A Critical Review of Building Information Modelling

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A Critical Review of Building Information Modelling

  1. 1. A CRITICAL REVIEW OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELLING By Siddhartha Kamat
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives of the project </li></ul><ul><li>Literature Review </li></ul><ul><li>Industry Research and Market analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Indian Market </li></ul><ul><li>According to survey, INDIA is on the verge of becoming the 3rd largest construction market in the world by 2020 after USA and CHINA. </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign investments and economic growth policies are fuelling this trend </li></ul><ul><li>Application of software has taken a driver’s seat in every construction project </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers are being outsourced, especially in analysis, design and detailing </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>1. To carry out a research on BIM technology and its advantages. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To study the software tools available in the market which support BIM technology </li></ul><ul><li>3. To study the workflow of the processes from design to execution in BIM </li></ul><ul><li>4. To demonstrate the integration of all the software tools required to implement BIM through a small scale real-life example. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Objectives Contd. <ul><li>5. To model, analyse, design and estimate bill of materials for an example building using BIM technology. </li></ul><ul><li>6. To automate the exchange of data between model, structural analysis, design and detailing using spread sheets, structural analysis software and BIM software. </li></ul><ul><li>7. To study other utilities of BIM </li></ul>
  6. 6. Literature Review <ul><li>What is Building Information Modeling? </li></ul><ul><li>“ Building Information Modelling or BIM is a digital representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format.” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Literature Review Contd. <ul><li>Basic Terminologies </li></ul><ul><li>Building Information model </li></ul><ul><li>Parametric </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Interoperability </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Design </li></ul>
  8. 8. Literature Review Contd. <ul><li>Advantages of BIM </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-construction benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Design benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Construction and fabrication benefits </li></ul>
  9. 9. Literature Review Contd. <ul><li>Benefits to various stake holders </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Structural Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits to Estimators </li></ul>
  10. 10. Literature Review Contd. <ul><li>IFC file format </li></ul><ul><li>An intelligent file format </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The IFC format was originally developed by the International Alliance for Interoperability established in 1995 by American and European AEC (Architecture Engineering and Construction) firms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why IFC? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>preserve the full geometric description in 3D </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it also knows its location and relationships, as well as all the properties (or parameters) of each object </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Market Analysis <ul><li>List of software supporting BIM </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Structures </li></ul><ul><li>MEP </li></ul><ul><li>Construction </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Management </li></ul>
  12. 12. Case study- PCL (Canada & USA) [8] <ul><li>BIM advantages as estimated by the Company: </li></ul><ul><li>PCL is realizing roughly a 500 percent return on investment with BIM. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority of that payback is coming from clash-detection efforts that greatly reduce costly change orders. </li></ul><ul><li>The company have realized big return on low effort in the 4-D sector i.e: scheduling of the project using BIM. </li></ul><ul><li>BIM has helped the company avoid costly errors on a number of their projects. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Case study contd. <ul><li>While estimating quantity take-off, BIM check showed a difference of 70,000 cu. yards from the original take off of 100,000 cu.yards, thus saving them $3 million. </li></ul><ul><li>The combined effort required 560 man-hours, generating expenses well short of its total cost savings. </li></ul><ul><li>By layering the architectural, structural and MEP systems in BIM, the team discovered nearly 3,500 total clashes. Though only 500 of these clashes would have cost the company a lot of time in getting them clarified. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Industry Research <ul><li>Industry Research </li></ul><ul><li>Interaction with A. N Prakash, Project Management Consultant. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Reinforcement in junctions is not modeled properly hence it is difficult to execute on site” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Service shaft drawings are 2D hence it is difficult to visualize” </li></ul>
