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Miljo Arktis 05


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Miljöutbildning inför expedition till Arktis 2005

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Miljo Arktis 05

  1. 1. Miljöskydd i Arktis Johan Sidenmark Polarforskningssekretariatet
  2. 2. Syftet är att ge en introduktion till   Miljötillståndet i Arktis   Miljöskydd i Arktis   Expeditionens miljökonsekvenser   Polars förebyggande miljöarbete   Kemikaliehantering   Avfallshantering   Generella riktlinjer Lake Troitskoe in the Volcano Maly Semyachek
  3. 3. Varför bry sig om miljön?   Arktis - A Magnificient Legacy   Efterleva lagar   Hälsa och säkerhet   Framtida forskning   Försiktighetsprincipen   Expeditionsrutiner   En svensk expedition   Vårt ansvar   Ha trevligt
  4. 4. Arktis – några utmärkande drag   Mycket och relativt   Arktis resurser tilldrar ostörd natur sig stort intresse från   Relativt få invånare – många delar av världen urspurngsbefolkning   Olja, gas och mineraler delar regionen med blir mer och mer nybyggare intressant   Alla landområden regleras genom de   Globala föroreningar och arktiska ländernas klimatförändring har nationella lagar redan påverkat Arktis
  5. 5. Is enough being done??? Yes... no... maybe......   Yes, because wildlife is abundant and there are very many protected areas throughout the Arctic,   No, because traditional conservation approaches do not tackle today’s environmental problems, such as POPs and other pollutants, climate change etc.   Maybe, because there is still room for much improvement
  6. 6. Biodiversity in the Arctic   High Arctic and desert Silvertärna (Sterna Paradisaea) ecosystems have much in common. Species are true fighters for survival. Many species demonstrate Adventdalen, Svalbard relatively high resilience against disturbances. Fjällglim (Silene acaulis)
  7. 7. The Arctic is characterized by a harsh climate with extreme variation in light and temperature, short summers, extensive snow and ice cover in Silvertärna (Sterna Paradisaea) winter and large areas of permafrost. The plants and animals of the Arctic have adapted to these conditions, but these adaptations have in some cases rendered them more sensitive to human activities. Human activities Adventdalen, Svalbard both inside and outside the Arctic influence the physical, chemical and biological nature of Arctic ecosystems. AMAP – Arctic Pollution 2002 Fjällglim (Silene acaulis)
  8. 8. Växternas ekologiska anpassningar Fjällvallmons blomma bildar en kapsel som koncentrerar solens strålar till blommans mitt, där fröna bildas. Blommorna följer solens gång över himlen för att ytterligare skynda på fröbildningen. Fjällvallmo (Papaver radicatum)
  9. 9. Ekologiska opportunister på Svalbard Avsaknaden av smågnagare på Svalbard har gjort att fjällräven förlitar sig på andra födokällor, som t.ex. sjöfågel eller döda renar. Fjällrävar har även setts “adoptera” isbjörnar, och följer då med ut på havsisen där räven livnär sig på resterna från Fjällräv (Alopex Lagopus) isbjörnens säljakt. Eftersom det nästan inte finns några smågnagare på Svalbard kan inte rovfåglar överleva. Den stora vittruten har därför tagit över rollen som rovfågel och är luftens store härskare på Svalbard.
  10. 10. En av världens sista stora vildmarker   Jämfört med de flesta andra områden på jorden, så finns det mesta av naturen i Arktis kvar i sitt naturliga tillstånd   En del miljöproblem föranleder oro, på grund av en kombination av olika förhållanden, för befolkningen i Arktis och för vissa ekosystem   Dessa förhållanden förekommer ibland på en lokal nivå, men kan även vara både regionala eller cirkumpolär i omfattning
  11. 11. Klimatförändring "Climate change in the Polar Regions is expected to be among the largest and most rapid of any region on the Earth, and will cause major physical, ecological, 1990 sociological, and economic impacts, especially in the Arctic". Detta är den sammanfattande slutsatsen i den senaste rapporten från IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2003
  12. 12. Vikande permafrost ökar växthuseffekten Widespread loss of discontinuous permafrost will trigger erosion of ice-rich landscapes, change hydrologic processes, and release CO2 and methane to the atmosphere. Changes in the cryosphere will reduce slope stability and increase incidence of natural hazards for people, structures, and communication links. Buildings, roads, pipelines, and communication links will be threatened.
