Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Concentration units

5,362 views

Published on

Concentration is defined as the amount of solute dissolved in the given amount of solvent.

Published in: Education
  • You can hardly find a student who enjoys writing a college papers. Among all the other tasks they get assigned in college, writing essays is one of the most difficult assignments. Fortunately for students, there are many offers nowadays which help to make this process easier. The best service which can help you is ⇒ www.HelpWriting.net ⇐
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • This simple 7 second daily ritual was tested with a group of volunteers. In total 62 people, all suffering from varying levels of obesity. After ninety days the results were more incredible than any of them could have ever imagined… On average they lost 54 pounds of fat... They experienced increased energy… Better mood… Several of them could even see their abs for the first time ever… This simple 7 second ritual had actually worked on everyone! Regardless of how much they had to lose… Their metabolism… Their genetics… or their age. Click Here To Learn More ★★★ https://bit.ly/2XYSZo6
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Try This Simple 7 Second Daily Ritual For Yourself Here ▲▲▲ http://tinyurl.com/y46t9ja3
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • 7 Second Daily Ritual Melts Stubborn Fat While You Sleep ➣➣➣ http://tinyurl.com/y35qox2k
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Don't forget another good way of simplifying your writing is using external resources (such as ⇒ www.WritePaper.info ⇐ ). This will definitely make your life more easier
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Concentration units

