An Architecture for Open Cross-Media Annotation Services

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Presentation given at WISE 2009, Tenth International Conference on Web Information Systems Engineering, Poznan, Poland, October 2009

ABSTRACT: The emergence of new media technologies in combination with enhanced information sharing functionality o ered by the Web provides new possibilities for cross-media annotations. This in turn raises new challenges in terms of how a true integration across di erent types of media can be achieved and how we can develop annotation services that are sufficiently flexible and extensible to cater for new document formats as they emerge. We present a general model for cross-media annotation services and describe how it was used to defi ne an architecture that supports extensibility at the data level as well as within authoring and visualisation tools.

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An Architecture for Open Cross-Media Annotation Services

  1. 1. An Architecture for Open Cross-Media Annotation Services Beat Signer1 and Moira C. Norrie2 1 2 Department of Computer Science Institute for Information Systems Vrije Universiteit Brussel ETH Zurich 1050 Brussels, Belgium 8092 Zurich, Switzerland 2 December 2005
  2. 2. Motivation Memex Annotea Project Digital Libraries Cross-media Annotations October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  3. 3. Motivation …  Existing annotation solutions support the annotation of a fixed set of multimedia resources  How easy can those solutions be extended to support emerging future digital or physical resource types?  annotation tool should evolve over time  An open cross-media annotation solution has to provide extensibility  on the data level  on the annotation authoring and access level (user interface) October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  4. 4. What is an Annotation?  A link in a hypermedia system is defined between an existing source and target object  In addition to a link, the definition of an annotation often includes the content authoring of the annotation object itself (target object)  An annotation service therefore can be seen as a specific application of a more general link service October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  5. 5. Annotation Matrix # annotation types open cross-media  Four existing classes of annotations annotation systems  A: single source and single annotation type ... B2  B: single source and D2 multiple annotation types 5  C: multiple source and single annotation type 4 B1  D: multiple source and D1 multiple annotation types 3  Proposed open cross-media 2 annotations cover the whole A1... An C1 C2 C3 space 1 # resource types 1 2 3 4 5 ... October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  6. 6. Annotation Model (RSL Extension) Annotation Model Comments Formal Informal ... Explanations Annotations i SERVER RSL Metamodel Links source target Users Entities Layers Selectors Resources i WEB XPointer XHTML Docs i MOVIE Time Spans Movies October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  7. 7. Annotation Model (RSL Extension) ... link link link Navigational Structural (1,*) Annotations |HasChild| Links Links partition link parameter (1,*) (1,*) Has (0,*) HasSource Links HasTarget Preferences Preferences (0,*) (0,*) parameter (0,*) (0,*) (0,*) Properties HasProperties (0,*) entity (0,*) AccessibleTo (0,*) user (0,*) Entities (1,1) Users HasMembers contextResolver (0,*) (0,*) Context HasResolver CreatedBy partition Resolvers (0,*) partition (0,*) selector resource individual group (1,1) (0,*) Selectors RefersTo Resources Individuals Groups (1,1) (0,*) layer (0,*) (0,*) OnLayer Layers |HasLayers| B. Signer and M. C. Norrie, As We May Link: A General Metamodel for Hypermedia Systems, in Proc. of ER 2007, Nov 2007 October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  8. 8. Data and Visual Plug-in Architecture Client Application Resource Plug-in Repository Visual Plug-ins Visual Plug-ins Data Plug-ins Annotation/Link Annotation/Link Browser & Editor Service Visual Plug-ins Data Plug-ins October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  9. 9. Data and Visual Plug-in Architecture …  Integration of a new resource type includes  development of a data plug-in  implementation of a visual plug-in  registration with the resource plug-in repository  Annotation/Link browser loads plug-ins on demand  internal or external (third party application) visualisation  Third party applications use the annotation/link browser for annotation visualisation  similar to the integration of third-party applications with web browsers  Non-monolithic annotation model and authoring tool  resource-specific plug-ins October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  10. 10. Visual Plug-ins showEntity() showEntity(), getSelectedEntity() Annotation/Link Browser & Editor Client Application October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  11. 11. Visual Plug-ins …  General annotation tool deals only with RSL-specific data and not with any media-specific details  create/delete links, user management, …  Definition of annotation anchors (resources or selectors) handled by visual plug-ins  separation of concerns  Two basic purposes  rendering of specific resource types (resources and selectors)  creation and deletion of resources and selectors  Well defined visual plug-in API October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  12. 12. Conclusions  Extensible open cross-media annotation solution  plug-ins loaded on demand  Separation of concerns between  annotation model and resource-specific data plug-ins  annotation tool and resource-specific visual plug-ins  No distinction between entities that can be used as sources or annotations  annotations and links as first-class objects  Annotation/Link browser and editor can be integrated with third party applications October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be
  13. 13. Further Information  Beat Signer, Fundamental Concepts for Interactive Paper and Cross-Media Information Spaces, ISBN 978-3-8370-2713-6, May 2008  http://vub.academia.edu/BeatSigner October 7, 2009 Beat Signer - Department of Computer Science - bsigner@vub.ac.be

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