  13. 13. The Gulf Currents possible future   Two major engines drive the Gulf Current. Winds bring warm surface water from Africa to the Gulf of Mexico and then across the Atlantic Ocean towards Europé. Cold and salt surface water in the North Atlantic sinks to the bottom, and is replaced by the Gulf Stream’s warm surface water. The result is a favourable climate in Europé.   Diminishing deep water formation could slow down the Gulf current’s flow, which may lead to a colder climate in Northern Europé and northwest Russia.
  14. 14. What will happen if the Gulf Current cease to flow?   With average temperatures 2-5 degrees C lower than today, Northern Europe may experience a climate and natural conditions similar to Churchill in Canada, i.e. tundra and barren land.   Not to mention possible dramatic changes in all life on land and in the seas. And changes may come fast…
  15. 15. Ecological consequences of climate change   Climate change may diminish distribution and abundance of high Arctic species. Alien species may invade (e.g. pests)   Timberline may be pushed further north.   Overfishing may have consequenses for seabirds and land living animals   New transport routes will lead to increased risk of accidents
  16. 16. The Northern Sea Route   Massive oil spills along northern Russian waters can be trapped in the ice and destroy marine ecosystems over wide areas. Ultimately, oil can be carried with ocean currents to areas far away. There are few, if any, techniques that allow for proper handling of such scenarios.   The social, economic and environmental impacts of futre NSR operations and associated gas, oil and mineral exploration, plus subsequent shipwrecks and spills, represent significant concerns and challenges for the future.
  17. 17. Northern exposure   POP   Tungmetaller
  18. 18. Percentage of blood samples taken from indigenous and non- indigenous women of reproductive age that had mercury levels exceeding US EPA and Health Canada guidelines
  19. 19. Trenden går att vända   Bly Implementation of the 1979 Geneva Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (Box 2) and the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is important for reducing the burden of contamination on the Arctic and its inhabitants
  20. 20. Polar bears in a changing environment   Polar bears were effectively protected against hunting all over the Arctic in 1973.   But what now, with retreating sea ice, pollution etc ...?
  21. 21. POPs in Svalbard’s polar bears may affect reproduction and survival   Polar bear blood plasma samples collected in Svalbard in 1967 were analyzed for POPs and compared with values from 1993-94.   Differences ranged from a decrease for a limited number of compounds to a ten times increase in others. The increase suggests selective metabolism and accumulation of organochlorines in polar bears.
  22. 22. Biomagnification   Biomagnification occurs when contaminant levels are increased with each step in the food web.   Predators consume the contaminants stored in their food (prey), and in turn include the contaminats in the food of these prey, etc.
  23. 23. Svalbard’s polar bears are also effected by climate change   Retreating sea ice prevetns pregnant females to reach the shores of their traditional denning areas in late autumn.   Less ice also means fewer seals to hunt, and increased difficulties for female bears to cater for her offspring   Juvenile bears lack the hunting experience of older bears and may starve when seals become less abundant   Fewer dens means fewer births. Less foos means increased motalities.   The net result: Less recruitment to the population
  24. 24. Exploatering största hotet mot miljön i Arktis
  25. 25. The Arctic is a major supplier of oil, gas and other minerals   The Arctic contains huge deposits of oil, gas and minerals, and may become one of the world’s major gas and oil suppliers in the future.   Vast pipeline projects are under preparation for export to China, Japan, Korea and other Pacific countires.   Nortwas is prospecting in the Berents sea
  26. 26. GLOBIO Global Methodology for Mapping Human Impacts on the Biosphere The 50, 100 and 200% scenarios are presented as 2030, 2060 and 2090 respectively in the animation.
