Meeting w1 chapter 1


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Meeting w1 chapter 1

  1. 1. Chapter 1 – Overview of Control System Eddy Irwan Shah Bin Saadon Dept. of Electrical Engineering PPD, UTHM [email_address] 019-7017679
  2. 2. <ul><li>Outline: </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Control System Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Type of Control System </li></ul><ul><li>Control System Classification </li></ul><ul><li>Control System Design </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Intro – Objective <ul><li>After completing this chapter, student will be able to : </li></ul><ul><li>Define the basic features and configurations of control systems </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the open/closed-loop control system </li></ul><ul><li>Learn control system applications </li></ul><ul><li>Describe a general process for designing a control system </li></ul>
  4. 4. 2. Control System Concept <ul><li>What is Control System? </li></ul><ul><li>A system that provides an output or response for a given input </li></ul><ul><li>Can you give an example? </li></ul>
  5. 5.
  6. 6. 2.1 What is System? <ul><li>Definition : A combination of components or subsystems that act together and perform a certain objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems interact with their environment across a separating boundary. </li></ul><ul><li>The interaction is defined in terms of variables. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental disturbance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 2.2 Control System Component Definition: An interconnection of COMPONENTS forming a system configuration that will provide a desired system response Block Diagram Electrical Hydraulic Pneumatic Mechanical Mathematical Model
  8. 8. 2.3 General Block Diagram of Control System
  9. 9. 2.4 Terms of block diagram <ul><li>Input : desired response </li></ul><ul><li>Output : actual response </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled variable : The quantity or condition that is measured and controlled (normally in the output) </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulated Variable : The quantity or condition that is varied by the controller to adjust the controlled variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbance : Signal that affect the value of the output. </li></ul><ul><li>Controller : Measuring the controlled variable and applying the manipulated variable to correct deviation of the measured value (output) from a desired value (input). </li></ul><ul><li>Summing Junction/Point : to represent addition / subtraction of signals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incoming signal lines either a “+” (addition) or “-” (subtraction) sign. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output signal is shown with an outgoing arrow. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. 3. Type of Control System <ul><li>The control system can be described into two configuration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>OPEN LOOP and CLOSED-LOOP </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Open loop system  O Output response Back AMPLIFIER Power Supply High power +V -V 0V Input signal Low power MOTOR GEARS
  12. 12. Closed-loop system
  13. 13. Advantage and Disadvantage of Open Loop System Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Stability not a major problem </li></ul><ul><li>Cheaper than closed loop system </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used even if output cannot be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Easier to maintain </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in system or disturbance cause errors </li></ul><ul><li>No longer accurate when the system is disturb. Needs calibration to maintain accuracy (Periodic calibration is required) </li></ul><ul><li>Low bandwidth – slow response </li></ul>
  14. 14. Advantage and Disadvantage of Closed Loop System Advantages Disadvantages <ul><li>Reduced sensitivity to disturbances inputs and parameter changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Can stabilize an open-loop unstable plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Can change system dynamics speed of response, accuracy, reduce effects of nonlinearities </li></ul><ul><li>Highly accurate due to corrective actions </li></ul><ul><li>High bandwidth – fast response </li></ul><ul><li>More complex (Increased complexity and cost) </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of instability (stability is major problem) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Feedback and its effect <ul><li>Feedback system is a system that maintains a relationship between the output and some reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a means of control. </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback is used to reduce the error between reference and the system output. </li></ul><ul><li>The feedback has effects on performance characteristics as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>overall gain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>noise (external disturbance). </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Feedback and its effect (cont) Response of a position control system showing effect of high and low controller gain on the output response
  17. 17. 4. Control System Classification <ul><li>Single input single output (SISO) </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) </li></ul><ul><li>Linear </li></ul><ul><li>Non-linear </li></ul><ul><li>Time-variant </li></ul><ul><li>Time-invariant </li></ul><ul><li>Analog </li></ul><ul><li>Digital </li></ul><ul><li>Process Control </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential Control </li></ul>
  18. 18. 5. Control System Design <ul><li>6 Steps </li></ul>
  19. 19. Summary of today’s lesson? <ul><li>You have learn: </li></ul><ul><li>The definition of control system. </li></ul><ul><li>The components of control system. </li></ul><ul><li>Block diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Type of control system. </li></ul><ul><li>How to design a control system. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Activity # 1 (1 hour) <ul><li>Form a group of 5 persons. </li></ul><ul><li>Select one sector from the list on the next slide. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the design steps, describe the system operation. </li></ul><ul><li>You are not designing the system but you are doing ‘reverse engineering’. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain you work in 10 minutes presentation on the next class. </li></ul><ul><li>A tutorial class next Friday is for a discussion for this activity. </li></ul><ul><li>This activity carries 5% of your total marks. </li></ul>