BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CUBA

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BIOTECHNOLOGY AND CUBA

  1. 1. BIO TECHNOLOGY AND CUBA …… GROUP 7 SOURAV AICH UMAKANT GUPTA WASIM MUKKARAM PRIYA SHARMA AMOL DEOKAR SOUMADEEP DAKSHY
  2. 2. CUBA <ul><li>THE BIGGEST ISLAND IN THE CARIBBEAN </li></ul><ul><li>PREVIOUSLY AN ECONOMIC COLONY OF THE U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>THE HOME OF THE HAVANA CIGAR </li></ul><ul><li>LED BY THE CHARISMATIC FIDEL CASTRO </li></ul><ul><li>THE LAND OF DR. ERNESTO “CHE” GUEVARA </li></ul><ul><li>THE SHRINE OF SOCIALISM </li></ul>
  3. 3. PREVIOUSLY … <ul><li>FULGENCIO BATISTA, STRONGMAN OF THE &quot;SERGEANTS' REVOLT'' OF 1933, HAD RULED CUBA DE FACTO FOR 20 YEARS </li></ul><ul><li>HE WAS LOSING IN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS WHEN HE STAGED A MILITARY COUP ON MARCH 10, 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>AS PRESIDENT HE OPERATED AS THE STEWARD OF </li></ul><ul><li>SUGAR BARONS </li></ul><ul><li>BANKS </li></ul><ul><li>GAMBLING SYNDICATES </li></ul><ul><li>CORPORATE INTERESTS OF NORTH AMERICA. </li></ul><ul><li>ANSWERING ANY OPPOSITION WITH </li></ul><ul><li>ASSASSINATION </li></ul><ul><li>BREAKING STRIKES </li></ul><ul><li>MACHINE-GUN FIRE </li></ul><ul><li>USED REPRESSION TO MAINTAIN THE MASSIVE EXPLOITATION OF SUGAR WORKERS, FARMERS AND WOMEN </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA’S PEOPLE BECAME POORER AND CUBA WAS BEING TURNED INTO A PLAYGROUND FOR THE U.S. RICH </li></ul>
  4. 4. THE FIDEL-CHE WAY <ul><li>FIDEL CASTRO ALONG WITH CHE GUEVARA WERE THE ICONIC REVOLUTIONARIES, WHO GOT CUBA HER FREEDOM BACK </li></ul><ul><li>FIDEL GATHERED A GROUP OF YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN TO RESTORE DEMOCRACY TO CUBA </li></ul><ul><li>THE PLAN AND IT’S EXECUTION </li></ul><ul><li>LAUNCH AN ARMED ATTACK ON THE MONCADA BARRACKS </li></ul><ul><li>ON JULY 26, 1953, 125 MEN AND WOMEN LAUNCHED AN ATTACK ON THE BARRACKS AT 5.15AM </li></ul><ul><li>95% OF THE CASUALTIES CAME FROM THE ARMY'S BRUTALITY AGAINST CAPTURED REVOLUTIONARIES </li></ul><ul><li>FIDEL GOT AWAY WITH ABOUT 18 OTHERS </li></ul><ul><li>THREE YEARS LATER </li></ul><ul><li>FIDEL LED A SMALL BAND FROM EXILE IN MEXICO AND RESUMED THE MILITARY STRUGGLE. </li></ul><ul><li>FIVE YEARS, FIVE MONTHS AND FIVE DAYS AFTER THE ATTACK ON THE BARRACKS, BATISTA WAS FORCED TO FLEE CUBA </li></ul>
  5. 5. SINCE THE VICTORY OF THE CUBAN REVOLUTION … <ul><li>CUBA HAS BEEN UNDER CONSTANT TERRORIST ATTACK FROM THE U.S. CIA AND THE CUBAN REACTIONARIES IN MIAMI </li></ul><ul><li>THE BAY OF PIGS - CIA SPONSORED INVASION </li></ul><ul><li>SANCTIONS. NOW THE HELMS - BURTON ACT </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORIST ATTACKS ON CUBANA AIRLINES </li></ul><ul><li>TERRORIST ATTACKS ON TOURIST HOTELS IN CUBA </li></ul><ul><li>MULTIPLE ATTEMPTS TO ASSASSINATE CASTRO </li></ul>
  6. 6. STANDING TALL … <ul><li>DESPITE ALL THE ATTACKS CUBA HAS ACHIEVED GREAT HEIGHTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN PUBLIC HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>IN FOOD SECURITY </li></ul><ul><li>IN BIOTECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>IN HUMANITARIAN AID TO DEVELOPING NATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>IN EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS OF THESE NATIONS </li></ul>
