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Basic management skills

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Basic management skills

  1. 1. Course Objective To provide managers with a sound understanding of their roles and responsibilities within their organizations, and the skills they need to achieve their objectives
  2. 2. … is more art than science. Managing is working with and through other people to accomplish the objectives of both the Organization and its members .. the process of organizing methods, materials, manpower and other resources to achieve organizational goals
  3. 3. Management Levels Top Middle Supervision Strategic level Technical level Operations level Employees / Individual Contributors
  4. 4. The Management Process Demonstrates Good technical skills Manager Demonstrates Good managerial skills and competencies Individual contributor Supervisor
  5. 5. Functions of Management Planning Controlling Coordination Organizing
  6. 6. Planning • Setting goals and objectives • Identifying income and expense drivers • Overcoming/changing paradigms
  7. 7. • Identifying essential & non-essential work activities • Departmental relations and authority levels • Defining roles and responsibilities • Time management • Handling emergencies Organizing
  8. 8. Controlling • Aligning activities and processes with company’s objectives • Establishing performance standards and measures • Monitoring performance
  9. 9. Coordination • Verification of alignment • Developing inter-departmental relations
  10. 10. Planning Strategic Measuring & evaluation Controlling Developing people Operational Management control Operational control Feedback The Management Process
  11. 11. Managerial Skills The capabilities that are important for successful performance as managers and managers Managers need to demonstrate these skills to carry out their role in achieving results through their employees
  12. 12. Managerial Competencies An ability, skill, or characteristic that causes outstanding performance in a given job What outstanding performers do more often, in more situations, with better results than most people Characteristics of the best performers
  13. 13. Technical InterpersonalIntellectual
  14. 14. The Managerial Skills Specific expertise: - Engineering - Finance - Accounting - Administration  Communication  Delegation  Negotiation  Motivation  Team-building  Rewarding  Planning  Organizing  Controlling  Coordination  Problem-solving & Decision-making  Negotiation  Time management Technical InterpersonalIntellectual
  15. 15. Intellectual Interpersonal Technical Middle management Supervision Top management The Managerial / Technical split
  16. 16. Management Responsibility Human resources Production process
  17. 17. The Management Grid Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organizational membership Efficiency In operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements Interfere to a minimum degree Thoughtful Attention to needs of people for satisfying relationship leads to a comfortable, friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo Work accomplished is from committed people: interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect Concern for Production ConcernforPeople
  18. 18. Democratic AutocraticPace-setter Affiliative Authoritative
  19. 19. Democratic • Makes me feel important • Fosters participation in decision-making • Listens to me and to my perspectives • Recognizes good performance Commitment through participation
  20. 20. Coercive • Assigns unpleasant tasks • Doesn’t listen to me • Makes my life hard • Reacts effectively in crisis situations Do what I tell you
  21. 21. Pace-setter • Makes me proud of what I am doing • Sets high standards of performance • Will not forgive mistakes Expects perfection
  22. 22. Affiliative • Provides protection, I feel safe working for him • Strives to please subordinates • Ignores work conflict • Ineffective in emergency situations Priority to subordinates
  23. 23. Authoritative • Always reminds me of my duties • Lacks flexibility Firm but fair
  24. 24. The Most Appropriate Style of Management • Sets and communicates vision • Empowers employees • Sets clear objectives • Delegates authority • Provides constructive and timely feedback • Provides recognition when necessary • Develops subordinates’ skills
  25. 25. From Management To Leadership
  26. 26. Leadership is a Facet of Successful Management
  27. 27. New Manager Planning Organizing the hierarchy Controlling Creating vision Aligning relations Inspiring Classical managerial work New leadership task Shift from Management to Leadership
  28. 28. He has taught me a lot I am compelled to respect him Takes Responsibility when things go wrong He knows what to do In emergencies I trust what he says I feel powerful working for him
  29. 29. Leadership Practices Leaders are distinguished by their perseverance in spite of the frustrations and challenges in their path
  30. 30. Leaders • Setting direction • Engaging involvement • Motivating people • Making things happen • Modeling the way • Creating a leadership culture
