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Free Software in Government

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Georg Greve´s presentation at the Library of the National Congress of Chile

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Free Software in Government

  1. 1. Free Software in Government Georg Greve greve@fsfeurope.org Free Software Foundation Europe Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 1
  2. 2. 0. Roadmap Approaching the issues 1. Free Software Basics 2. Regulatory perspective 3. Economic perspective 4. Interoperability 5. Open Standards 6. History of an Open Standard 7. Government 8. Principles for Interoperability 9. Summary Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 2
  3. 3. 1. Free Software Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 3
  4. 4. 1. Free Software Free for freedom, not price. Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 3
  5. 5. 1. Free Software Free for freedom, not price. 1. Freedom: unlimited use, for any purpose 2. Freedom: study and modify 3. Freedom: copy / distribute 4. Freedom: distribute modifications Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 3
  6. 6. 1. Free Software Free for freedom, not price. 1. Freedom: unlimited use, for any purpose 2. Freedom: study and modify 3. Freedom: copy / distribute 4. Freedom: distribute modifications First publication: January 1989 From Copyright to Freedom: Copyright allows licensing licensing grants Freedom GNU GPL, X11 License, BSD, MIT, ... Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 3
  7. 7. 1. Clarity matters 1983: Free Software January 1989: ”four Freedoms”; DFSG (1997) 1992: Libre Software European Context 1998: Open Source Proposed marketing term for Free Software 200X: FOSS (”Free / Open Source Software”) redundant, combines ambiguity 2003: FLOSS (”Free/Libre/Open Source”) triple redundant, combines all ambiguities Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 4
  8. 8. 1. Clarity matters 1983: Free Software IDENTICAL January 1989: ”four Freedoms”; DFSG (1997) 1992: Libre Software European Context LICENCE 1998: Open Source Proposed marketing term for Free Software 200X: FOSS (”Free / Open Source Software”) BASE redundant, combines ambiguity 2003: FLOSS (”Free/Libre/Open Source”) triple redundant, combines all ambiguities Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 4
  9. 9. 1. Essential Free Software = freedom to use study modify distribute Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 5
  10. 10. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  11. 11. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Code & Law are both regulators! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  12. 12. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Code & Law are both regulators! Who owns your software? Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  13. 13. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Code & Law are both regulators! Who owns your software? Without software control, who controls the data? Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  14. 14. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Code & Law are both regulators! Who owns your software? Without software control, who controls the data? What about the government? Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  15. 15. 2. Regulatory perspective Code shapes the physical laws of digital space Code & Law are both regulators! Who owns your software? Without software control, who controls the data? What about the government? Software is not policy neutral! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 6
  16. 16. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  17. 17. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required 2. five intermediaries Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  18. 18. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required 2. five intermediaries 3. proprietary software: rewards lock-in through ”value-adding” Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  19. 19. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required 2. five intermediaries 3. proprietary software: rewards lock-in through ”value-adding” Proprietary model encourages monopolies, Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  20. 20. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required 2. five intermediaries 3. proprietary software: rewards lock-in through ”value-adding” Proprietary model encourages monopolies, proliferating into the hardware domain Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  21. 21. 3. Economic perspective 1. communication required 2. five intermediaries 3. proprietary software: rewards lock-in through ”value-adding” Proprietary model encourages monopolies, proliferating into the hardware domain Fraunhofer ISST study: > 50% of German industry > 80% of German exports depend on ICT! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 7
  22. 22. 4. Interoperability Interoperability is essential ”The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.” – IEEE Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 8
  23. 23. 4. Interoperability Interoperability is essential ”The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.” – IEEE European Interoperability Framework (EIF) http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3761 Interoperable Delivery of European eGovernment Services to public Administrations, Businesses and Citizens (IDABC) http://europa.eu.int/idabc/ Free Software observatory to encourage the spread and use of Best Practices in Europe Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 8