  7. 7. U.S.A PLAYING THE BIG BAD BULLY … <ul><li>AFTER THE SUCCESSFUL REVOLUTION IN 1959, CUBA'S NEW LEADERSHIP WAS CONFRONTED WITH AN OPEN ECONOMY PREDOMINANTLY DEPENDING ON THE U.S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>MORE THAN HALF OF THE BEST AGRICULTURAL LAND WAS OWNED BY THE U.S. UNITED FRUIT COMPANY </li></ul><ul><li>AFTER THE BAY OF PIGS INVASION IN APRIL 1961 THAT THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT TRIED TO INCREASE ITS CONTROL OVER THE ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>THE US GOVERNMENT REACTED TO THE NEW SOCIALIST REGIME </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1964, J.F.K. THE ‘THEN’ PRESIDENT OF U.S.A. IMPOSED AN EMBARGO ON CUBA THAT INCLUDED FOOD AND MEDICINE (NOW THE U.S.A. HELMS-BURTON ACT) </li></ul><ul><li>THIS ENDANGERED THE HEALTH CARE SYSTEM OF CUBA </li></ul><ul><li>AS A CONSEQUENCE, CUBA HAD TO LOOK FOR NEW MARKETS FOR ITS MAIN EXPORT PRODUCT, SUGAR AND IMPORT PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>DUE TO THE U.S. EMBARGO CUBA HAD TO TAKE HELP FROM USSR FOR PHARMACEUTICAL AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1964 THE USSR SIGNED A CONTRACT WITH CUBA </li></ul><ul><li>THE USSR BOUGHT SUGAR FROM CUBA AT 5 TIMES LESS THE MARKET PRICE </li></ul><ul><li>THE USSR GAVE OIL IN EXCHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>FOR 30 LONG YEARS (1959 – 1989) 85% OF CUBA’S SUGAR TRADE WAS ONLY WIT THE USSR </li></ul><ul><li>IN 1989 CUBA BECOME A MEMBER OF THE ‘EAST EUROPEAN COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE (COMECON) </li></ul><ul><li>THE GRADUAL INTEGRATION OF ITS ECONOMY INTO COMECON FIVE-YEAR PRODUCTION ALLOCATION PLANS STIMULATED CUBA'S COMPLETE CHANGE­OVER TO A CENTRALLY PLANNED ECONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENTLY, THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY IN CUBA TOOK PLACE IN THE FRAMEWORK OF A CENTRALLY PLANNED ECONOMY </li></ul>THE COMRADES FROM USSR HELPS …
  9. 9. BETWEEN THE HAMMER AND THE ANVIL … <ul><li>FROM 1988 ONWARDS, CUBA'S ECONOMIC RELATIONS WITH THE EASTERN BLOCK COUNTRIES DETERIORATED </li></ul><ul><li>THE ABOLITION OF THE COMECON IN 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE USSR IN DECEMBER 1991 </li></ul>
  10. 10. THE SPOILS OF THE COLD WAR … <ul><li>THE DISINTEGRATION OF THE USSR IN DECEMBER 1991 DEFINITELY REVEALED THE VULNERABILITY OF CUBA'S DEVELOPMENT MODEL </li></ul><ul><li>ITS ECONOMY WAS BASED PREDOMINANTLY ON THE MONOCULTURE OF SUGAR CANE </li></ul><ul><li>DEPENDED ON A HEAVY, ENERGY INTENSIVE INDUSTRY AND A LARGE-SCALE, MECHANIZED AGRICULTURE </li></ul><ul><li>INPUTS, SUCH AS FUEL, FERTILIZERS, PESTICIDES AND HERBICIDES WERE IMPORTED MAINLY FROM THE COMECON COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>BETWEEN 1989-92 DUE TO THE LOSS OF ECONOMIC SUPPORT AND FAVOURABLE TRADE CONDITIONS WITH THE COMECON COUNTRIES </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA'S NATIONAL INCOME DROPPED BY AN ESTIMATED 45% </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA’S IMPORT OF FOOD DECREASED BY MORE THAN 30% </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA LOST ITS CREDIT RESOURCES </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA LOST 80 % OF ITS TRADE MARKET </li></ul><ul><li>CUBA LOST 50% OF ITS OIL DELIVERIES </li></ul><ul><li>LACK OF SPARE PARTS AND INPUTS FOR THE SUGAR SECTOR CAUSED A DRAMATIC DROP IN THE ANNUAL RAW SUGAR PRODUCTION FROM AN AVERAGE 7 MILLION TONNES TO 5.2 MILLION TONNES </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASING UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, CAUSED BY CLOSING INEFFICIENT FACTORIES </li></ul><ul><li>FREE EDUCATION SUFFERS FROM A LACK OF PAPER AND BOOKS </li></ul><ul><li>FREE HEALTH CARE EXPERIENCES A DECREASING AVAILABILITY OF MEDICINES </li></ul><ul><li>DISTRIBUTION OF BASIC FOOD PRODUCTS IS IMPEDED BY A LACK OF IMPORTED FOODSTUFFS </li></ul>