  31. 31. Why Do People Follow Leaders ? Sets Vision and works for others Strives to encourage and assist subordinates 85% 80% 78% 75% 72% Reacts professionally in crisis situations Makes subordinates feel proud Holds responsibility
  32. 32. managers typically are responsible for their direct reports' progress and productivity in the organization managers are under immense pressure from above and below to do more with less
  33. 33. Roles and Responsibilities of Supervision Achieving organizational goals Assigning tasks Making decisions Employee Training and Development Controlling work activities Coaching
  34. 34. Roles and Responsibilities of Supervision Setting rules and regulations Problem-solving Availing resources Reacting to emergency situations Staffing Enforcing Policies and Procedures
  35. 35. PersonnelProcedures Materials Employees Contractors Competitors Suppliers Operations Procedures Standards Specs Objectives Equipment Raw material Finished products Roles and Responsibilities of Supervision
  36. 36. Key Managerial Skills
  37. 37. Managing meetings Effective communications Motivation Delegation Problem solving And Decision making Time management Objective setting Team building
  38. 38. Communication Goal Whenever you COMMUNICATE, to an Individual or a group, you are “SELLING” something: Product, service, viewpoint, or Simply yourself. Your goal is to influence or Persuade the listener to “BUY” what you say.
  39. 39. Getting Feedback From others Getting your Message across Elements of Effective Communications Common Understanding
  40. 40. Top management manager Subordinates Peers Customers Suppliers Contractors
  41. 41. Communications in the Workplace Information Instructions Procedures Reports Data Suggestions Complaints Achieving objectives Completing tasks Correcting procedures Taking decisions Setting standards Assessing performance manager Subordinate
  42. 42. Communications Facial expressions Body language Gestures Conversation Interview Meeting Lecture Telephone con. Memorandum Letter Report E-mail Fax Verbal Non- VerbalWritten
  43. 43. Verbal Communications Most effective method Interaction Eye contact Facial expressions Gestures Immediate feedback
  44. 44. Written Communications More complex Needs preparation Accurate – more detailed No body language No immediate feedback May be neglected
  45. 45. Non-verbal Communications Feedback that cannot be concealed!!! Delineates true opinion Should be carefully perceived Should be used effectively
  46. 46. Communications Interview • Interactive • Immediate feedback Meeting • Interactive • Immediate feedback Control Lecture • Needs preparation Misinterpretation Telephone Conversation • Lacks clarity Clarity
  47. 47. Communications Memorandum • Accurate • Prepared Formal Letter • Comprehensive Negligence Report • Details • Information Needs study
  48. 48. • Convey subordinates’ ideas, opinions and concerns to management • Communicate management’s perspectives to subordinates • Keeps fellow managers/managers informed of activities that affect them How a manager can Demonstrate Communications Skills
  49. 49. • Avails all required information and provide timely feedback to subordinates • Holds meetings periodically • Visits the workplace frequently • Be a good listener How a manager can Demonstrate Communications Skills
  50. 50. Principles of Effective Communications • Clarify the purpose of the message • Deliver message in Logical order • Use words that can be understood • Make your tone clear and keep pace
  51. 51. Principles of Effective Communications • Clarify when necessary to confirm understanding • State what is required to be done • State importance / urgency of action to be taken • Summarize what you have presented
  52. 52. Reasons of Ineffective Communications Sender Receiver Environment
  53. 53. Reasons of Ineffective Communications • Purpose of message is not announced • Illogic sequence • Unclear tone • No preparation • Not mastering subject • Misjudging receiver’s level of understanding Sender
  54. 54. Reasons of Ineffective Communications • Bad listening • No interest • Unawareness of subject • Prejudice • Jumping to conclusions • Bad mood Receiver
  55. 55. Reasons of Ineffective Communications • Language - vocabulary - jargon - ambiguity • Psychological - fear - shyness - boredom Environment • Structural - distance - time • Environmental - Distractions (noise) - interruptions - people intruding
  56. 56. Ten commandments of listening • Stop talking .. You cannot listen while talking • Give the speaker the chance to speak • Listen to perceive .. Not to object • Do not interrupt the speaker • Put yourself in the speaker’s boots.. This will help you assess the situation
  57. 57. Ten commandments of listening • Be patient .. Give the speaker enough time • Keep calm .. Angry people will look for mistakes • Don’t argue .. Be open and accept criticism • Ask questions .. This shows interest and provides clarification • Avoid prejudice..
