Aural Interfaces to Databases
    based on VoiceXML
      Beat Signer, Moira C. Norrie,
 Peter Geissbuehler and Daniel Hei...
Outline

                                    Motivation
                                    Architecture
                 ...
Avalanche Forecasting System



                                                  Project to provide
                     ...
Avalanche Forecasting System ...

                                    Information model (OM model) for SLF
               ...
Requirements
                                    Platform supporting universal client
                                    ...
XIMA

                                      HTML                  WML                        VXML
                        ...
XML Reponse
                                    XML Response
                                   <?xml version="1.0" encodi...
VoiceXML


                                   Voice Input                                                                 ...
VoiceXML ...
                                    VoiceXML is an application of XML
                                    Des...
XML to VXML Example
                                    XML Response
                                                     ...
Design Phase

                                    Define the required functionality
                                    Us...
The database contains #Collections #Associations

                              Would you like to go to the collections, t...
Test and Refinement Phase

                                    Recognition problems
                                      ...
OMS Database Development Suite

                                   OM
                                   Semantic Object D...
XIMA Application Development

                                    Prototype the application's information
                ...
Conclusions

                                    Database driven development of voice-
                                   ...
Questions?

Global Information Systems Group
Department of Computer Science
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland
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Aural Interfaces to Databases based on VoiceXML

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Presentation given at VDB6, 6th IFIP Workshop on Visual Database Systems, Brisbane, Australia, May 2002

ABSTRACT: As part of a general framework for the development of global information systems, we include support for the development of aural interfaces. The framework uses an object-oriented database for the management of application, document content and presentation data. The access layer is based around an XML server and XSLT for document generation from default and customised templates. Specifically, aural interfaces are supported through a VoiceXML server that provides the speech recognition and synthesis mechanisms, together with XSLT templates for the generation of VoiceXML. In this paper, we describe the implementation of a generic voice browser for application databases as well as the development of a customised aural interface for a community diary managing appointments and events.

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Aural Interfaces to Databases based on VoiceXML