  11. 11. SPECIAL PERIOD IN PEACETIME <ul><li>THE CUBAN ECONOMY HAD A DECLINE IN GDP OF AT LEAST 35 PERCENT BETWEEN 1989 AND 1993 DUE TO THE LOSS OF 80 PERCENT OF ITS TRADING PARTNERS. INSTEAD OF SUCCUMBING TO THE CRISIS THE GOVERNMENT UNDERTOOK SEVERAL REFORMS IN RECENT YEARS TO STEM EXCESS LIQUIDITY </li></ul><ul><li>THREE ECONOMIC SECTORS WERE CHOSEN FOR PRIORITY INVESTMENTS </li></ul><ul><li>BIOTECHNOLOGY, TOURISM AND AGAIN SUGAR. </li></ul><ul><li>THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOTECHNOLOGY AIMED AT </li></ul><ul><li>IMPORT SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>THE CREATION OF NEW EXPORT PRODUCTS </li></ul><ul><li>SUPPORTING THE NATIONAL FOOD PROGRAMME (NFP) </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE LABOUR INCENTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>ALLEVIATE SERIOUS SHORTAGES OF FOOD, CONSUMER GOODS AND SERVICES. </li></ul><ul><li>TO ALLEVIATE THE ECONOMIC CRISIS, THE GOVERNMENT INTRODUCED A FEW MARKET ORIENTED REFORMS ALLOWING FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND LEGALIZING THE LEGALIZING THE US DOLLAR </li></ul><ul><li>AUTHORIZING SELF-EMPLOYMENT FOR SOME 150 OCCUPATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>THESE MEASURES RESULTED IN MODEST ECONOMIC GROWTH </li></ul>
  12. 12. FIDEL AND CHE’S VISION <ul><li>EVERY CITIZEN OF CUBA WOULD BE ENTITLED TO FREE HEALTH CARE [ARTICLE 49 – NEW CUBA CONSTITUTION] </li></ul><ul><li>THEIR VISION WAS NOT ONLY TO PROVIDE FREE HEALTH CARE BUT ALSO TO DEVELOP AN INTELLECTUAL CAPITAL THAT COULD BE CONVERTED INTO FUTURE TANGIBLE MONETARY BENEFITS THROUGH TRADE AND AID </li></ul>
  13. 13. EMERGENCE OF BIO-TECH IN CUBA <ul><li>FROM THE START OF THE REVOLUTION, CUBA'S LEADERSHIP EMPHASIZED SCIENCE AS THE IMPORTANT BASIS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT </li></ul><ul><li>AS IN MANY OTHER 'SOCIALIST' DEVELOPING COUNTRIES, CUBA ALSO TURNED TO SCIENCE AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIETAL TRANSFORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>SCIENCE WAS EXPECTED TO PROVIDE RATIONAL MEANS TO ACHIEVE DEVELOPMENT GOALS WHICH WOULD LEGITIMATIZE THE REGIME </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE 1980S THE CUBAN GOVERNMENT LAUNCHED A SERIES OF PROGRAMMES AIMED AT APPLYING BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE HEALTH CARE SECTOR </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEW BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ENDEAVORS WERE EXPECTED TO </li></ul><ul><li>FACILITATE PRODUCT DIVERSIFICATION AND IMPORT SUBSTITUTION </li></ul><ul><li>OFFER THE CONDITIONS FOR A COHERENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>HELP FORM AN INTRINSIC PART OF THEIR ECONOMIC STRATEGY </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP HIGHLY QUALIFIED PERSONNEL AND THEIR CHANNELING TO PRIORITY SECTORS </li></ul><ul><li>IDEALISE LONG-TERM CENTRAL PLANNING OF R&D ACTIVITIES, IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOCIO­ECONOMIC