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Quality seed production

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Agricultural seed production

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Quality Seed Production
By
Dr. S. S. Jena
ASCO, Bolangir
Introduction
• Seed play an important role in any technology
embedding and we have to produce pure, quality,
resistant, healthy seeds for production of healthy food
to satisfy our needs.
• The main aim of seed production is to produce
genetically pure and good quality seed.
• Variety is a group of plants having clear distinguished
characters which when reproduced either sexually or
asexually retains these characters.
• The genetic purity of a variety is lost or deteriorated
during seed multiplication.
What is seed?
In broad sense
• Seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose.
scientifically
• Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is
called seed or it is a propagating material.
Technological point of view
• Seed is a fertilized ripened ovule consisting of three main parts namely
seed coat, endosperm and embryo, which in due course gives rise to a
new plant.
• It also refers to Propagating materials of healthy seedlings, tuber,
bulbs, rhizome, roots, cuttings, setts, all types of grafts and
vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose.
Seed Quality
• Seed quality is the sum of all properties contributing to seed
performance. The quality of seed can decide whether a
farmer’s crop will be good, bad or indifferent.
• Seed quality is determined by the following characteristics:
1. Physical Attributes
2. Physiological Attributes
3. Genetic Attributes
4. Storability
Seed Quality
1. Physical Attributes
 A minimum of damaged seed
 A minimal amount of weed seed or inert matter
 A minimum of diseased seed
 Near uniform seed size
2. Physiological Attributes
 Germination Percentage or Viability
The germination percentage or viability is an indicator of the
seed’s ability to emerge from the soil to produce a plant in the
field under normal conditions
 Seed Vigour
Seed vigour is the capacity of seed to emerge from the soil and
survive under potentially stressful field conditions and to grow
rapidly under favourable conditions
Seed Quality
3. Genetic Attributes
• Seed of the same variety
• Adapted to the local conditions
• Pest and disease tolerance
• High yielding ability
4. Storability
• Moisture content
• Temperature of the environment
• Seed treatment

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Quality seed production

  • 1. Quality Seed Production By Dr. S. S. Jena ASCO, Bolangir
  • 2. Introduction • Seed play an important role in any technology embedding and we have to produce pure, quality, resistant, healthy seeds for production of healthy food to satisfy our needs. • The main aim of seed production is to produce genetically pure and good quality seed. • Variety is a group of plants having clear distinguished characters which when reproduced either sexually or asexually retains these characters. • The genetic purity of a variety is lost or deteriorated during seed multiplication.
  • 3. What is seed? In broad sense • Seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose. scientifically • Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is called seed or it is a propagating material. Technological point of view • Seed is a fertilized ripened ovule consisting of three main parts namely seed coat, endosperm and embryo, which in due course gives rise to a new plant. • It also refers to Propagating materials of healthy seedlings, tuber, bulbs, rhizome, roots, cuttings, setts, all types of grafts and vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose.
  • 4. Seed Quality • Seed quality is the sum of all properties contributing to seed performance. The quality of seed can decide whether a farmer’s crop will be good, bad or indifferent. • Seed quality is determined by the following characteristics: 1. Physical Attributes 2. Physiological Attributes 3. Genetic Attributes 4. Storability
  • 5. Seed Quality 1. Physical Attributes  A minimum of damaged seed  A minimal amount of weed seed or inert matter  A minimum of diseased seed  Near uniform seed size 2. Physiological Attributes  Germination Percentage or Viability The germination percentage or viability is an indicator of the seed’s ability to emerge from the soil to produce a plant in the field under normal conditions  Seed Vigour Seed vigour is the capacity of seed to emerge from the soil and survive under potentially stressful field conditions and to grow rapidly under favourable conditions
  • 6. Seed Quality 3. Genetic Attributes • Seed of the same variety • Adapted to the local conditions • Pest and disease tolerance • High yielding ability 4. Storability • Moisture content • Temperature of the environment • Seed treatment
  • 7. Deterioration of variety The several factors that are responsible for loss of genetic purity during seed production as listed by kadam (1942) are: 1. Developmental variation 2. Mechanical mixture 3. Mutation 4. Natural Crossing 5. Genetic drift 6. Minor Genetic Variation 7. Selective Influence of Diseases 8. The Techniques of the Plant Breeder 9. Breakdown of male sterility 10. Improper / defective seed certification System
  • 8. 1. DevelopmentalVariations Arise when seeds are grown in: • Difficult environment • Different soil & fertility conditions • Different climatic conditions • Different photo-periods • Different elevations For several consecutive generations • Solution: Grow them in their areas of adaptation & growing season.
