Ch17 a

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  • Ch17 a

    1. 1. Environmental Hazards and Human Health Chapter 17
    2. 2. Risk Assessment and Risk Management• Process of Risk Assessment • 1. Hazard identification • 2. Dose-response assessment • 3. Exposure assessment • 4. Risk Characterization
    3. 3. Risk Assessment and Risk Management• Risk Management • cost analysis of remediating specific hazard • establishing legal limits for discharge, exposure, and allowable levels of the hazards • EPA makes recommendation. But only the Congress can make the recommendation into law.
    4. 4. Types of Hazards• Biological• Chemical• Physical• Cultural
    5. 5. Biological Hazards• Non-transmissible diseases • slow development • cardiovascular diseases, most cancers, asthma, diabetes, malnutrition• Infectious diseases • A pathogen (bacterium, virus, or parasite) invades the body and multiplies in its cells and tissues • Diseases can be transmitted from one person to another. • flu, HIV, malaria, tuberculosis
    6. 6. Epidemic vs. Pandemic• Epidemic • an outbreak of an infectious disease that is limited to one area or region• Pandemic • an infectious disease spreads globally
    7. 7. Diseases to Know• Influenza • Common flu, avian influenza (H5N1), and Swine influenza (H1N1)• HIV• Malaria• Diarrheal diseases• Tuberculosis (TB)• Hepatitis B• Measles• Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)• West Nile Virus
    8. 8. Chemical Hazards• Toxic chemicals • Persistence • Solubility • Biomagnification
    9. 9. Dose-Response Curve• LD 50 • Median lethal dosage• “response” • negative health effect
    10. 10. Types of Chemicals that lead to chemical hazards• Carcinogen• Mutagen• Teratogens• Some chemicals can cause severe damage to human immune system, nervous system, and endocrine system
    11. 11. Some Common Chemical Toxins• PCBs • used as electrical insulators, fire retardant materials, pesticides, and as adhesives (banned in the U.S.) • neurotoxin causing brain damage in fetuses • endocrine disruptor causing reproductive
    12. 12. Some Common Chemical Toxins• Mercury (cont’d) • Mercury is found in batteries and fluorescent lights. • Inorganic mercury released from coal burning is converted to toxic methylmercury by bacteria. • Enters the food chain and biomagnify
    13. 13. Some Common Chemical Toxins• Benzene • Source: emission from burning coal and oil and tobacco smoke • short-term exposure: dizziness and nausea • long-term exposure: damage to the liver and reproductive system, cancer, and
    14. 14. Some Common Chemical Toxins• DDT, PCBs, and phthalates • DDT: banned in the U.S. in 1972; but still used in developing countries to control malaria and pests • phthalates: used in the production of plastics • They are known as HAA: Hormonally
    15. 15. Legislation to Regulate Chemical Toxins• FIFRA: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act • Authorize EPA to regulate the sale, packaging, distributing, and disposal of pesticides • May suspend the use of pesticides that are found to pose unreasonable risks to human or wildlife
    16. 16. Legislation to Regulate Chemical Toxins• Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 • Outlined requirements for assessing tolerance levels for pesticides • Provides extra funding for the protection of infant and children• Emergency Planning and Community Right- to-Know Act (or simply Right-to-Know
    17. 17. Cultural Hazards• Poverty • greatest risk in developing countries • increases the chance of being exposed to infectious disease from living in crowded conditions with inadequate availability to sanitary conditions including clean drinking water
    18. 18. Cultural Hazards• In developed countries... • reduce risk of death by avoiding smoking, improving eating habits, getting adequate exercise, and limiting alcohol intake, practicing safe sex

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