POLICY </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOP THE EDUCATIONAL SECTOR AND THE HEALTH CARE SECTOR, OF WHICH THE QUALITY AND ACCESSIBILITY INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY </li></ul><ul><li>RESULT IN A LARGE RESERVOIR OF SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL SPECIALIZED IN BIOCHEMISTRY AND MICROBIOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>ESTABLISH A BIOPHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY </li></ul><ul><li>CREATE OF AN INTERNAL DEMAND FOR BIOTECHNOLOGY AND DEVELOPED PRODUCTS </li></ul>
  14. 14. GENESIS <ul><li>1961 REORGANISATION OF CUBAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (FOUNDED IN 1861) </li></ul><ul><li>13 INSTITUTES WERE ESTABLISHED WITHIN A YEARS UNDER THE CUBAN MINISTRY OF HEALTH </li></ul><ul><li>CUBAN INSTITUTE FOR RESEARCH ON SUGARCANE DERIVATIVES(ICIDCA) </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH(CENIC) </li></ul><ul><li>1981 DENGUE FEVER EPIDEMIC. PROF RANDOLPH LEE CLARK’S SUGGESTION ABOUT ‘INTERFERON’ IN COMBATING VIRAL ATTACKS </li></ul><ul><li>1986 THE SUCCESS OF ‘INTERFERONS’ GAVE FURTHER IMPETUS TO RESEARCH IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY & GENETIC ENGINEERING LEADING TO THE FORMATION OF CIGB </li></ul>
  15. 15. THE FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR THESE DEVELOPMENTS <ul><li>CUBA HAS RECEIVED SUBSTANTIAL INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT TO DEVELOP ITS BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE FORM OF </li></ul><ul><li>TRAINING </li></ul><ul><li>KNOWLEDGE </li></ul><ul><li>TECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>STUDENTS AND SPECIALISTS WERE EDUCATED AND TRAINED IN THE USA, FRANCE, JAPAN, SWITZERLAND, CANADA, MEXICO, ENGLAND, FORMER USSR AND EAST GERMANY, AND FINLAND </li></ul>
  16. 16. CENTRE FOR GENETIC ENGINEERING & BIOTECHNOLOGY (CIGB) <ul><li>CIGB HAS A NETWORK OF INSTITUTES INVOLVED IN RESEARCH SOME OF WHICH ARE </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRE FOR MOLECULAR IMMUNOLOGY (CIM) – CANCER AND PHARMACEUTICALS </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL BIO PREPARATIONS CENTRE – PRODUCTION OF HEPATITIS B VACCINES </li></ul><ul><li>FINLAY INSTITUTE – PRODUCTION OF MENINGOCOCCAL B VACCINES </li></ul><ul><li>NATIONAL CENTRE FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LABORATORY ANIMALS – PRODUCTION OF ANIMALS FOR RESEARCH </li></ul>
  17. 17. LEADING PRODUCTS OF CIGB DRUG BRAND NAME HEPATITIS B VACCINE RECOMBINANT ALPHA 2B INTERFERON RECOMBINANT STREPTOKINASE INTERFERON GAMMA EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECOMBINANT GSCF VACCINE FOR CONTROL OF CATTLE TICK HEBERVIOCAC-HB HEBERON ALPHA R HEBERKINASE HEBERON GAMMA HEBERMIN HEBERVITAL GAVAC
  18. 18. MILESTONES <ul><li>VAMENGOCBC – VACCINE FOR MENINGITIS B </li></ul><ul><li>[EXPORT CONTRACT WITH BRAZIL WORTH $80 MILLION] </li></ul><ul><li>1991 – HERBER BIOTEC S.A. WAS ESTABLISHED TO MARKET AROUND 160 PRODUCTS SOME OF WHICH ARE </li></ul><ul><li>HEPATITIS B VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>HUMAN ALPHA INTERFERON </li></ul><ul><li>CATTLE TICK VACCINE [ SALES OVER $290 MILLION A YEAR] </li></ul><ul><li>THE U.S. EMBARGO STRANGLED CUBA FURTHER BY ENCOMPASSING ALL EXPORTS THAT COULD AID BIOTECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>FOCUS SOON SHIFTED FROM BIOTECHNOLOGY TO TOURISM TO EARN FOREIGN EXCHANGE </li></ul><ul><li>INVESTMENTS