  15. 15. Industry Research Contd. <ul><li>Interaction with Site Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clashes in the building services with the structural members is the common problem on site” </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conventional Process Phases of typical Construction
  17. 17. Conventional Process Contd. Typical workflow in civil engineering projects in current practice
  18. 18. Problems with current practice <ul><li>Flow of Data </li></ul><ul><li>Improper schedule of work </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Estimate is tedious and not accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Digitalization of data is less </li></ul><ul><li>Mock up of part of the building </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement details in junctions </li></ul><ul><li>Energy analysis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Methodology Workflow
  20. 20. Discussion <ul><li>Model Description </li></ul><ul><li>General Details: </li></ul><ul><li>Title: Proposed Apartment for Shri. Ramesh Bonageri, Hubli </li></ul><ul><li>Design Consultants: Soham Architects and Interior Designers </li></ul><ul><li>Building Type: Residential-Ground (Parking)+3 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Flats: 5 Flats x 3 Floors= 15 Flats. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Flat: 2BHK </li></ul><ul><li>Floor to Floor Height: 10’ </li></ul><ul><li>Slab Thickness: 5” </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator: Yes </li></ul><ul><li>Staircase: Single Flight </li></ul>
  21. 21. Phases of Model <ul><ul><li>2D Plans of each floor (Hard Copy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3D geometry of Building (ArchiCAD Phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Elements (ArchiCAD/Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Load and analysis Model (STAAD.Pro Phase/ Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Design Model (Excel Phase) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Details (Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Phases of Model Contd. <ul><ul><li>3D geometry of Building (ArchiCAD Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Discrepancies in 2D Plan Clash of window and adjacent column: Exterior View
  24. 24. Discrepancies Contd. Beam in Service Shaft
  25. 25. Discrepancies Contd. Misplaced Beam
  26. 26. Drawings and Views North Elevation of the building North West Elevation of the Building
  27. 27. Rendered Model
  28. 28. Material Take-Off and Lists <ul><li>Creating Zones </li></ul>
  29. 29. List of 3 rd floor Zones
  30. 30. List of 3 rd floor Zones
  31. 31. Material Take-Off and Lists Slabs by Stories
  32. 32. Material Take-Off and Lists Slabs by Stories
  33. 33. Phases of Model Contd. <ul><ul><li>Structural Elements (ArchiCAD/Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Phases of Model Contd. Rigid links
  35. 35. Phases of Model Contd. <ul><ul><li>Load and analysis Model (STAAD.Pro Phase/ Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Phases of Model Contd. <ul><ul><li>Structural Design Model (Excel Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Phases of Model Contd. <ul><ul><li>Reinforcement Details (Tekla Phase) </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. DEMO
  39. 39. Drawbacks <ul><li>Complexity of BIM software </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Software </li></ul><ul><li>Information flow </li></ul>
  40. 40. Conclusion <ul><li>BIM is promising and more advantageous compared to the orthodox process, but still it has several setbacks as the technology is still in primitive stage. </li></ul><ul><li>A significant amount of development is to be done in information flow and interoperability of the software. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional training material is to be provided with software to learn the complicated features. </li></ul><ul><li>As the technology will advance, some of the setbacks may be overcome. For example IFC converter which is a macro in Tekla 16, is transformed as integral part in Tekla 17. </li></ul>
  41. 41. References <ul><li>Constructing the future China & India- solidiance brochure, http://www.solidiance.com/Admin/pdf/Constructing_the_future_China_&_India.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>William D. and McCarthy J. E. Product Life Cycle: “Essentials of Marketing”, Richard, D Irwin Company, 1997 http://www.urenio.org/tools/en/Product_Life_Cycle_Management.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>An introduction to Building Information Modelling( BIM)- A Guide for ASHRAE Members, http://todaysfacilitymanager.com/facilityblog/wp-content/uploads/bim_guide.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, 15 Mar 2009,http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industry_Foundation_Classes. </li></ul><ul><li>ArchiCAD - Tekla Structures, Model-Based Interoperability, by Graphicsoft, http://download.graphisoft.com/ftp/marketing/interoperability/tekla/ac-tekla-guide.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Excel </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Project </li></ul><ul><li>Mc Graw Hill Constructions: Smart market report december_2008 </li></ul>
  42. 42. Thank you

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