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IT in the News: Group 7    RFID Technology  Sean Maloney, Joel Peterson,   Andy Pierce, Ashley Ross,       and Mike Wheeler
RFID OverviewRFID = Radio frequencyidentificationWireless, radiotransmission of serialnumbers and other dataData is read b...
Passive vs. Active TagsPassive tags:               Active tags:   Powered only by the        Use internal batteries    r...
Cost IssuesCan be cost prohibitive because theyinitially cost about $1 per active RFID tag.The cost has now dropped to 20 ...
Real-time DataHaving data availablein real-time hasrevolutionized thesupply chain andcommunicatesinformation muchmorequick...
Real-time DataNow, when a supplierships a pallet of goodsout to a buyer, the tagson the cases and palletare scanned and th...
Real-time DataOnce the buyerreceives the goodsthey scan them whichautomatically addsthose good to theirinventory and notif...
Supply Chain Push vs. PullIt used to be that companies wouldmanufacture goods based on salesforecasts and push the goods o...
RFID HistoryThe first passive RFIDsystem was discovered bythe Germans during WorldWar II when they learnedhow to alter rad...
RFID HistoryIn the 1980s the RFIDsystem becamecommercialized withautomated toll readersOther advances lead toUHF radio wav...
RFID HistoryEven as use and interest was improving,there were still major price hurdles toovercome.Realizing that they wou...
RFID HistoryAuto-ID Center professors David Brock and SanjaySarma changed RFID into a networking technologywhen they disco...
RFID HistoryIn 2004, EPCglobalcreated a second-generation standardwhich allowed for moreusage by majormanufacturers and re...
Reasons Manufacturers Use RFIDRFID allows companies toaccurately track materialand product in the supplychainRFID can help...
Manufacturers & Producers      Utilizing RFID
iGPSPlastic pallet pooling company based in Orlando, FLCurrently uses Gen 2 UHF (915mhz) tags in all of itsplastic pallets...
Swire BottlingSwire Bottling, a Coca Cola bottlinggroup, uses RFID to track syrup tanksand carbon dioxide cylinders in Hon...
Trasluz Casual WearTrasluz, a Europeanclothing manufacturerand retailer, adoptedRFID in 2010Trasluz uses RFIDthrough the e...
GoodpackIBC container rental company corporately located inSingaporeIBC’s (Intermediate Bulk Containers) are metalcontaine...
Retailers that Request &      Require RFID TagsRFID Forecast $9.7 billion by 2013 15 percent compound annual growth rate P...
American ApparelImmediate sales floor items replenishment requiredEmbarked on RFID pilot in 2007Rolled out RFID at item le...
Wilson Sporting GoodsRFID Compliance requirement -   Enlisted services of Zebra Corporation -   EPC Gen 2-standard labelin...
METRO GROUP Among the retail industrys pioneering users ofRFID Employed RFID technology in logistics andwarehouse manageme...
Tesco  Third-largest global retailer measured by revenues  Second largest measured by profits  Stores in 14 countries  Pas...
Wal*Mart  Aggressive RFID efforts  Confirmed commitment to RFID in supply chain  Issued warnings to suppliers of $2-3 fine...
Current Happenings & New         TechnologiesConsumers Payment by mobile phone Pet tracking Implants/bracelets Detect coun...
Current Happenings & New         TechnologiesMiniaturization Current Record Holder:    Hitachi 0.05mm x 0.05mm Major Chall...
Current Happenings & New         TechnologiesStandardization International Organization for      Standardization (ISO) Fre...
Current Happenings & New         TechnologiesSecurity Concerns  Eavesdropping/Skimming  Tag Cloning  Shielding  EPC Global...
The Internet of Things  During 2008, the number of devices connected to  the internet exceeded the number of humans on  ea...
Cost ChallengesCosts of tags must be reduced to the point of being negligibleTechnologies are being developed that will en...
Range LimitationsCurrent operational ranges for passive RFID tags islimited to a few metersLimiting factor is wavelength –...
Size ReductionSmart Dust technology promises tags 64 timessmaller than the current Hitachi micro-tagEven smaller nano andm...
SensorsDespite improved ranges, sensors will have to bedeployed. Mesh networks are linked sensors thatread RFID signals an...
SensorsWhile mesh networkswill be critical to RFIDsuccess, the realbreakthrough is in thepalm of our hands.The ubiquitous ...
Applications & ImplicationsSupply chain usage will drive new technology   Tagging of individual items   Ability to manag...