IN BIO TECHNOLOGY DROPPED SOON </li></ul><ul><li>DUE TO THE FOREIGN CURRENCY CRUNCH FOCUS AGAIN SHIFTED BACK TO BIOTECHNOLOGY </li></ul><ul><li>TO THE CENTRALLY PLANNED ECONOMY ELEMENTS OF MIXED ECONOMY WERE INTRODUCED </li></ul><ul><li>THE NEW PRODUCTS OF BIOTECHNOLOGY INCLUDED </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT HEPATITIS B VACCINE </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT STREPTOKINASE [ANTI COAGULANT FOR BREAKING UP CLOTS IN HEART ATTACK VICTIMS] </li></ul><ul><li>ERG3MAB [ANTI CANCER DRUG THAT REVOLUTIONIZED CANCER TREATMENT] </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF RECOMBINANT MENINGITIS B VACCINE [FIRST OF ITS KIND] </li></ul><ul><li>HIV - AIDS AND HEPATITIS DETECTION KIT </li></ul>
  19. 19. NATIONAL FOOD PROGRAMME … <ul><li>ENHANCEMENT OF FOOD PRODUCTION AND THE NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF FOOD </li></ul><ul><li>INCREASE AGRICULTURAL YIELDS PER YEAR </li></ul><ul><li>RESISTANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS AND DISEASES </li></ul><ul><li>INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEINS (SCP) FROM MOLASSES, A SUGAR CANE BY­PRODUCT </li></ul><ul><li>PRODUCTION OF BIOLOGICAL FERTILIZERS, HERBICIDES AND PESTICIDES </li></ul>
  20. 20. CUBA’S GDP GROWTH (1989-2005) <ul><li>SOURCES: CEPAL; EIU; CUBAN GOVERNMENT </li></ul>
  21. 21. THE CURRENT CUBAN ECONOMY <ul><li>GOOD ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN THE LAST FEW YEARS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UNPRECEDENTED EARNINGS FROM EXPORTS OF MEDICAL AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES, PARTICULARLY TO VENEZUELA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EXPORTS OF G&S FROM $5.9 BILLION IN 2004 TO $8.7 BILLION IN 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIGHER REVENUES FROM TOURISM AND NICKEL EXPORTS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT ECONOMY NEGATIVELY AFFECTED BY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEVERE ENERGY CRISIS AND CONTINUING DROUGHT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TWO MAJOR HURRICANES IN 2005 CAUSING LOSSES OF ABOUT $2 BILLION </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>STRENGTHENING OF US SANCTIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>FUTURE ECONOMIC CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ ENERGY REVOLUTION” (SMALL ELECTRICITY GENERATION PLANTS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HOUSING PROGRAM (CONSTRUCTION) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IMPROVEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SECTOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FIGHT AGAINST “CORRUPTION AND ILLEGALITIES” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>REDUCING INCOME INEQUALITIES </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. THE SOCIALIST ACHIEVEMENTS ….. <ul><li>PROVIDED PUBLIC HEALTH FOR HER PEOPLE DESPITE STARTING AS POOR AND UNDERDEVELOPED </li></ul><ul><li>PROVIDED A BASIC DIET FOR HER PEOPLE DESPITE LACK OF PETROLEUM BASED FERTILIZERS AND PESTICIDES, ABSENCE OF FOREIGN EXCHANGE, AND U.S. BLOCKADE </li></ul><ul><li>DEVELOPED HIGH QUALITY BIOTECH AND MEDICAL RESEARCH PRODUCTS DESPITE U.S. BLOCKADE. </li></ul><ul><li>HELP OTHER COUNTRIES WITH MEDICAL AND EDUCATIONAL NEEDS TO AN EXTENT UNMATCHED ELSEWHERE </li></ul>
  23. 23. THANK YOU ……

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