resources  Machine-interpretable Web  Use of ontologies  Potential reasoning over Web resources Character set: UNICODE Cryptography Syntax: XML and XML Namespaces Data interchange: RDF Taxonomies: RDFS Ontologies: OWLQuerying: SPARQL Unifying Logic Trust User interface and applications Proof Rules: RIF/SWRL Based on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Semantic-web-stack.png] Identifiers: URI/IRI
  46. 46. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 46September 29, 2017 Internet of Things / Web of Things  Mark Weiser coined the term Ubiquitous Computing while working at Xerox PARC  M. Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century, ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Review, July 1999  Related terms are Disappearing Computing, Pervasive Computing or Internet of Things  Physical objects with emedded computing functionality that actively or passively participate in the Web  mobile phones, RFID-tagged objects, smart pens, …  Do we have to extend the current web infrastructure? Mark Weiser
  47. 47. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 47September 29, 2017 Exercise 1  Read the paper As We May Think by Vannevar Bush and try to answer the questions formulated on the exercise sheet  Discuss your answers and the Bush paper with your teaching assistant and classmates during the exercise session
  48. 48. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 48September 29, 2017 References  Web Technologies: A Computer Science Perspective, Jeffrey C. Jackson, Prentice Hall, August 2006, ISBN-13: 978-0131856035  Vannevar Bush, As We May Think, Atlanic Monthly, July 1945  http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush/  http://sloan.stanford.edu/MouseSite/Secondary.html  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c539cK58ees  Videos of the NLS demo  http://sloan.stanford.edu/mousesite/1968Demo.html
  49. 49. Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be 49September 29, 2017 References …  Ted Nelson demonstrates Xanadu Space  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=En_2T7KH6RA  Aspen Moviemap  http://www.naimark.net/projects/aspen.html  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w18MyqszIYc  Networking Technologies (TCP/IP, …)  Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Computer Networks, Fifth Edition Pearson 2010, ISBN-13: 978-0132126953  Mark Weiser, The Computer for the 21st Century, ACM Mobile Computing and Communications Review, July 1999
  50. 50. 2 December 2005 Next Lecture Web Architectures

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