Seminar Report on System on Chips By D. Venkatesh(Y09EI017) B. Vamsi Satwik(Y09Ei007) V. Santosh(Y09EI055) Ch. Apparao(Y09EI003) (IV/IV B.Tech, EIE) Project Batch No:09 Project Guide: Mr. G. Jalalu Assoc. Professor
Introduction Technological Advances today’s chip can contains 100M transistors . transistor gate lengths are now in term of nano meters . The number of transistors is based on Moore’s law . The Consequences components connected on a Printed Circuit Board can now be integrated onto single chip . hence the development of System-On-Chip design .
SoC: System on Chip System A collection of all kinds of components and/or subsystems that are appropriately interconnected to perform the specified functions for end users. A SoC design is a “product creation process” which Starts at identifying the end-user needs (or system) Hardware Software Ends at delivering a product with enough functional satisfaction to overcome the payment from the end-user
What is SoC ? The VLSI manufacturing technology advances has made possible to put millions of transistors on a single chip. It enables designers to put systems-on-a- chip that move everything from the board onto the chip eventually.
SoC not only chip, but more on “system”. SoC = Chip + Software + Integration The SoC chip includes: Embedded processor ASIC Logics and analog circuitry Embedded memory The SoC Software includes: OS, compiler, simulator, firmware, driver, protoco l stackIntegrated development environment (debugger, linker, ICE)Application interface
What is SoC in your mind? Definition: integration of a complete system onto a single IC
SoC EvolutionFirst phase Second phase Third phase
Example: Mobile Phone Yesterday Today Single ChipFlash • 5~8Memory Processors • MemoryDSP • Graphics • BluetoothRadio • GPS • Radio • WLANProcessor Voice only; 2 processors Voice, data, video, SMS 4 year product life cycle <12 month product life cycle Short talk time Lower power; longer talk time
Material Preparation First stage. Ordinary sand to pure Si crystals. Here the sand with high silica content is exposed to high temperature ,where the silica is turned into crystals
Silicon rod preparation Si crystals collected in chamber. Crystals converted into perfectly shaped rods with the help of moulds. This is done at high temperatures.
Wafer Fabrication 2nd stage. Si rod sliced into this discs with great accuracy called wafer. Each disc is few mm in thickness. Each wafer will grow 100’s of transistors.
lithography This is the most important technique. Si wafers are coated with Light sensitive photo sensitive material. These this disk’s are then exposed to U.V rays.
The exposed parts are soluble. This soluble part is removed by cleaning with fluid.
Etching Acids are applied. The unprotected parts are etched away. Tiny structures of billions of small switches are generated which acts as Transistors.
Several billions of transistors are generated and connected forming several 100’s of chip on a single wafer.
Testing Tests each chip for manufacturing defects. For early identification and elimination of defective parts. Reduces assembly cost.
Laser cutting Wafer then sliced into several small individual components called chips Each part sent to packaging unit
Assembling of chips Each chip is assembled as per requirement.
Major SoC Applications Speech Signal Processing . Image and Video Signal Processing . Information Technologies PC interface (USB, PCI,PCI-Express, IDE,..etc) Computer peripheries (printer control, LCD monitor controller, DVD controller,.etc) . Data Communication Wireline Communication: 10/100 Based-T, xDSL, Gigabit Ethernet,.. Etc Wireless communication: BlueTooth, WLAN, 2G/3G/4G, WiMax, UWB, …,etc
The Benefits• There are several benefits in integrating a large digital system into a single integrated circuit .• These include – Lower cost per gate . – Lower power consumption . – Faster circuit operation . – More reliable implementation . – Smaller physical size . – Greater design security .