  • 9. 2. MechanicalMixtures Most important source of variety deterioration • Take place: • At sowing time if more than 1 variety is sown with same drill • During harvesting & threshing operations. • Gunny bags, seed bins, elevators etc are contaminated with seeds of other varieties. • Solution:  Rogue the seed fields  Care during seed production, harvesting, threshing & further handling.
  • 10. 3. Mutations • Not a serious factor. • Difficult to detect minor mutations. Solution: • Remove mutant plant • Increase of true to type stock eliminate the problem
  • 11. 4. NaturalCrossing • Most important source of deterioration • The deterioration in variety due to natural crossing occurs due to the following 3 reasons:- • Natural crossing with undesirable type. • Natural crossing with diseased plant • Natural crossing with off-type plants • In self fertilized crops, natural crossing is not a serious source of contamination & variety deterioration unless: • The variety is male sterile • Grown in close proximity to other varieties.
  • 12. • But in Cross fertilized crops, natural crossing is the major source of genetic contamination. • Genetic contamination in seed fields due to natural crossing depends upon the following factors: • The breeding system of species • Isolation distance • Varietal mass • Pollinating agent Solution: • Isolation between plantation. • Small amounts of contamination over wide distances.
  • 13. 5. Geneticdrift • When seed is multiplied in large areas only small quantities of seed is taken and preserved for the next years sowing. • Because of such improper sub-sampling all the genotypes will not be represented in the next generation and leads to change in genetic composition. This is called as genetic drift.
  • 14. 6. Minor GeneticVariation • Exist in the phenotypically uniform & homogenous varieties at the time of their release. • When it goes under seed production selective environment pressure has been removed and starts to show the changes and may finally affects the yield. • Solution: • Yield trials of lines propagated from plants of breeder’s seed in the maintenance of self fertilized crop varieties. • Care during maintenance of nucleus & breeder’s seed is necessary.
  • 15. 7. SelectiveInfluence of Disease • New crop varieties often become susceptible to new races of diseases • Vegetatively propagated stocks deteriorate • Solution: • During seed production it is very necessary to produce disease free seeds/stocks.
  • 16. 8. Techniquesof plant Breeder • Premature release of variety • Variety testing program • Break down in male sterility • Environmental conditions • Heritable variation • Solution: • Careful handling and adaptation of techniques
  • 17. 9. Breakdownof male sterility • Generally in hybrid seed production if there is any breakdown of male sterility it may lead to a mixture of F1 hybrids and selfers. 10. Improperseedcertification • It is not a factor that deteriorates the crops varieties, but is there is any lacuna in any of the above factors and if it has not been checked it may lead to deterioration of crop varieties.
  • 18. Maintenance of Genetic Purity During Seed Production  Use of approved seed only in seed multiplication.  Inspection & approval of fields prior to planting.  Field inspection & approval of growing crops at critical stages for verification of genetic purity, detection of mixtures, weeds and for freedom from noxious weeds & seed borne disease Etc.  Sampling & sealing of cleaned lots.  Growing of samples of potentially approved stocks for comparison with authentic stocks.
  • 19.  Providing adequate isolation to prevent contamination by natural crossing or mechanical mixtures.  Roguing of seed fields prior to the stage at which they could contaminate the seed crop  Periodic testing of varieties for genetic purity.  Avoiding genetic shifts by growing crops in areas of their adaptation only.  Certification of seed crops to maintain genetic purity & quality of seed.  Adopting the generation system  Grow out test.