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It in the news group 7 mfr audio added

  1. 1. IT in the News: Group 7 RFID Technology Sean Maloney, Joel Peterson, Andy Pierce, Ashley Ross, and Mike Wheeler
  2. 2. RFID OverviewRFID = Radio frequencyidentificationWireless, radiotransmission of serialnumbers and other dataData is read by radioantennas which thentransmit the data to acomputerReduces need for humaninput of data and alsocuts down on humanerrorTypical RFID tags canstore 2KB of data
  3. 3. Passive vs. Active TagsPassive tags: Active tags: Powered only by the  Use internal batteries reader for power They are less  Information is sent to a expensive so work for reader low-ticket items  Good for more costly Tags can be read up items or items that to 20 feet away need to be read from Can be disposed or greater distances (ie: rewritten SunPass or other toll reader)
  4. 4. Cost IssuesCan be cost prohibitive because theyinitially cost about $1 per active RFID tag.The cost has now dropped to 20 – 40cents per unit but still is cost prohibitive forsome.The ultimate goal is a tag that costsaround five cents.Tags on boxes are typically thrown awayafter one use but tags on pallets can berecycled and reused.
  5. 5. Real-time DataHaving data availablein real-time hasrevolutionized thesupply chain andcommunicatesinformation muchmorequickly, efficiently andwith fewer errors.
  6. 6. Real-time DataNow, when a supplierships a pallet of goodsout to a buyer, the tagson the cases and palletare scanned and theinformation isimmediately sent to thebuyer to notify them thatthey have left thesupplier’s warehouse andwill be arriving in acertain time period. Thesystem will take thosegoods out of thesupplier’s inventory.
  7. 7. Real-time DataOnce the buyerreceives the goodsthey scan them whichautomatically addsthose good to theirinventory and notifiesthe supplier that thegoods have beenreceived.
  8. 8. Supply Chain Push vs. PullIt used to be that companies wouldmanufacture goods based on salesforecasts and push the goods out into thesupply chain. If demand exceeded supplythen they would lose sales. Likewise, ifsupply exceeded demand then they wouldhave excess. Now, goods can by pulledthrough the supply chain based on thereal-time demand for those goods.Inventory is replenished and reorderedbased on the actual demand.
  9. 9. RFID HistoryThe first passive RFIDsystem was discovered bythe Germans during WorldWar II when they learnedhow to alter radar signals toidentify themselves to theircountrymenThe first active RFID tagwas patented in 1973 byMario CardulloThe US Government beganusing RFID tags in the1970s to track nuclearmaterials
  10. 10. RFID HistoryIn the 1980s the RFIDsystem becamecommercialized withautomated toll readersOther advances lead toUHF radio waves and lowfrequency 125 kHz systemsto track cows and otherlivestockLater higher frequencysystems were developedwhich meant that the RFIDtags could be read fromfurther away and havefaster data transfer
  11. 11. RFID HistoryEven as use and interest was improving,there were still major price hurdles toovercome.Realizing that they would not get anycheaper unless more systems werepurchased, several businesses cametogether in 1999 to establish the Auto-IDCenter at MIT. This center was created tofind the technology to produce low-costRFID systems and help roll them out to alarger market.
  12. 12. RFID HistoryAuto-ID Center professors David Brock and SanjaySarma changed RFID into a networking technologywhen they discovered a way to link tagged objects tothe Internet – this meant that manufacturers could usethe technology to communicate the status ofproduction and shipment.The Auto-ID Center developed Class 1 and Class 0 airinterface protocols and the EPC (Electronic ProductCode) numbering scheme. Their technology waslicensed to the Uniform Code Council in 2003 whopartnered with EAN International to launch theEPCglobal Network as a way to commercialize theEPC technology.In 2003 the Auto-ID Center closed and RFID researchduties were passed on to Auto-ID Labs.