  58. 58. Empathizing Drawing out the speaker and getting information in a supportive, helpful way. Empathize by imagining yourself in the other person’s position to understand what they are thinking, and letting them feel comfortable – possibly by relating to their emotional experiences. Pay close attention to what the person is saying, talk very little, and use encouraging nods and words. Type of Listening Putting Methods Into Practice
  59. 59. Analyzing Seeking concrete information and trying to disentangle fact from emotion. Use analytical questions to discover the reasons behind the speaker’s statements, especially if you need to understand a sequence of facts or thoughts. Ask questions carefully, so you can pick up clues from the answers and use the person’s responses to help you form you next set of questions. Type of Listening Putting Methods Into Practice
  60. 60. Synthesizing Proactively guiding the exchange towards an objective. If you need to achieve a desired result, make statements to which others can respond with ideas. Listen and give your answers to other’s remarks in a way that suggests which ideas can be enacted and how they might be implemented. Alternatively, include a different solution in your next question. Type of Listening Putting Methods Into Practice
  61. 61. Meetings cost time and money, both of which are valuable. Hold meetings only when necessary, and ensure that they are concise and constructive.
  62. 62. Managing Meetings • managers spend most of their time in discussions to organize work and solve problems • The average manager spends 65-80% of his time in meetings How can we make the manager’s time more effective ?
  63. 63. Purpose of Meetings Imparting information Generating creative ideas (brainstorming) Resolving problems Making or implementing decisions Issuing instructions
  64. 64. Advantages of Meetings Immediate feedback Gestures Facial expressions Eye contact InteractiveFace-to-face communication
  65. 65. The Critical Path of a Meeting Define the Meeting’s purpose Decide how Long it Should last Ensure the Right people attend
  66. 66. Is the meeting urgent and important? No Yes Is the meeting urgent or important? No Yes Is the meeting routine? No Yes Do you need to hold it ASAP? No Yes Is there a deadline to work towards? No Yes Hold meeting immediate Is the meeting necessary? No Yes Save the meeting for a quiet time Allocate a time to hold meeting Set a realistic deadlineDoes that meeting help you work more efficiently? No Yes Set aside a time to hold meeting C B A Don’t do It cancel it
  67. 67. To Ensure a Successful Meeting Ensure That the Right People Attend, at the Right Time and Place, and That They Reach the Right Decisions
  68. 68. Steps To Successful Meetings Planning Closing Controlling Steps to a Successful Meeting
  69. 69.  Define purpose of meeting  Develop meeting agenda  Select attendees - - Consider job background .. Harmonize.. - Define roles and means of participation  Locate a venue  Send out invitation along with agenda
  70. 70.  Monitor meeting duration (opening,closing)  Limit and bring side-discussions and unnecessary arguments back to track  Summarize each issue before moving to the next  Limit number of issues to be discussed
  71. 71. Direct meeting towards defined results  Define and announce each decision made  Direct meeting to a final conclusion  Support what has been agreed upon
  72. 72. Role of the manager when Chairing a Meeting • Keep discussion focused on the topic • Intervene if discussion fragments into multiple conversations • Tactfully prevent anyone from dominating
  73. 73. Role of the manager when Chairing a Meeting • Bring discussions to a close • Ensure all participants are aware of all decisions that have been reached • Notify group when time for an item has expired
  74. 74. Why Meetings Fail • Arriving late • Reason of attendance is unknown • Roles are not defined • No interest • Discussions dominated by one person • Engagements in side conversations • Interrupting the speaker
  75. 75. Why Meetings Fail • Unnecessary arguments • No agenda • Key persons are absent • Issues are left dangling • Meeting’s conclusions are pre-determined • Not following-up implementation
  76. 76. Defining Work Problems • Undesired , unplanned situations • Obstacles that slow down achieving goals • Inevitable in day to day work
  77. 77. Causes of Work Problems • Negligence of rules and regulations • Ignorance of the presence of rules and regulations • Improper organizing and planning work • Unexpected events and mishaps
  78. 78. Causes of Work Problems Man Machine Methods Materials
  79. 79. Problems should be handled at its early stages before it builds up