  • 20. A) GENERATION SYSTEM • Seed production is restricted to four generations only. • Starting from breeder’s seed, the seed can only be multiplied up-to 3 more generations: i.e. Foundation, Registered & certified
  • 21. Important safeguards for maintaining genetic purity during seed production 1. Control of seed source 2. Preceding crop requirements 3. Isolation 4. Rouging of seed fields 5. Seed certification 6. Grow-out test
  • 22. 1) Control of seed source • Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies (AOSCA) recommended 4 classes of seeds 1. Breeder’s Seed 2. Foundation Seed 3. Registered Seed 4. Certified Seed
  • 23. • Breeder’s Seed: • Directly controlled by the original breeder, sponsoring breeder or institution and which provides for the initial & recurring increase of foundation seed. • Foundation Seed: • Include seed stock so handled as to most nearly maintain specific genetic identity & purity and that may be designated of distributed by an agricultural experiment station. • It is the source of all certified seeds, either directly or through registered seed
  • 24. • Registered Seed: • It is progeny of foundation or registered seed • It is so handled as to maintain satisfactory genetic identity & purity and that has been approved and certified by a certifying agency. • This class of seed should be of a quality suitable for production of certified seed • Certified Seed: • It is progeny of foundation, registered or certified seed that is so handled to maintain satisfactory genetic identity & purity and that has been approved & certified by certifying agency.
  • 25. 2) Preceding Crop Requirements: • In the field where seed production of any crop is to be taken the same crop could not be grown in previous season. • Fixed to avoid contamination through volunteer plants & also the soil borne diseases
  • 26. 3) Isolation • Keeping the seed production plots apart from fields of the same crop to avoid the risk of contamination by pollen from the neighbouring fields. • Isolation between seed plots can be effected by distances (spatial isolation) or time (temporal isolation). a. Spatial isolation: • Isolation from Natural contamination: (cross pollination) • Higher the class of seed wider the distance (BS V/s FS) • In hybrid seed production distance is wider than that of varietal seed production.
  • 27. Cont. b. Temporal isolation • Crop of seed production should be sown early or late by a margin of 15-20 days than neighboring fields of same or other variety to prevent entry of foreign pollens in the field of seed production. c. Physical barrier • In surrounding of seed production plot particularly on bunds densely planted and well heighted plants should be grown to prevent entry of foreign pollens to the seed production crops. • Other contamination may be due to mechanical mixture at • Harvesting • Sowing • Threshing • Processing • Handling • Soil
  • 28. 4) Rouging of seed field • The removal of off type plants is referred to as rouging • There are three main sources of off type plants. • Firstly the off type plants may arise due to presence of some recessive gene in homozygous conditions at the time of release • Another source of off type plants is the volunteer plants arising from accidentally planted seeds or from seed produced by earlier crops. • Mechanical mixtures is also source of contamination. • Removal is necessary before pollination occurs • Regular supervision by trained personnel is imperative.
  • 29. 5) Seed Certification • The principal objective of seed certification is to maintain & make available crop seeds which are of good seeding value and true to variety. • Qualified & well experienced inspection is necessary. • Seed standards are confirmed by such agencies.
  • 30. 6) Grow-out Test Varieties being grown for seed production should periodically be tested for genetic purity by grow- out tests, to make sure that they are being maintained in their true form
  • 32. • Variety should be adapted to photoperiod and temperature of that area. • Moderate rainfall and humidity is good for seed production. • Dry sunny period and moderate temperature for pollination. • General regions with extreme summer heat & very cold winters should be avoided for seed production. • Ample sunshine, relatively moderate rainfall & the absence of strong winds. 1. Selection of suitable agro-climatic region
  • 33. 2. Selection of Seed Plot • Seed plot should have following characters: • Soil texture & fertility should be according to the requirement of the seed crops. • Should be free from volunteer plants, weed plants & other crop plants. • The soil should be comparatively free from soil-borne diseases & insect pests. • In the preceding season the same crop should have not been grown on this land, if it is so required by seed certification standards
  • 34. 3. Isolation of Seed Crops • Done by providing distance between seed fields & contaminating field • On a small scale i.e. in nucleus/breeder’s seed production the isolation can also be provided by enclosing plants in cage by enclosing individual flowers or by removing male flower part and then by individual artificial pollination. • After harvesting isolation of seed produced of different varieties is necessary to avoid mechanical contamination. • Similarly bags or other containers used to hold the seed must be carefully cleaned to remove any seed which may have remained in the bags from previous lots.
  • 35. 4. Preparation of Land • The land for seed crop must be prepared well. • Good land preparation helps improved germination, good stand establishment & destruction of potential weeds. • It also aids in water management & good uniform irrigation.