  13. 13. RFID HistoryIn 2004, EPCglobalcreated a second-generation standardwhich allowed for moreusage by majormanufacturers and retailsacross the US and theworld.In 2003 Wal-Martannounced that by 2005all suppliers would berequired to use RFID tagson cases and pallets ofpurchased goods
  14. 14. Reasons Manufacturers Use RFIDRFID allows companies toaccurately track materialand product in the supplychainRFID can help identifyleak pointsReal time data collectionAbility to easily shareinformation withcustomers
  15. 15. Manufacturers & Producers Utilizing RFID
  16. 16. iGPSPlastic pallet pooling company based in Orlando, FLCurrently uses Gen 2 UHF (915mhz) tags in all of itsplastic palletsPresence of RFID tags in pallets makes inventorytracking simpleiGPS customers can utilize the RFID tags embedded iniGPS pallets for their own trackingWhile some customers use the RFID feature, not allhave the capital to invest in RFID software
  17. 17. Swire BottlingSwire Bottling, a Coca Cola bottlinggroup, uses RFID to track syrup tanksand carbon dioxide cylinders in HongKongPrior to 2010 Swire would lose hundredsof assets per year at restaurant and retaillocationsIntroduction of RFID tags to assetsdropped the number of lost assets tonear zeroAdding the $.25 tag to each assetreduced cylinder and tank replacementcosts by $31,000 US / year for thedivision
  18. 18. Trasluz Casual WearTrasluz, a Europeanclothing manufacturerand retailer, adoptedRFID in 2010Trasluz uses RFIDthrough the entire supplychain, from production toretail sale Every store item is RFID tagged, allowing for real time inventory tracking Smart racks count the number of items on each shelf; Smart mats at exits prevent theft
  19. 19. GoodpackIBC container rental company corporately located inSingaporeIBC’s (Intermediate Bulk Containers) are metalcontainers used for holding liquids such as rubber, foodor chemicals Goodpack uses RFID to identify the last recorded location of each container at Goodpack depots and customer warehouses. Customers are provided RFID scanners to ensure each every container is scanned upon arrival & departure
  20. 20. Retailers that Request & Require RFID TagsRFID Forecast $9.7 billion by 2013 15 percent compound annual growth rate Passive tag ranges only 1-2m 10% of retailers undergoing RFID initiatives 20% of retailers to begin rollout by 2010
  21. 21. American ApparelImmediate sales floor items replenishment requiredEmbarked on RFID pilot in 2007Rolled out RFID at item level in April 2008Enabled American Apparel to track items when * tagged at manufacturer * received in its retail stores * stored in the stock rooms at the stores * placed onto the sales floor and sold at the POS
  22. 22. Wilson Sporting GoodsRFID Compliance requirement - Enlisted services of Zebra Corporation - EPC Gen 2-standard labeling systemZebra R110Xi printer/encoders - Smart labels are hand-applied to cases and pallets - Routed past a fixed-position RFID reader that captures shipment information
  23. 23. METRO GROUP Among the retail industrys pioneering users ofRFID Employed RFID technology in logistics andwarehouse management since 2004 Tracks incoming goods processes for 400 locations More than 750,000 pallets are recorded each yearusing this technology at their central goods depot
  24. 24. Tesco Third-largest global retailer measured by revenues Second largest measured by profits Stores in 14 countries Passive RFID tag on roll cages Cages are identified when delivered to retail outlets RFID tag by OATSystems is able to identify what cageis destined for which store
  25. 25. Wal*Mart Aggressive RFID efforts Confirmed commitment to RFID in supply chain Issued warnings to suppliers of $2-3 fines per palletthat did not contain an RFID tag. Wal*Marts 600 top suppliers use RFID technology tosome degree Implementing RFID chips on individual items toincrease inventory control
  26. 26. Current Happenings & New TechnologiesConsumers Payment by mobile phone Pet tracking Implants/bracelets Detect counterfeits / protecting valuables
  27. 27. Current Happenings & New TechnologiesMiniaturization Current Record Holder: Hitachi 0.05mm x 0.05mm Major Challenges
  28. 28. Current Happenings & New TechnologiesStandardization International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Frequency Spectrum Issues EPC Global
  29. 29. Current Happenings & New TechnologiesSecurity Concerns Eavesdropping/Skimming Tag Cloning Shielding EPC Global Network Denial of Serviceattack
  30. 30. The Internet of Things During 2008, the number of devices connected to the internet exceeded the number of humans on earth By 2020, there will be 50 billion “things” connected to the internet Those “things”will not be justcomputersand smart phones. With applications of RFID, every “thing” will be connected, monitored and managed.
  31. 31. Cost ChallengesCosts of tags must be reduced to the point of being negligibleTechnologies are being developed that will enable RFID tagsto be printed using current ink jet or lithograph printingtechnologyFuture RFID tags will be no more expensive than current tagson clothes
  32. 32. Range LimitationsCurrent operational ranges for passive RFID tags islimited to a few metersLimiting factor is wavelength – moving from HF (today)to UHF to Microwave could take range to 500m/tagCurrently inventory mustbe manually scanned oractively pass a sensor,extended ranges will allowone sensor to keep track ofan entire warehouse – in realtime
  33. 33. Size ReductionSmart Dust technology promises tags 64 timessmaller than the current Hitachi micro-tagEven smaller nano andmolecular RFID will allowtracking and monitoringof food through thesupply chain – feedingdata on environmentaland product conditions
  34. 34. SensorsDespite improved ranges, sensors will have to bedeployed. Mesh networks are linked sensors thatread RFID signals and broadcast the data via theinternet.Sensors in themesh can also actas repeaters tooffer essentiallylimitless range
  35. 35. SensorsWhile mesh networkswill be critical to RFIDsuccess, the realbreakthrough is in thepalm of our hands.The ubiquitous smartphone will get smarter
  36. 36. Applications & ImplicationsSupply chain usage will drive new technology Tagging of individual items Ability to manage inventory in real time Automation – i.e. check out, theft prevention Limited only by imaginationSocial implications much deeper Social media revolution – passively “check in”, but pass on info besides location; not just where you are, but who and what you’re there with Credit cards that know when you’re in a store and what’s there you might want Police broadcasting Smart Dust onto a crowd of protesters

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