  80. 80. Principals Of Problem Solving • Avoid the "right/wrong" or "assigning blame" paradigm • Convey respect for the other person • Undertake to solve the problem together • Focus on the problem first, then look for solutions
  81. 81. Steps to Problem-solving • Who owns the problem? • Who is involved? • Who is being affected by it? Before any attempt to solve a problem ask yourself these questions:
  82. 82. Steps to Problem-solving • Define the problem (with input from yourself and others) - What is it that makes you think there's a problem? - Where is it happening? - How is it happening? - When is it happening? - With whom is it happening? - Write down a five-sentence description of the problem Don't jump to "Who is causing the problem?"
  83. 83. Steps to Problem-solving • Look at potential causes for the problem - Get input from others who notice the problem and who are effected by it - Collect input from individuals one at a time - Write down a description of the cause of the problem in terms of what is happening, where, when, how, with whom and why
  84. 84. Steps to Problem-solving • Identify alternatives for approaches to resolve the problem - keep others involved (unless you're facing a personal and/or employee performance problem) - Brainstorm for solutions to the problem
  85. 85. Steps to Problem-solving • Select an approach to resolve the problem consider: - Which approach is the most realistic to solve the problem for the long term? - Resources, are they available? affordable? Do you have enough time to implement the approach? - What is the extent of risk associated with each alternative?
  86. 86. Steps to Problem-solving • Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan) - What will the situation look like when problem is solved?“ - Steps to be taken to implement the best alternative? - What systems or processes should be changed in the organization, (e.g. a new policy or procedure?) - How will you follow-up with the implementation
  87. 87. Steps to Problem-solving • Plan the implementation of the best alternative (this is your action plan) - Resources needed (people, money and facilities?) - Time needed for implementation - Who will be responsible for implementing the plan? - Write down the answers to the above questions and consider this as your action plan - Communicate the plan to those who will be involved in implementing it and to your immediate manager
  88. 88. Steps to Problem-solving • Monitor implementation of the plan - Is the plan being done according to schedule? - If not, then consider: Was the plan realistic? Are there sufficient resources to accomplish the plan on schedule? Should more priority be placed on various aspects of the plan? Should the plan be changed?
  89. 89. Steps to Problem-solving • Verify if the problem has been resolved or not Consider: - What changes should be made to avoid this type of problem in the future? (changes to policies and procedures, training, etc.) - What did you learn from this problem solving? (new knowledge, understanding and/or skills.) - Write a brief memo that highlights the success of the problem solving effort. Share it with your manager, peers and subordinates
  90. 90. Focus Execute Develop Analyze
  91. 91. Fishbone Method Off-spec Product ManMachine MethodsMaterials Inadequate training No cooperation Not complying With standards Improper storage No Maintenance No Calibration Not following standards Improper test procedures
  92. 92. Force-field Analysis • Force field analysis is a method for listing, discussing, and evaluating the various forces for and against a proposed change. • Useful in clarifying the problem, and finding solutions to specific obstacles preventing goal achievement • Can be used to develop an action plan to implement a change
  93. 93. Force-field Analysis • Determine if a proposed change can get needed support • Identify obstacles to successful solutions • Suggest actions to reduce the strength of the obstacles
  94. 94. Force-field Analysis Present state Desired outcome Driving forces Restraining forces Worst state
  95. 95. Force-field Analysis Rejection rate 10% Rejection rate 2% Driving forces Restraining forces Rejection rate 20% Customer demand Motivated workers Increased market share Quality circle program Increased production time Other projects on line Lack of training
  96. 96. SWOT Analysis Threats Opportunities Strengths Weaknesses
  97. 97. Part of a manager’s role is having to make a series of large and small decisions. Reaching the right decision in every situation is an ambition that is well worth striving to achieve
  98. 98. Decisions Are an Essential Part of Life, in and Out of a Work Environment. managers, by Definition, Must Be Decision-Makers.
