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<ul><li>David Geerts </li></ul><ul><li>Research Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for User Experience Research (CUO) </li><...
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
First wave HCI (70’s-80’s) <ul><li>Cognitive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human as information processor </li></ul></ul>...
Second wave HCI (80’s-90’s) <ul><li>Social context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups working with collection of applications </...
Third wave HCI (90’s-00’s) <ul><li>User experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private and public environments </li></ul></ul><u...
Designing the user experience? <ul><li>Avoid negative emotions vs. produce positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Making prod...
User Experience Models  / 50
User Experience Models  / 50
A model of user experience  (Hassenzahl)  / 50
User Experience Models  / 50
Emotional design (Norman)  / 50
User Experience Models  / 50
User-product interactions and experience  / 50 ( Forlizzi and Battarbee)
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
Cultural probes <ul><li>Collections of evocative tasks meant to elicit inspirational responses from people </li></ul><ul><...
 / 50
Dante’s Hell  / 50
Advantages of cultural probes <ul><li>Provide opportunities to discover new pleasures, new forms of sociability and new cu...
From probes to design <ul><li>Probes are not meant to be rigorously analysed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as inspiration fo...
Example cultural probe results  / 50
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
Extreme characters  (Djajadiningrat) <ul><li>Fictional users with exaggerated emotional attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ta...
Example extreme character for agenda planner <ul><li>The drug dealer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is very sensitive, ...
 / 50
 / 50
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
Experience prototyping  (Buchenau and Suri) <ul><li>“ A  form of prototyping that enables design team members, users and c...
Examples of experience prototyping  / 50
Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></...
UX evaluation methods <ul><li>Most amount of new methods in this category </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of research in this ...
Verbal vs. non-verbal methods <ul><li>Non-verbal observation methods (‘objective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language independ...
Means End Theory <ul><li>A theory to understand how specific features or attributes (means) of a product relate to persona...
 
Examples <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colour, taste, design, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Glass => transparent, see what is in it => make sure it is  healthy => my children deserve the best => I am a good...
<ul><li>One particular method for researching means-end chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the only one but the most popular...
<ul><ul><li>Graphs the dominant links in a hierarchical value map (HVM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>association network </l...
How to perform laddering <ul><li>One-to-one in-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher asks question ‘what do yo...
Example of laddering interview  / 50 Researcher: I forgot again, which one did you like most? Child stands up and points a...
Example means-end chain  / 50
Example means-end chain  / 50
AttrakDiff evaluation (Hassenzahl)  / 50
AttrakDiff results  / 50
Emocards  (Desmet)  / 50
Example analysis emocards  (Wimmer e.a.)  / 50
Sensual Evaluation Instrument  (Isbister e.a.) <ul><li>A tool for self-assessment of affect while interacting with compute...
Example analysis SEI  (Wimmer e.a.)  / 50
Example analysis SEI  (Wimmer e.a.)  / 50
Questions? [email_address]
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Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences

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Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences

  1. 1. <ul><li>David Geerts </li></ul><ul><li>Research Manager </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for User Experience Research (CUO) </li></ul><ul><li>K.U.Leuven </li></ul>Creative methods for designing and evaluating user experiences
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  3. 3. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  4. 4. First wave HCI (70’s-80’s) <ul><li>Cognitive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human as information processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction between single user and computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Human factors” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive psychology, computer science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rigid guidelines, controlled experiments, formal methods, user modelling, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GOMS (Goals Operators Methods Selection rules), KLM (Keystroke Level Model), Fitt’s law, Hick’s law, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
  5. 5. Second wave HCI (80’s-90’s) <ul><li>Social context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Groups working with collection of applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work settings and communities of practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Human actors” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social sciences, anthropology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic observations, participatory design, prototyping, contextual inquiry, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity theory, situated action, distributed cognition, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
  6. 6. Third wave HCI (90’s-00’s) <ul><li>User experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private and public environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The home, everyday lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, emotion and experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-work, non-purposeful, non-rational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disciplines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design research, cultural studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploratory methods, cultural probes, narratives, experience prototyping, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional design, four pleasures, threads of experience, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