  1. 1. Aural Interfaces to Databases based on VoiceXML Beat Signer, Moira C. Norrie, Peter Geissbuehler and Daniel Heiniger Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  2. 2. Outline Motivation Architecture Voice Interfaces Application Development Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  3. 3. Avalanche Forecasting System Project to provide WAP and Voice Access Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  4. 4. Avalanche Forecasting System ... Information model (OM model) for SLF forecast data Application user interfaces for WAP and voice access national bulletin with maps and glossary local bulletin based on a region's start letter, GPS or Swiss Coordinates WAP responses for voice requests (mixed-mode) or triggered events Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  5. 5. Requirements Platform supporting universal client access to databases → eXtensible Information Management Architecture (XIMA) Use of a technology which allows the separation of content and presentation → XML and XSL Minimise effort to support new types of client devices, e.g. XML, HTML, WML, CHTML, VXML, ? Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  6. 6. XIMA HTML WML VXML Browser Browser Browser Main Entry Servlet Delegation XML + XSLT → Response HTML Servlet WML Servlet VXML Servlet Builds XML based on JDOM XML Server OM Model Global Information Systems Group OMS Java API Collections, Associations, Department of Computer Science multiple inheritance and multiple instantiation ETH Zurich, Switzerland OMS Java Workspace
  7. 7. XML Reponse XML Response <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <oms> <instance id="OM_4077" last="true" pos="1" type="person"> XML Schema <dressedWith type="person"/> <attribute name="name"> <xsd:element name="oms"> <string>Moira Norrie</string> </attribute> <xsd:complexType> <xsd:choice minOccurs="0" maxOccurs="unbounded"> … <xsd:element name="workspace" type="workspaceType"/> <attribute name="picture"> <xsd:element name="instance" type="instanceType"/> <mime>/globis/staff/moira.jpg</mime> </attribute> <xsd:element name="collection" type="collectionType"/> <xsd:element name="association" type="associationType"/> <method name="age"/> … <xsd:element name="result" type="resultType"/> <xsd:element ref="warning"/> <link idref="OM_2693" inv="false" name="Workplace"/> </instance> </xsd:choice> … </xsd:complexType> </oms> </xsd:element> <xsd:complexType name="instanceType"> <xsd:sequence> <xsd:element name="dressedWith" type="dressedWithType" …> … valid? <xsd:element name="link" type="linkType" minOccurs="0" …> Global Information Systems Group </xsd:sequence> Department of Computer Science <xsd:attribute name="id" type="xsd:string" use="required"/> ETH Zurich, Switzerland … </xsd:complexType>
  8. 8. VoiceXML Voice Input Voice Output Speech Language Application Speech Speech Recogniser Text Analyser Meaning Server Text Synthesiser Speech Converts voice Extracts meaning Gets data (text) Generates input into text from text from database speech output Application Pronounciation Speech model Grammar database rules Development IBM WebSphere Voice Server SDK Global Information Systems Group Deployment Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland BeVocal Cafe Voice Portal
  9. 9. VoiceXML ... VoiceXML is an application of XML Describes call flows and human machine dialogues Use advantages of web-based development and content delivery to build interactive voice response applications Hello Word Example <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <vxml version="2.0"> <form id="f1"> <block>Hello World</block> Global Information Systems Group </form> Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland </vxml>
  10. 10. XML to VXML Example XML Response XSLT Stylesheet <?xml version="1.0" encoding=… ?> <oms> <xsl:template match="instance"> <instance id="OM_4077" <form id="instance_entry"> type="person" …> <dressedWith type="person"/> <block> <attribute name="name"> <xsl:choose> <string>Moira Norrie</string> <xsl:when test="count(dressedWith)=1"> </attribute> Object … <xsl:call-template name="removeUnderscore"> <method name="age"/> <xsl:with-param name="label" select="@id"/> … </xsl:call-template> </instance> is dressed with type </oms> <xsl:value-of select="./@type"/> </xsl:when> … </xsl:template> … VXML Result <?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?> <vxml application="http://macbain/xima/omsmain_root.vxml" version="2.0"> <form id="instance_entry"><block> Object 4077 is dressed with type person and is viewed as type person. <prompt>It contains 8 attributes, 5 links, and 1 method</prompt> Global Information Systems Group <goto next="#instance_process"/></block></form> Department of Computer Science <form id="instance_process"><field name="Member_Choice"><prompt>Would you ETH Zurich, Switzerland like to hear the attributes, the links or the methods or go back?</prompt> …
  11. 11. Design Phase Define the required functionality User analysis motivation, expertise High level decisions full-duplex (barge-in) simple grammars (dynamic) only synthesised speech (TTS) Representation of base types Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science Information flow ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  12. 12. The database contains #Collections #Associations Would you like to go to the collections, to the associations, directly to an object or back to the main menu? collections associations objects The database contains the The database contains the The database contains #Objects following # collections following # associations Choose a collection Choose an association Choose an object or say back Collection 'name' contains #M Association 'name' contains #A Would you like to list the Would you like to list the members or go back? members or go back? Collection 'name' contains the Association 'name' contains the following # members following # associations Choose a 'domaintype' or Choose one of the members a 'rangetype' or say back Object 'oID' is dressed with type 'type' and currently viewed as type 'type'. It contains #Attr, #Links, #Methods Would you like to hear the attributes, the links or the methods, change the type or go back? The object contains the You can choose among You can choose among You can view the object following # attributes the following links the following methods as the following types Choose a link Choose a method Choose one of the or say back or say back types or say back The result of the method is Result
  13. 13. Test and Refinement Phase Recognition problems elimination of similar sounding words from the grammar addition of optional words to the grammar (e.g. "please") Insufficient help functionality introduction of prompt-specific help instead of always active command list Immediate feedback after input has Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland been processed ("OK" prompt)
  14. 14. OMS Database Development Suite OM Semantic Object Data Model Application Modelling OMS Pro Rapid Prototyping System Database and and Lightweight DBMS Application Design OMS Java Implementation Data Management System Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science and Application Framework ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  15. 15. XIMA Application Development Prototype the application's information model in prototyping system OMS Pro Export model (and data) to OMS Java Installation of XML Server with default XSLT stylesheets and servlets database immediately acessible by generic object browser Customisation of stylesheets Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  16. 16. Conclusions Database driven development of voice- enabled applications Rapid prototyping supported by OMS Pro and XIMA's generic object browser Multi-mode access provided by generic object browser (HTML, WAP, VXML) Customised user interfaces (stepwise refinement of XSLT stylesheets) Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science New potential user communities ETH Zurich, Switzerland
  17. 17. Questions? Global Information Systems Group Department of Computer Science ETH Zurich, Switzerland

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