  99. 99. Types of Managerial Decisions Unplanned Planned Problem • Repetitive • Routine • Non-repetitive • Non-routine • Instructions • Policies • Low risk • Strategic solutions • High risk Procedures Decision
  100. 100. Top Management Middle Management Supervision Managerial Level Type of Decision Broad, unstructured,infrequent Much uncertainty Frequent,structured, repetitive,Routine, much certainty Non-programmed Decisions Structured and Unstructured Types of Problems/Decisions And Management Level Programmed Decisions
  101. 101. Decision Making IndividualConsensus
  102. 102. Participation Involvement Scale Tell Sell Gather information Get recommendations From group Group votes With mgt veto Group votes Without Mgt veto
  103. 103. Elements That Affect The Decision-making Process
  104. 104. Elements Affecting Decision-making Process Decision Making Nature of issue Resourcesavailable Technical/intellectual skills Secondary elements
  105. 105. Identify & define issue/problem Evaluate alternatives Undertake analysis Analyzing the Decision Process What exactly has to be decided? What are the Pros and cons? What are the alternatives? Implement decision Identify choices Which alternative Is the best? What action Needs to be taken?
  106. 106. AGISA The Group Thinking Model Goal setting Analyzing Selecting ideas Looking for Ideas Action Seeking issues Affecting the decision Opportunities or problems Conventional or unconventional Discarding or adopting Implementing Accepted decisions
  107. 107. Assessing the Validity of Ideas New technology Makes our product obsolete Our product dominates the market Update our product in order to hold market advantage See if new technology takes off before investing in it Invests in new technology when markets dictate Invest in new technology as soon as possible First to supply new product Risks position as market leader Delays investment until future date Strengthens position of present product Only keeps the status quo for now Problem Potential outcomesSuggested solutions
  108. 108. A Team Is More Than a Collection of Individuals. It Is, in Part, an Emotional Entity, Rooted in the Feelings As Well As the Thoughts of Its Members, Who Actively Care About Their Team’s Well-being.
  109. 109. Teamwork Definition A team is a limited number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
  110. 110. Benefits Of Teamwork Integration of the Talents and Competencies they Possess The Collective Utilization Of Individuals’ Efforts
  111. 111. What Makes a Good Team? • A true team is a living, constantly changing, dynamic force in which a number of people come together to work • Team members discuss their objectives, assess ideas, make decisions, and work towards their targets together
  112. 112. Points to Remember • A team member is still an individual, and should always be treated as such • Cross-functional teams offer the chance to learn about roles and work of others
  113. 113. Finding the Right Balance Of Skills Technical expertise Team-working skills Problem-solving skills Ability to cope with others Ability to make clear decisions In disciplines
  114. 114. Unifying a Team Most teams have a tendency to place too much emphasis on the task and not on the individual. The ideal situation is one in which the needs of the individual, the dynamics of the team, and the requirements of the task coincide at four strategic points to produce a unified, effective working team.