  • 36. 5. Selection of Variety a) The variety should be adapted to agro-climatic conditions of the region. b) The variety should really be high yielder. c) The variety should posses other desirable attributes, namely disease resistance, earliness, grain quality.
  • 37. 6. Seed Treatments • Chemical seed treatment. • Seed treatment for breaking dormancy due to hard seediness
  • 38. 7. Time of Planting • The seed crops should invariably be sown at their normal planting time. • Depending upon incidences of disease & pests, some adjustments could be made if necessary. • At time of planting there should be sufficient soil moisture for germination to take place.
  • 39. 8. Seed Rate • Lower seed rates than usual for raising commercial crop are desirable because they facilitate rouging operations & inspection of seed crop
  • 40. 9. Methods of Sowing • Row method of sowing • Mechanical drilling can be used • Desired amount • Uniform depth • Clean equipments • Proper distance between plants
  • 41. 10. Depth of sowing • Shallow plantation in case of small seeds • Deep plantation in case of large seeds • Deep plantation in dry soils
  • 42. 11. Rouging • It is wise to remove the whole plant and not just the flower head. • The no. of rouging necessary will vary with the crop, cleanness of planting seed & stage of the multiplication of the seed crop. • Rouging in most of the field crops may be done at any of the following stages as per needs of the seed crop. a)Vegetative /pre-flowering stage b)Flowering stage c)Maturity stage
  • 43. 12. Pollination • Honey bee • Insects • Wind and water
  • 44. 13. Weed Control a)The presence of weed seeds at time of crop harvest leads to mixing of weed seeds with crop seeds. In many instances it is difficult to remove them during the processing of seeds. b)The presence of weeds in the seed field or nearby areas may serve as host to no. of diseases. Good & effective weed control therefore would be necessary to obtain good seed yields & to avoid contamination
  • 45. 14. Disease/Insect Control • If systematic diseases agents are not checked the seed produces will get infected with spores of disease and produce diseased plants in the next season. • Agents of systemic disease, leave their spores on seed coats. If not checked this results in a greater susceptibility to various seedling diseases which can affect the crop. Seed yield & quality are reduced. Management of diseases & pests in seed crops:- a)Plant only treated seed b)Prepare & adopt appropriate schedule of spraying for effective disease &insect control. c)Roguing of diseased plants & ear heads from time to time also helps in checking the further spread of diseases.
  • 46. 15. Nutrition  Nitrogen, phosphorous potassium & several other elements play an important role for proper development of plants & seeds.  Identify the nutritional requirement of seed crops & apply adequate fertilizer  Results in maximum yields, god seed quality & better expression of plant type which facilitate rouging & there by helps in maintaining higher genetic purity as well.
  • 47. 16. Irrigation • Dried regions are more suitable for good quality, disease free seed production in that condition irrigation is essential to obtain good seed yields. • Before planting & at intervals up to flowering. • One or two irrigations beyond flowering are desirable for may seed crop. • In general lighter soils need more irrigation than heavier soils.
  • 48. 17. Harvesting of seed crops • Optimum time of harvest is when seed is fully mature • When weather damage begun, seed is easily harvested & cleaned resulting in minimum harvest losses. • Earlier harvesting makes combining difficult & relative losses due to threshing & cleaning are greater. • Late harvesting result in increased weather damage & losses due shattering seeds & lodging of plants in field.
  • 49. 18. Method of harvesting • By hands • Quality of seed depends upon handling of harvested crop & the care taken during threshing • Maintain lot identity • My be by machine
  • 50. 19. Drying of seeds • More moisture at the time of harvest • Precautions for seed drying a)Identity of the lots must be maintained b)Care should be taken to ensure that mechanical mixture does not take place c)Drying of seeds to safe moisture limits should be done rather quickly. If the seeds are to be artificially dried they should be supplied to processing plants soon after harvesting
  • 51. 20. Storage of raw seeds • Short period Storage should be in stacks or bags kept in ordinary buildings or godowns after sun drying • Filling in neat & clean bags, if old then properly treated before use • Proper labeling • The stacks of bags should be made on wooden pallets. • Storage place should be: • Properly clean • Dry • Cool • Sprayed with malathion • fumigated