  27. 27. Människan i Arktis   Fynd visar på att Arktis har varit befolkat i 30 000 år!   Nord Amerika befolkades från Sibirien för 15 000 år sedan!
  28. 28. Lokalbefolkningens känsla för snö   Lokalbefolkningen och miljötillståndet arctic/
  29. 29. Challenges   Will we be able to maintain Arctic ecosystems and wildlife under threats from pollution and climate change?   Do we have institutions and legislation that allow us to manage the Arctic’s nature and wildlife sustainably?
  30. 30. Arktisk miljöpolitik   Komplicerat   Många länder   Politik   Lagstiftning   Folk och fä   Urgamla traditioner   Obegränsat med gränsdragningar
  31. 31. Lagar och multilaterala överenskommelser till skydd för miljön   All Arctic land is under the   The International Convention for jurisdiction of a sovereign state the Prevention of Pollution from   Stockholm Convention on POP Ships (MARPOL)   Convention on Biological Diversity   International Maritmime (CBD) Organisation (IMO)Guidelines for   Convention on the Conservation of Prevention of Unwanted Aquatic Oranisms and Pathogens from Migratory Species of Wild Animals Ships’ Ballast Water and Sediment (CMS) Discharge   Agreement on the conservation of   World Heritage Convention (WHC) African-Euroasian Migratory Waterbirds (AEWA)   United Nations Framework   Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Convention on Climat Change ((UNFCC)   Convention on International Trade   International Convention on Oil in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-operation (OPRC)
  32. 32. Mycket uppmärksamhet på miljön i Arktis   Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA)   Standing Committee of Parliamentarians of the Arctic Region   Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North   WWF Arctic Programme   University of the Arctic   Emergency Prevention, Preparedness, and Response (EPPR)   Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF)   UNEP Net Arctic Portal & GRID-Arendal   EEA - Arctic environment: European perspectives
  33. 33. Arctic Environment Protection Strategy   Bildades 1991, under Arktiska Rådet   ”Sustainable development”   Kanada, Danmark, Finland, Island, Norge, Ryssland, Sverige och USA
  34. 34. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme   Över 200 projekt   State of the Arctic Environment Report
  35. 35. Protect the environment ”A key phrase in all activities in the polar region is protect the environment” SPRS Field Course Handbook
  36. 36. Miljökonsekvensbeskrivning
  37. 37. Miljöaspekter från expeditionen Activity Environmental Aspects Outputs   Fuel management   Emissions to air   Chemical Management   Emissions to land   Waste and Sewage   Emissions to sea   Environmental awareness water and sediments   Terrain alteration   Emissions to inland   Introductions of alien waters and sediments invasive species   Physical Disturbance   Power and heat production of Land   Sampling   Depletion of natural resources   Degradation of biodiversity   Noise generation   Collection of biota
  38. 38. Associated Impacts   Disturbance/destruction of fauna (on species level, population level and ecosystem level)   Disturbance/destruction of flora (on species level, population level and ecosystem level)   Disturbance/ destruction of habitats   Disturbance of marine/freshwater environments   Degradation of wilderness/aesthetic values and degradation of heritage/cultural values   Increased concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols in the atmosphere   Human induced change of processes in the Ecosystems (e.g. acidification)
  39. 39. Avfallshantering
  40. 40. Avfallshantering   Minimize waste   Packaging, handling and production labelling   Remove all waste   Separation and recycling from Antarctica   Metal   Prohibited items   Glass - PCB, pesticides   mixed solid - polystyrene chips/beds   sewage, food - non-sterile soil   liquid kitchen
  41. 41. Kemikaliehantering
  42. 42. Fuel management   Proper handling during transport, storage and transfer   Use absorbent materials during refuelling operations as far as possible   Stop the flow, contain the spill and initiate clean- up action if you observe fuel spills or leaks   Report spills larger than 200 litres to expedition leader immediately
  43. 43. Oil spill   Initial assessment   Resources at risk - Type 1 < 200 litres - Ice-free ground - Type 2 > 200 litres - Ice-covered ground - Type, Location, Risk - Snow-covered ground   Health and safety   Spill response - Ensure safe working - Be familiar with OSCP conditions - Spill equipment
  44. 44. General procedure for oil spill   Try to stop or minimise any further spillage.   Deploy absorbents to contain the oil.   If possible, use pumps to remove the fuel from the ground straight into 200 litre drums.   Absorbent pads should be spread on any remaining oil that cannot be manually removed.   Oil soaked absorbents must be picked up and placed in plastic bags or empty 200 litre drums.
