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  1. 1. Seminar Report on System on Chips By D. Venkatesh(Y09EI017) B. Vamsi Satwik(Y09Ei007) V. Santosh(Y09EI055) Ch. Apparao(Y09EI003) (IV/IV B.Tech, EIE) Project Batch No:09 Project Guide: Mr. G. Jalalu Assoc. Professor
  2. 2. Introduction to SoC
  3. 3. Introduction Technological Advances  today’s chip can contains 100M transistors .  transistor gate lengths are now in term of nano meters .  The number of transistors is based on Moore’s law . The Consequences  components connected on a Printed Circuit Board can now be integrated onto single chip .  hence the development of System-On-Chip design .
  4. 4. SoC: System on Chip System A collection of all kinds of components and/or subsystems that are appropriately interconnected to perform the specified functions for end users. A SoC design is a “product creation process” which  Starts at identifying the end-user needs (or system)  Hardware  Software  Ends at delivering a product with enough functional satisfaction to overcome the payment from the end-user
  5. 5. What is SoC ? The VLSI manufacturing technology advances has made possible to put millions of transistors on a single chip. It enables designers to put systems-on-a- chip that move everything from the board onto the chip eventually.
  6. 6.  SoC not only chip, but more on “system”. SoC = Chip + Software + Integration The SoC chip includes: Embedded processor ASIC Logics and analog circuitry Embedded memory The SoC Software includes: OS, compiler, simulator, firmware, driver, protoco l stackIntegrated development environment (debugger, linker, ICE)Application interface
  7. 7. What is SoC in your mind? Definition: integration of a complete system onto a single IC
  8. 8. SoC EvolutionFirst phase Second phase Third phase
  9. 9. Example: Mobile Phone Yesterday Today Single ChipFlash • 5~8Memory Processors • MemoryDSP • Graphics • BluetoothRadio • GPS • Radio • WLANProcessor Voice only; 2 processors  Voice, data, video, SMS 4 year product life cycle  <12 month product life cycle Short talk time  Lower power; longer talk time
  10. 10. Where SoC Goes To?
  11. 11. SOC Complexity / Abstraction Yesterday Today•Processor-centric (1 or 2) •Many processing units•Simple I/O •Large amount of I/O•Manageable Complexity •Overwhelming Complexity!
  12. 12. Material Preparation First stage. Ordinary sand to pure Si crystals. Here the sand with high silica content is exposed to high temperature ,where the silica is turned into crystals
  13. 13. Silicon rod preparation Si crystals collected in chamber. Crystals converted into perfectly shaped rods with the help of moulds. This is done at high temperatures.
  14. 14. Wafer Fabrication 2nd stage. Si rod sliced into this discs with great accuracy called wafer. Each disc is few mm in thickness. Each wafer will grow 100’s of transistors.
  15. 15. lithography This is the most important technique. Si wafers are coated with Light sensitive photo sensitive material. These this disk’s are then exposed to U.V rays.
  16. 16.  The exposed parts are soluble. This soluble part is removed by cleaning with fluid.
  17. 17. Etching Acids are applied. The unprotected parts are etched away. Tiny structures of billions of small switches are generated which acts as Transistors.
  18. 18.  Several billions of transistors are generated and connected forming several 100’s of chip on a single wafer.
  19. 19. Testing Tests each chip for manufacturing defects. For early identification and elimination of defective parts. Reduces assembly cost.
  20. 20. Laser cutting Wafer then sliced into several small individual components called chips Each part sent to packaging unit
  21. 21. Assembling of chips Each chip is assembled as per requirement.
  22. 22. Major SoC Applications Speech Signal Processing . Image and Video Signal Processing . Information Technologies  PC interface (USB, PCI,PCI-Express, IDE,..etc) Computer peripheries (printer control, LCD monitor controller, DVD controller,.etc) . Data Communication  Wireline Communication: 10/100 Based-T, xDSL, Gigabit Ethernet,.. Etc  Wireless communication: BlueTooth, WLAN, 2G/3G/4G, WiMax, UWB, …,etc
  23. 23. The Benefits• There are several benefits in integrating a large digital system into a single integrated circuit .• These include – Lower cost per gate . – Lower power consumption . – Faster circuit operation . – More reliable implementation . – Smaller physical size . – Greater design security .