  7. 7. Designing the user experience? <ul><li>Avoid negative emotions vs. produce positive emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Making products challenging, seductive, playful, surprising, memorable, moody, enjoyable, … </li></ul><ul><li>It is not possible to design the user experience, you can only design for the user experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploit design solutions that evoke or intensify certain feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A holistic view on designing products </li></ul> / 50
  8. 8. User Experience Models / 50
  9. 9. User Experience Models / 50
  10. 10. A model of user experience (Hassenzahl) / 50
  11. 11. User Experience Models / 50
  12. 12. Emotional design (Norman) / 50
  13. 13. User Experience Models / 50
  14. 14. User-product interactions and experience / 50 ( Forlizzi and Battarbee)
  15. 15. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  16. 16. Cultural probes <ul><li>Collections of evocative tasks meant to elicit inspirational responses from people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Package with e.g. postcards, maps, camera, diaries, … with assignments, often provocative or ambiguous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials are returned one by one during a short period </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragmentary clues about users’ lives and thoughts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspiration, not information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulate imaginations rather than defining problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Openly subjective and playful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ambiguity, absurdity and mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recognizes and embraces the notion that knowledge has its limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values uncertainty, play, exploration and subjective interpretation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Unscientific’ approach, a subversion of traditional HCI methods </li></ul></ul> / 50
  17. 17. / 50
  18. 18. Dante’s Hell / 50
  19. 19. Advantages of cultural probes <ul><li>Provide opportunities to discover new pleasures, new forms of sociability and new cultural forms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not designing solutions to user needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer possibilities for surprising results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doesn’t focus on an ‘average’ user </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce distance between researchers and users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal, geographic and cultural distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through its design and communication, the designers make their intentions clear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gives a deep sense of familiarity and engagement with the people you design products for </li></ul> / 50
  20. 20. From probes to design <ul><li>Probes are not meant to be rigorously analysed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as inspiration for reflecting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t directly lead to designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making you aware of the detailed richness of an environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embraces subjectivity, uncontrolledness and personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevent from believing you can look into people’s heads </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impossible to arrive at comfortable conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand their responses empathetically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the strange familiar, and the familiar strange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Probes are only one source for designing product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some design decisions directly based on probe returns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a relationship with users, like designing for a friend </li></ul></ul> / 50
  21. 21. Example cultural probe results / 50
  22. 22. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  23. 23. Extreme characters (Djajadiningrat) <ul><li>Fictional users with exaggerated emotional attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take another perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To highlight cultural issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Complementary method, not replacing personas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Character traits can be exposed which normally remain hidden because they are antisocial or in conflict with a person’s status. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is not your user, not based on data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many extreme characters? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which extreme characters? </li></ul></ul> / 50
  24. 24. Example extreme character for agenda planner <ul><li>The drug dealer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is very sensitive, cannot fall in the wrong hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He does not plan far ahead since dealers come and go </li></ul></ul> / 50
  25. 25. / 50
  26. 26. / 50
  27. 27. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  28. 28. Experience prototyping (Buchenau and Suri) <ul><li>“ A form of prototyping that enables design team members, users and clients to gain first-hand appreciation of existing or future conditions through active engagement with prototypes” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the contextual, physical, temporal, sensory, social and cognitive factors we must consider for our design? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the essence of the existing user experience? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are essential factors that our design should preserve? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: experience of a heart patient </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers were given a pager for a weekend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When the pager went off, this simulated a defibrillating shock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designers had to record their current experience </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely related to role playing </li></ul> / 50
  29. 29. Examples of experience prototyping / 50
  30. 30. Agenda <ul><li>The User Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis methods </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements specification </li></ul><ul><li>Design methods </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation methods </li></ul> / 50