  45. 45. Environmental incidents   Report all incidents to Expedition Leader according to procedures for Emergency response and preparedness   Events or incidents leading to environmental hazard are reported to COMNAP and the ”Environmental Incident Reporting System”   Fuel spills are the most common incidents – spill prevention cautions are the most important
  46. 46. Generella riktlinjer och principer
  47. 47. Code of Conduct   Vegetation is scarce and sensitive - Avoid trampling and harmful interference - Aware of risk of introducing non-native species   Birds and mammals are more stressed than they appear - Keep your distance, be calm and quiet - Do not harmfully interfere - Be aware of risk of introducing diseases
  48. 48. Code of Conduct   Waste and Pollutants - Zero emissions the goal   Protected areas - Do not enter without a permit   Site management - A site should always be left in its natural condition - No “souveniring”
  49. 49. Before you go………..   Get the facts!   When packaging, remember to   Only bring what you will need   Get rid of unnecessary packaging material   Use packaging material that can be re-used   Do not bring PCB, pesticides, non-sterile soil   Avoid products made by PVC
  50. 50. När du packar, tänk på att   Ta med så lite packning som möjligt   Minimera förpackningar   Använd inte skumplast av någon form   Undvik plastpåsar
  52. 52. Old and new approaches to indigenous people’s rights and roles in conservation and sustainable use Before it was: Now it is: * Preserve * Protect * Prohibit * Participate * Punish * Profit
  53. 53. Infant mortality in selected regions of the Arctic
  54. 54. Challenges ahead - oil in the sea-ice   Oil is trapped in open leads and under ice where production is high and where fish, seals and birds feed.   It takes long time to break down – and is very difficult to clean up in ice covered waters.   Oil can be transported with the drifting ice over very long distances, to seas and shores very far away.
  55. 55. Differences between the Arctic and Antarctica   International cooperation in the Arctic is often hampered by the bordering states domestic and political agendas. Adoption of an Antarctic style treaty is unlikely for the Arctic.   Neverthells, there is room for improvments
  56. 56. The Arctic – a remote hinterland?   Challenges, problems and concerns are correlated with distance in space and time. Europe’s main concernms and and immediate interests lie beyond the Arctic region.   We tend to concentrate upon today’s challenges, and leave concerns about the far-away Arctic to future generations.
  57. 57. Communication with politicians and decision-makers   Politicians and decision-makers rarely have time and capacity to read extensive reports and to absorb their messages.   TV, magazines and newspaper articles are the media. Plus brainstorming and briefings whenever possible.
  58. 58. The Arcitc has very many, large protected areas, but……..   Several of them do not recognise animal’s homerange and seasonal distributions   Some of them allow mineral extraction and associated infrastructure development   Most of them do not allow for harvests of plants and animlas e.g. for subsistence by traditional users (indigenous people)
  59. 59. Protection of Svalbards barnacle geeese – a success story In the 1940’s Svalbards population of barnacle geese had beeen reduced to only 300 birds, mainly becausse of hunting in Svalbard and along its migratory routes. The geese are now protected in winter ranges in the UK. Hunting is prohibited in Svalbard and sanctuaries are established along Spitsbergen’s west coast. Through effective protection throughout the year, the Svalbard population is now estimated at 23 000 geese.
  60. 60. Pollution in the Arctic   Pollution carried from Europé to the Arctic by air and ocean and river currents, has had a major impact on the Arctic environment.   Industry in and around the Arctic aslo contributes significantly to contamination, with sources including copper-nickel smeltees on the Kola Peninsula and at Norilsk in Siberia.