  24. 24. 5. Open Standards EIF Open Standard Definition http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3761 The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.). The standard has been published and the standard specification document is available either freely or at a nominal charge. It must be permissible to all to copy, distribute, and use it for no fee or at a nominal fee. The intellectual property - i.e. patents possibly present - of (parts of) the standard is made irrevocably available on a royalty-free basis. Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 9
  25. 25. 5. Open Standards EIF Open Standard Definition http://europa.eu.int/idabc/en/document/3761 The standard is adopted and will be maintained by a not-for-profit organisation, and its ongoing development occurs on the basis of an open decision-making procedure available to all interested parties (consensus or majority decision etc.). The standard has been published and the standard specification document is available either freely or at a nominal charge. It must be permissible to all to copy, distribute, and use it for no fee or at a nominal fee. The intellectual property - i.e. patents possibly present - of (parts of) the standard is made irrevocably available on a royalty-free basis. More standards = less competition! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 9
  26. 26. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  27. 27. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  28. 28. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market stops participating in standardisation Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  29. 29. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market stops participating in standardisation modifies protocol, claims ”IPR” Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  30. 30. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market stops participating in standardisation modifies protocol, claims ”IPR” locks Novell out of the client by cryptography Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  31. 31. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market stops participating in standardisation modifies protocol, claims ”IPR” locks Novell out of the client by cryptography pushes desktop monopoly to server Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  32. 32. 6. History of an Open Standard... ...from the Workgroup Server Market Novell was the dominant player, so Microsoft launches Open Standard effort around CIFS gains foothold in the market stops participating in standardisation modifies protocol, claims ”IPR” locks Novell out of the client by cryptography pushes desktop monopoly to server Result: EU antitrust case Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 10
  33. 33. 7. Government Governments must be accessible to all, so Governments using proprietary technology lose control over decisions and data spread monopoly at cost of local economy force population into similar dependency transfer economic power out of country Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 11
  34. 34. 7. Government Governments must be accessible to all, so Governments using proprietary technology lose control over decisions and data spread monopoly at cost of local economy force population into similar dependency transfer economic power out of country Conflict: It is the responsibility of governments to protect freedom of competition! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 11
  35. 35. 8. Principles for Interoperability Problems: More standards mean less competition Proprietary formats cause loss of data control Format lock-in causes software lock-in Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 12
  36. 36. 8. Principles for Interoperability Problems: More standards mean less competition Proprietary formats cause loss of data control Format lock-in causes software lock-in Solutions: Choose only the most Open Standard per function Mandate use of that Open Standard in government Necessity to quantify the lock-in, e.g. Certified Open Certification of interoperability http://www.certifiedopen.com Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 12
  37. 37. 9. Summary Interoperability is essential to Free Competition depends on Open Standards Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 13
  38. 38. 9. Summary Interoperability is essential to Free Competition depends on Open Standards Open Standards need active work & maintenance require vigilance against abuse Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 13
  39. 39. 9. Summary Interoperability is essential to Free Competition depends on Open Standards Open Standards need active work & maintenance require vigilance against abuse Free Software != Open Standards Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 13
  40. 40. 9. Summary Interoperability is essential to Free Competition depends on Open Standards Open Standards need active work & maintenance require vigilance against abuse Free Software != Open Standards but is solves many of the difficult issues! Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 13
  41. 41. 9. Summary Interoperability is essential to Free Competition depends on Open Standards Open Standards need active work & maintenance require vigilance against abuse Free Software != Open Standards but is solves many of the difficult issues! Ultimately, you want both. Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 13
  42. 42. Contact Thank you for your attention! Georg C. F. Greve <greve@fsfeurope.org> FSFE, President Free Software Foundation Europe Sumatrastrasse 25 8006 Z¨rich u Switzerland http://fsfeurope.org Free Software in Government– 21 August 2007 – Library of Congress, Valparaiso, Chile – p. 14

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