is achieved through various
The sender adds the redundancy bit to
the original message and create
The receiver checks the relationship b/w
two sets of bits to detect (or) correct the
Robustness of the process are important
factors in any coding scheme.
only limited range of integers.
We, define upper limit, called a ,modulus
Then use only the integers 0 to N-1.
This is modulo-N arithmetic.
modulus N is 2. we can use only 0
and 1. operation in this arithmetic are
The addition and subtraction give the
same results. Here, we use XOR
operation for both the add and sub.
The result of an XOR operation is 0(if
both the bits are same. The result is 1 if
the any of the two bit is different.)
the message into blocks, each of k
bits, called datawords. Then add r
redundant bit to make length n=k+r
The resulting n-bit blocks are called
receiver can detect a change in the
original codeword. by
1. The receiver has a list of valid codewords.
2. The original codeword has changed to an