Waste Prevention Initiatives

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Waste prevention has been a highly prioritised issue in both national and international waste management policies for a long time. Attention has been focused on the prevention of the main waste streams in society, and since building and construction is considered to be the largest single waste producing sector, waste prevention in this sector is prioritised. The intention of this study has been to produce a catalogue of the best practices for waste prevention in the building and construction sector, and to introduce new ideas and concepts within the sector.

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Waste Prevention Initiatives

  1. 1. Assessment of initiatives to prevent waste frombuilding and construction sectorsJohan Sidenmark, COWI ABIoannis Bakas, Eivind Bøe, Janus Kirkeby, Birgitte Jørgensen Kjær, Martin Uhre Mandrup,and Anna-Karin Ohls 2012-02-221 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  2. 2. Initiatives to prevent building and construction wasteBackground› Prevention of waste has the highest priority under the EU’s framework directive on waste› The construction and demolition sector is often the largest single sector waste producer with a generation of 30 % to 50 % of the total waste produced› Many successful initiatives on increased recycling; hence recycling rates up 90-95%› Not many initiatives to prevent waste from the building and construction sector, while there has been more focus on hazardous substances in building material 2012-02-22 2 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  3. 3. Initiatives to prevent building and construction wasteAim of studyIdentify and prioritize initiatives thatlead to waste prevention in thebuilding and construction sectorThe aim of the project was to:› Produce a catalogue with best practices and background information› Analyse existing prevention initiatives› Disseminate new ideas and concepts throughout the sector› Inspire and engage all actors within the sector 2012-02-22 3 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  4. 4. The waste framework directive (2008/98/EC)Definition of wastepreventionPrevention means measures takenbefore a substance, material orproduct has become waste thatreduces:a) the quantity of waste, including through the re-use of products or the extension of the life span of productsb) the adverse impacts of the generated waste on the environment and human health; orc) the content of harmful substances in materials and products 2012-02-224 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  5. 5. Illustration ofDefinition of waste prevention Source: Adapted from BIO Intelligence Service, 2009. 2012-02-22 5 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  6. 6. Mapping and analysisInitiatives investigated› 32 initiatives were identified and grouped into: 1. Reuse of building materials 2. Information campaigns 3. Waste prevention guidelines 4. Voluntary agreements 5. Identification of hazardous substances 6. Tool for registration of non- hazardous building materials 7. Certification schemes› The categories are evaluated an supplemented by a case study 2012-02-226 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  7. 7. Initiative 1Reuse of building materials› Direct reuse of a product or building material, "second life"› Easy to implement and to transfer to other geographical areasDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts ++Waste impacts 0Hazardous waste amounts 0 ++ very positiveCosts for implementation ++ + positiveCosts for construction sector + 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy + -- very negativeEmployment ++Transferability to other geographical areas + 2012-02-22 7 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  8. 8. Initiative 1Case study – Kretsloppsparken Ålelyckan (SE) SOURCE: IVL 2011, Förebygga avfall med kretsloppsparker 2012-02-22 8 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  9. 9. Initiative 2Information campaigns› Low cost, many targets› The outcome is difficult to evaluate› A need for more targeted and specific information (often to general)Domain Contribution LegendWaste amounts +Waste impacts 0Hazardous waste amounts 0 ++ very positiveCosts for authorities 0 + positiveCosts for construction sector ++ 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy ++ -- very negativeEmployment 0Transferability to other geographical areas + 2012-02-22 9 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  10. 10. Initiative 2Case study – WastePrevKit for enterprises,education and households/JESSE-project (FI) 2012-02-2210 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  11. 11. Initiative 3Waste prevention guidelines› Provide realistic and practical, usually stepwise, stages to minimize waste› Focus mainly on the design and construction phase of buildings rather than maintenance and disposalDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts +Waste impacts 0Hazardous waste amounts + ++ very positiveCosts for implementation 0 + positiveCosts for construction sector ++ 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy 0 -- very negativeEmployment 0Transferability to other geographical areas ++ 2012-02-2211 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  12. 