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Electronic Configuration

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how to write electronic configuration of an atom
rules of filling electrons in energy levels
aufbau principle. hund's rule, Pauli's Exclusion principle

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Electronic Configuration

  1. 1. Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  2. 2. Relative Energies Of Orbits Energy of orbit increase with increase in value of Principal Quantum No. n=1<2<3<4<5<….∞ Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  3. 3. Relative Energies Of Orbitals Energy of atomic orbitals increase with increase in value of Azimuthal Quantum No. l = 0 (s), 1 (p), 2 (d), 3 (f) s<p<d<f Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  4. 4. n=7 7s 7p n=6 6s 6p 6d n=5 5s 5p 5d 5f n=4 4s 4p 4d 4f n=3 3s 3p 3d n=2 2s 2p n=1 1s l=0 l=1 l=2 l=3 Energy Sequence For Atomic Orbitals IncreasingEnergy Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  5. 5. Max Number Of Electrons In Orbitals ns2 np6 nd10 nf14 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  6. 6. (n+l) Rule i. “Orbitals with lowest value of (n+l) are filled first” ii. “If two orbitals have same value of (n+l), then electron will go in the orbital which have lowest value of n” Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  7. 7. Orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s n 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 l 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 (n+l ) 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 1s has lowest (n+l) value. So filling of electron starts from 1s Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  8. 8. Orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s n 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 l 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 (n+l ) 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 2p & 3s have same (n+l) value. But 2p is filled first due to lower n value Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  9. 9. Orbitals 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s n 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 l 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 (n+l ) 1 2 3 3 4 5 4 As per Rule 4s is filled before 3d due to lower (n+l) value Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  10. 10. Energy Order By (n+l) Rule 3d 3p 3s n = 3 2p 2s n = 2 1sn = 1 4f 4d 4p 4s n = 4 IncreasingEnergy Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  11. 11. Rules for Filling Electron Orbitals • Aufbau Principle: Electrons are added in orbitals in order of increasing energy values. • Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two electrons in the same orbital can have the same values of four quantum numbers. • Hund’s Rule: Electrons occupy equal-energy orbitals so that a maximum number of unpaired electrons results. Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  12. 12. 4p 5p 6p Energy  Electrons fill the lowest energy orbitals first.  “Lazy Tenant Rule”  Aufbau is German for “building up” Aufbau Principle 1s 4s 7s 6s 5s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  13. 13. Pauli’s Exclusion Principle  An orbital can hold a maximum of two electrons.  To occupy the same orbital, two electrons must spin in opposite directions. Helium (He) Atomic Number (Z) = 2 1s2 (K shell) n l m s 1 0 0 +1/2 1 0 0 -1/2 For every set of electrons in an orbital, spin quantum no. is always different. Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  14. 14. Hund’s Rule  Within a sublevel, place one electron per orbital before pairing them.  “Empty Bus Seat Rule” Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  15. 15. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Hydrogen Z = 1 H = 1s1 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  16. 16. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 3d EnergyScale Helium Z = 2 He = 1s2 Pauli’s Exclusion Principle Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  17. 17. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Lithium Z = 3 Li = 1s2 2s1 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  18. 18. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Beryllium Z = 4 Be = 1s2 2s2 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  19. 19. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Boron Z = 5 B = 1s2 2s2 2p1 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  20. 20. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Carbon Z = 6 C = 1s2 2s2 2p2 Hund’s Rule Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  21. 21. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Nitrogen Z = 7 N = 1s2 2s2 2p3 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  22. 22. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Oxygen Z = 8 O = 1s2 2s2 2p4 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  23. 23. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Fluorine Z = 9 F = 1s2 2s2 2p5 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  24. 24. Electron Configuration N H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Neon Z = 10 Ne = 1s2 2s2 2p6 Noble Gas Configuration Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  25. 25. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Sodium Z = 11 Na = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 or [Ne] 3s1 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  26. 26. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Magnesium Z = 12 Mg = [Ne] 3s2 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  27. 27. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Aluminium Z = 13 Al = [Ne] 3s2 3p1 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  28. 28. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Silicon Si = 14 Si = [Ne] 3s2 3p2 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  29. 29. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Phosphorus P = 15 P = [Ne] 3s2 3p3 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  30. 30. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Sulphur S = 16 S = [Ne] 3s2 3p4 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  31. 31. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Chlorine Cl = 17 Cl = [Ne] 3s2 3p5 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  32. 32. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Argon Ar = 18 Ar = [Ne] 3s2 3p6 Noble Gas Configuration Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  33. 33. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Potassium K = 19 K = [Ar] 4s1 Aufbau Principle Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  34. 34. Electron Configuration N Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar K Ca Orbital Diagram 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s EnergyScale Calcium Ca = 20 Ca = [Ar] 4s2 Prepared By: Sidra Javed
  35. 35. Magnetic Properties Prepared By: Sidra Javed  Atoms with unpaired Electrons are called Paramagnetic.  These substance are attracted to a magnetic.  H, Na, Fe, etc  Atoms with paired electron are called Diamegnitc.  Dimagnetic substance are repelled by a magnet.  Pairing of electron is only possible with Opposite spins [↑↓]which cancels the magnetic fields.  He, O, Ne, Ca etc
  36. 36. Prepared By: Sidra Javed

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