  31. 31. UX evaluation methods <ul><li>Most amount of new methods in this category </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A lot of research in this area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New methods or variations are being discussed at several conferences (e.g. see http://www.allaboutux.org/ ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different classifications possible, based on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal or non-verbal measurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative or qualitative results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase in the design process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General type of evaluation (lab, field, survey, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Analysis, design or evaluation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some methods could be used in several stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only evaluation when interaction with product is the focus </li></ul></ul> / 50
  32. 32. Verbal vs. non-verbal methods <ul><li>Non-verbal observation methods (‘objective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language independent, unobtrusive, more objective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited set of basic emotions, no combination of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho-physiological measurement, facereading, emotion heuristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verbal self-report methods (‘subjective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective feelings measured through self-report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can represent any set of emotions, can measure combinations of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to apply between cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questionnaires, rating scales, laddering </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal self-report methods (‘subjective’) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective feelings, distinct or combinations of emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require subjects to verbalize emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), Product Emotion Measurement Instrument (PrEmo), Emocards </li></ul></ul> / 50
  33. 33. Means End Theory <ul><li>A theory to understand how specific features or attributes (means) of a product relate to personal values (ends) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People choose a product because it has attributes (the means) that provide consequences and fulfilling personal values (the ends) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Examples <ul><li>Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>colour, taste, design, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional: price, quality, user-friendliness, … </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psycho-social: habits, reliability, … </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health, security, fun, social power, … </li></ul></ul> / 50
  35. 36. <ul><li>Glass => transparent, see what is in it => make sure it is healthy => my children deserve the best => I am a good mom </li></ul><ul><li>Glass => can be cleaned and reused => environmentally friendly => save the planet </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic => light => easily disposible => practical => more time for more important things => you have to be productive and get ahead in life </li></ul>Example: Yoghurt packaging
  36. 37. <ul><li>One particular method for researching means-end chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not the only one but the most popular in consumer research because it proved to be superior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Entails both a </li></ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative technique (which ladders) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to interview </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quantitative technique (which are dominant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to analyze data and generalize from it </li></ul></ul></ul>Laddering
  37. 38. <ul><ul><li>Graphs the dominant links in a hierarchical value map (HVM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>association network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meaningful couplings between attributes, consequences and values. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(reynolds and Gutman, 1988) </li></ul></ul>Hierarchical Value Map
  38. 39. How to perform laddering <ul><li>One-to-one in-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researcher asks question ‘what do you like about [product x]’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After first answer, question is reformulated to ‘what do you like about [answer]’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reveals the relation between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Product attributes (A) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product consequences (C) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User’s values (V) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results in means-end chain </li></ul> / 50
  39. 40. Example of laddering interview / 50 Researcher: I forgot again, which one did you like most? Child stands up and points at the bird Oh yes, the bird, can you tell me why? &quot;Because I like it&quot; Ah, because you like it, and can you tell me why? &quot;The tumbling it makes” [A] Ah, the tumbling it makes, and why is that nice? &quot;Because that is so funny” [C] Ah, and why do you like it when it is funny? &quot;Because it is really cool that it can make a looping&quot; [A] Ah, and why do you like that it makes a looping? &quot;Because sometimes they fall on their bum and they do funny&quot;[A-C] Ah, and why do you like that it is funny? &quot;That they fall on their bum&quot; [A]
  40. 41. Example means-end chain / 50
  41. 42. Example means-end chain / 50
  42. 43. AttrakDiff evaluation (Hassenzahl) / 50
  43. 44. AttrakDiff results / 50
  44. 45. Emocards (Desmet) / 50
  45. 46. Example analysis emocards (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
  46. 47. Sensual Evaluation Instrument (Isbister e.a.) <ul><li>A tool for self-assessment of affect while interacting with computer systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Real-time feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcending language and cultural barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No distortion through verbalization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More fun for the user </li></ul></ul> / 50
  47. 48. Example analysis SEI (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
  48. 49. Example analysis SEI (Wimmer e.a.) / 50
  49. 50. Questions? [email_address]

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