12. Initiative 3Case study – Designing out waste (UK) 2012-02-2212 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  13. 13. Initiative 4Voluntary agreements› Often between public and private with specific targets - "benchmarking for waste", e.g. NMK96 on Selective demolition› Success depends on participating stakeholdersDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts +Waste impacts ++Hazardous waste amounts + ++ very positiveCosts for implementation - + positiveCosts for construction sector -/+ 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy - -- very negativeEmployment 0Transferability to other geographical areas + 2012-02-2213 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  14. 14. Initiative 4Case study – Halving waste to landfill (UK) 2012-02-2214 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  15. 15. Initiative 5Identification of hazardous substances› Identification of hazardous substances in buildings that are to be demolished => for correct disposal› Large potential impact for reduction of hazardous wasteDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts 0Waste impacts +Hazardous waste amounts + ++ very positiveCosts for authorities - + positiveCosts for construction sector - 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy/Administration - -- very negativeEmployment +Transferability to other geographical areas ++ 2012-02-2215 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  16. 16. Initiative 5Case study – Vienna Building regulative (AT) 2012-02-2216 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  17. 17. Initiative 6Registration of non-hazardous building materials› Tools for the registration of materials without hazardous substances is to promote sustainable products in the building and construction sector› Eco labelling – aim of ensuring a safe environmental and indoor climateDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts 0Waste impacts +Hazardous waste amounts ++ ++ very positiveCosts for authorities 0 + positiveCosts for construction sector 0 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy/Administration - -- very negativeEmployment 0Transferability to other geographical areas ++ 2012-02-2217 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  18. 18. Initiative 6Case study – BASTA (SE) 2012-02-2218 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  19. 19. Initiative 7Certification schemes› Standardizing the high quality of a building’s construction during its construction, use and disposal› Often focus on material use/efficiency and environmentally friendly disposal of building components (rather than prevention)› Becoming more and more prevalent, why this might have high importanceDomain Contribution LegendWaste amounts +Waste impacts +Hazardous waste amounts + ++ very positiveCosts for authorities -- + positiveCosts for construction sector + 0 neutral - negativeBureaucracy 0 -- very negativeEmployment +Transferability to other geographical areas ++ 2012-02-2219 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  20. 20. Initiative 7Case study – IBO-Ökopass scheme (AT) 2012-02-2220 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  21. 21. Not so many initiatives, but lots ofOther ideas for wasteprevention initiatives› Education of designers and structural engineers› Training in waste prevention guidelines› Construction materials database› Enforcement of waste regulation› GPP including prevention requirements› Prevention and smart design elements in public tenders› Construction materials standards’ upgrade› Promotion of renovation and restoration› Market-based instruments› Cradle to cradle 2012-02-2221 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  22. 22. Waste prevention in the construction and building sectorNordic Workshop› EU/National and local authorities › Regulation/targets and procurement› Producers › Environmental Product Declaration and Product Category Rules› Contractors › Pre-construction and Better materials › "Building record book"› Architects and designers › Flexible design › Wider use of tools like e.g. BIM› Real estate owners › Contract incl. operation/maintenance› Research institutes/NGOs › Information sharing 2012-02-2222 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  23. 23. Assessment of initiatives to prevent waste from building and construction sectorsIn summary Not so many initiatives as expected. Most of them were established to reduce landfilling or focused on recycling One barrier for including prevention might be that it is very difficult to measure Main part of initiatives are based on information tools such as guidelines, handbooks, calculation tools and checklists Initiatives are mainly established by the authorities. Only a few initiatives have been established by the sector 2012-02-2223 JOHAN SIDENMARK
  24. 24. Thank you for your attentionQuestions? Give me a call ! Johan Sidenmark phone: +46 (0)709 – 40 29 03 e-mail: josi@cowi.se or www.cowi.se and www.cowi.com 2012-02-2224 JOHAN SIDENMARK

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