  1. 1. Concentration Units Chapter # 10 Chemistry XI FDC Ms. Sidra Javed
  2. 2. Concentraion Amount of solute dissolved in given amount of solution
  3. 3. Units of concentration ◉Mass percent (%w/w) ◉Percent weight by volume (%w/v) ◉Percent volume by volume (%v/v) ◉Percent volume by weight (%v/w) ◉Molarity ◉Molality ◉Mole Fraction ◉Parts per million ◉Parts per billion ◉Parts per billion
  4. 4. Mass Percent 1
  5. 5. Mass percent ◉“ The mass of solute present in 100g of solution” ◉ Percent weight by weight - % w/w Mass percent = Grams of solute x 100 Grams of solution
  6. 6. Example 10.2: Calculate mass percent of a solution containing 10 g sugar dissolved in 100 g water. ◉Mass of sugar = 10 g ◉Mass of water = 100 g ◉Mass of solution = 10 g sugar + 100 g water = 110 g Mass percent = Grams of sugar x 100 Grams of solution Mass percent = 10 x 100 = 9.09% 110
  7. 7. Percent weight by volume 2
  8. 8. Percent Weight by Volume ◉“ The mass of a solute dissolved per 100 parts by volume of a solution is called %w/v” Percent w/v= Mass of solute (g) x 100 Volume of solution (cm3)
  9. 9. Percent volume by volume 3
  10. 10. Percent Volume by Volume ◉“The volume of a solute dissolved per 100 parts by volume of a solution is called %v/v” Percent v/v= Volume of solute (cm3) x 100 Volume of solution (cm3)
  11. 11. Percent volume by weight 4
  12. 12. Percent Volume by Weight ◉“The volume of a solute dissolved per 100 g of solution is called %v/w” Percent v/w= Volume of solute (cm3) x 100 Mass of solution (g)
  13. 13. Molarity or Molar concentration 5
  14. 14. Molarity (M) ◉“The number of moles of solute dissolved per dm3 of the solution” Molarity= moles of solute dm3 of solution Molarity= mass of solute Molar mass of solute x dm3 of solution
  15. 15. Example 10.3: What is the Molarity of 0.25 g of NaHCO3 in 100 cm3 of solution ◉Mass of NaHCO3 = 0.25 g ◉ molar mass of NaHCO3 = 84 g/mol ◉Volume of solution = 100 cm3 = 100/1000 = 0.1 dm3 Molarity= mass of solute Molar mass of solute x dm3 of solution Molarity= 0.25 = 0.0298 M 84 x 0.1
  16. 16. Molality or Molal concentration 6
  17. 17. Molality (m) ◉“The number of moles of solute dissolved per 1 Kg (1000g) of solvent” Molality= moles of solute kg of solution Molality= mass of solute Molar mass of solute x kg of solution
  18. 18. Example 10.4: Ethanol is an excellent solvent. It is used to prepare tinctures and in the extraction of medicinal compounds from plants. For this purpose either pure ethanol or its aqueous solutions are used. A solution is prepared by mixing 1.00 g of ethanol (C2H5OH) with 100 g of water. Calculate Molality of this solution.
  19. 19. Example 10.4: Solution
  20. 20. Molarity ◉Moles of solute/volume of solution in dm3 ◉Temperature dependent Temperature effect Molality ◉Moles of solute/Mass of solvent in kg ◉Temperature Independent
  21. 21. Temperature effect ◉As temperature is increase the amount of solute remains same but the volume of a solution increases slightly as liquid expands hence the Molarity decreases slightly due to inverse relation.
  22. 22. Mole Fraction 7
  23. 23. Mole Fraction (X) ◉“The ratio of the number of moles of a given component to the total number of moles of a solution” Mole Fraction of solute = X1 = n1 n1 + n2 Mole Fraction of solvent = X2 = n2 n1 + n2 X1+ X2 = 1
  24. 24. Example 10.5: An aqueous solution containing 100 g ethanol per dm3 of solution has a density of 0.99 g/cm3 . Calculate mole fraction of each component of solution.
  25. 25. Example 10.5: Continued..
  26. 26. Parts per million 8
  27. 27. Parts per million ◉“The number of parts by weight (or vol) of a solute per million parts by weight (or volume) of the solution” ppm = Mass or volume of solute x 106 Mass or volume of solution
  28. 28. Example 10.6: An atmospheric chemist reports that one dm3 of air in an urban are contained 3.5 x 10-4 cm3 of CO. what was the concentration of CO in ppm? ppm = Volume of CO in cm3 x 106 Volume of air in cm3 ppm = 3.5 x 10-4 cm x 106 103 cm3 ppm = 0.35 ppm
  29. 29. Parts per trillion 10
  30. 30. Parts per billion ◉“The number of parts by weight (or vol) of a solute per billion parts by weight (or volume) of the solution” ppb = Mass or volume of solute x 109 Mass or volume of solution
  31. 31. Example 10.7: If the concentration of ozone in atmosphere reaches 0.5 ppb. What mass of ozone be present per kg of air? ppb = Mass of ozone (g) x 109 Mass of air (g) 0.5 = Mass of ozone (g) x 109 1000(g) Mass of ozone = 0.5 x 1000 x 10-9 = 5x10-7 g
  32. 32. Parts per billion 9
  33. 33. Parts per trillion ◉“The number of parts by weight (or vol) of a solute per trillion parts by weight (or volume) of the solution” ppt = Mass or volume of solute x 1012 Mass or volume of solution
  34. 34. Inter Conversion of Various Concentration Units of Solution
  35. 35. Example 10.8: Calculate the Molality of 15% w/w glucose (C6H12O6) solution
  36. 36. Example 10.8: Continued..
  37. 37. Example 10.9: Sulfuric acid is known as king of chemicals. It is used in the manufacture if many chemicals, drugs, dyes, paints, disinfectants, explosives, synthetic fibers etc. It is prepared commercially by contact process and is normally 98% by weight. If its density is 1.84 gcm-3 , what is its Molarity?
  38. 38. Example 10.9: Solution
  39. 39. Example 10.9: Solution
  40. 40. Example 10.10: Commercial HCl is 12 molar (density = 1.17 gcm-3). Calculate the mass percent of HCl in this solution.
  41. 41. Example 10.10: Solution
  42. 42. Dilution To dilute a solution means to add more solvent without the addition of more solute.
  43. 43. Example 10.11: Sodium hydroxide solutions are used to neutralize acids, to treat cellulose in the preparation of rayon and to remove potato peels in commercial use. 250 cm3 of 2M NaOH is mixed with 250 cm3 of water. Calculate the Molarity of resulting solution.
  44. 44. Example 10.11 : Solution
  45. 45. THE END Any questions? You can find me at sidra.javedali@gmail.com

×