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opto1st

  1. 1. <ul><li>FIBER OPTICS BASICS </li></ul>
  2. 2. OFT & OFS are trademark of Benchmark Electronic Systems (P) Ltd. This material and the products described herein are Benchmark proprietary products. All Rights Reserved. This material may not be copied in whole or in part, nor transferred to any other media or language, without the express written permission of Benchmark Electronic Systems (P) Ltd. Benchmark Electronic Systems (P) Ltd. reserves the right to make changes to this material and to the equipment described herein without notice. Considerable effort has been made to insure that this material is free of inaccuracies and omissions. However, Benchmark Electronic Systems (P) Ltd. makes no warranty of any kind including, but not limited to, any implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose with regard to this material or the products described herein. Benchmark Electronic Systems (P) Ltd. assumes no responsibility for, or liability for errors contained in this material or for incidental, special, or consequential damages arising out of the furnishing of this material, or the use of this material in operating the equipment, or in connection with the performance of the equipment when so operated.
  3. 3. <ul><li>FIBER OPTICS BASICS </li></ul>
  4. 4. FIBER OPTICS BASICS <ul><li>What is Fiber Optics </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of Fiber Optics </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Fiber </li></ul><ul><li>Wavelengths of Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Devices </li></ul><ul><li>Optical Connectors </li></ul><ul><li>Major Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Some Practical Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Major Applications </li></ul>
  5. 5. WHAT IS FIBER OPTICS <ul><li>Transmission of data as light pulses through optical fiber (first converting electronic binary signals to light, and then finally converting back to electronic signals) </li></ul>TRANSMITTER RECEIVER
  6. 6. ELEMENTS OF FIBER OPTICS <ul><li>TRANSMISSION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Source (such as Infra Red LED converts pulses to light pulses and sends into optical fiber) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RECEPTION </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photodetector converts back to electrical pulses </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>PROPAGATION IN FIBER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light propagates by means of total internal reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber consists of two concentric layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>core - inner layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cladding - outer layer </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Refractive index of core > cladding - necessary for total internal reflection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light entering within acceptance angle propagates through fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>strike core-cladding interface > critical angle and gets reflected completely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>zig-zags down length of core through repeated reflections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fairly lossless propagation through bends also </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 10. OPTICAL FIBER <ul><li>Multimode (Graded Index 50/125micron, 62.5/125micron etc.,) </li></ul><ul><li>Single Mode (8.7/125micron) </li></ul>Propagation of light in a multimode graded index fiber
  10. 11. OPTICAL FIBER CABLE <ul><li>LOOSE JACKETED FIBER </li></ul><ul><li>FIBER CABLE FROM ONE CORE TO SEVERAL HUNDRED CORES </li></ul><ul><li>ARMOURED CABLE </li></ul>
  11. 12. Loose Jacketed Fiber
  12. 13. Multi-core Fiber Cable
  13. 14. Armoured Cable
  14. 15. WAVELENGTHS OF OPERATION <ul><li>650nm </li></ul><ul><li>850nm </li></ul><ul><li>1300nm </li></ul><ul><li>1500nm (All in infrared wavelength) </li></ul>
  15. 16. OPTICAL DEVICES <ul><li>TRANSMITTERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LEDs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850nm, 1300nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost, easy to use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for multimode fiber </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special ‘Edge-Emitting’ LEDs for single mode fiber </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><ul><li>Laser Diodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850nm, 1300nm, 1550nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very high power output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very high speed operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Very expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need specialized power supply and circuitry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>RECEIVERS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PIN DIODES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850, 1300, 1550nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>APDs (Avalanche Photodiodes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>850, 1300, 1550nm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High sensitivity - can operate at very low power levels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. OPTICAL CONNECTORS <ul><li>Commonly Used: SMA, FC, ST, SC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CONNECTORS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECEPTACLES </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADAPTORS </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF FIBER OPTICS <ul><li>Large Bandwidth (Extremely high information carrying capacity) </li></ul><ul><li>Low loss (Long repeaterless link length/repeater spacing) </li></ul><ul><li>EMI Immunity (Even in noisy or hard environments - factory floor, high voltage lines) </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Compact & Lightweight </li></ul><ul><li>Security (difficult to tap) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety (Insulator & no sparks - ideal for hazardous environment) </li></ul>
  21. 23. SOME PRACTICAL DISADVANTAGES <ul><li>Fiber is expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Connectors are expensive (due to degree of precision involved) </li></ul><ul><li>Connector installation is time consuming and require skilled operators </li></ul><ul><li>Joining (splicing) of fibers requires special equipment/devices and skilled operators </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Connections & joints are relatively lossy </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively careful handling required </li></ul>
  23. 25. MAJOR APPLICATIONS <ul><li>TELECOM </li></ul><ul><li>ISDN </li></ul><ul><li>FACTORY AUTOMATION </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORS </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORKS - LANs, WANs </li></ul>
  24. 26. <ul><li>DEFENCE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BUILDINGS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ON-BOARD COMMUNICATIONS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RAILWAYS </li></ul>
  25. 27. SINGAPORE: BENCHMARK SYSTEMS (S) PTE. LTD. Tel: 65 - 749 - 3372 Fax: 65 - 749 - 3326 E-mail: benchmrk@singnet.com.sg INDIA: BENCHMARK ELECTRONIC SYSTEMS (P) LTD. Tel: 91 - 44 - 413866, 491 0054 Specifications subject to change without notice Fax: 91 - 44 - 491 0123 Copyright © 1996 E-mail: benchmrk@md2.vsnl.net.in

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