  115. 115. Unifying a Team Individual TaskTeam Team works to common end to complete tasks Needs of individual are catered for by team Challenging tasks maintain individual interest Each individual contributes to team effort to complete task in hand
  116. 116. Choosing Individuals for Specific Tasks
  117. 117. Which qualities are required for the job? Make a final decision based on responses to the question above Will I enjoy working with this person? Can any weaknesses be overcome? What are their respective key skills? Are there any suitable people? Assume that anyone will suit the role Rely solely on word of mouth recommendations Ignore shortfalls in favor of particular experience Hope weaknesses will be overlooked by the team Ignore signs of individual not being a team player Expect them to overcome problems “on the job” Offer the role to the individual who excels at one particular skill Draw up a job profile before talking to people Check “on paper” profile against details of individuals Favor individuals with wide-ranging skills Consider any shortcomings Note any shortcomings in personal skills Offer the role to the individual who brings most overall to the team Do Don’t
  118. 118. Stages of Team-development Forming The team first comes together; discovering "Why? What? Who? When?". Conflicts have not begin to emerge yet
  119. 119. manager’s Role Forming Use socializing and team discussion to initiate group work
  120. 120. Stages of Team-development StormingForming Disagreements arise about what needs to be done and who will do it. People are annoyed by The restrictions imposed by the team
  121. 121. manager’s Role StormingForming Assert your authority to defuse conflict in the team
  122. 122. Stages of Team-development NormingStormingForming The goals, roles, and boundaries have been clarified and accepted by team members. They have taken ownership and accountability for getting the work done
  123. 123. manager’s Role NormingStormingForming Encourage team members to establish a creative work pattern
  124. 124. Stages of Team-development PerformingNormingStormingForming The team becomes a true team, working in harmony, supporting one another. The team, not the leader, manages the project. Team members make adjustments to keep the deliverables on track
  125. 125. manager’s Role PerformingNormingStormingForming Build-up team faith in their collective ability and skills
  126. 126. manager’s Role in Team-building Process • Identifying purpose of forming team • Selecting team members • Identifying strengths and weaknesses • Setting objectives and clarifying issues • Allocating roles and responsibilities • Supporting team members
  127. 127. manager’s Role in Resolving Team Conflicts • Clarifying impact of conflict on performance • Identifying causes of conflict • Inviting parties to explain their points of view suggesting solutions • Selecting appropriate methods for solution • Agreement on roles to resolve the conflict • Developing a plan of implementation
  128. 128. Team Cohesion Has A Great Effect on Productivity Cohesion Productivity
  129. 129. Time spent together Proximity of Team members Size of team Previous achievements Challenges Facing team Factors that determine Team cohesion
  130. 130. Tips to Promote Cohesion • Keep enemies apart • Put friends together • Give special attention to people who find it difficult to make friends • Avoid fostering competing subgroups
  131. 131. Management By Objectives … a systematic and organized approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources
  132. 132. Individual objectives should be aligned with the organization’s objectives. What Is Meant by an Objective? A statement specifying the task to be implemented, the expected results, the resources required and the time frame of implementation
  133. 133. Objectives Objectives are specific accomplishments that must be accomplished in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals in the plan. Objectives are usually "milestones" along the way when implementing the strategies
  134. 134. Strategies or Activities These are the methods or processes required in total, or in some combination, to achieve the goals
  135. 135. Resources (and Budgets) Resources include the people, materials, technologies, money, etc., required to implement the strategies or processes. The costs of these resources are often depicted in the form of a budget
  136. 136. Goals / objectivesStrategies / tasks (results) (methods to achieve the results)
  137. 137. Types of Objectives Organizational Improvement Personnel Skills Development Problem Solving
  138. 138. Criteria for Writing Objectives SMARTER  Specific  Measurable  Acceptable  Realistic  Timely
  139. 139. Specifying Target Date • Specified by date • Date associated with another date • Specified by period
  140. 140. Cost Estimation • Should be calculated accurately • Should be realistic • May increase if implementation is delayed
  141. 141. Steps to Objective Setting Developing an action plan Subordinates’ participation
  142. 142. Action Plan , Why ? • To specify method of implementation • To develop a time frame • To utilize resources effectively • Helps in anticipating problems • To follow-up implementation in accordance to schedule
  143. 143. A Well-set Objective • To increase sales volume from 150,000 tons to 180,000 tons by end of December 2002 , cost of advertisement not to exceed 50,000 $ Result : Measurable Cost : specified Time frame : specified
  144. 144. A Poor Objective • To increase sales volume by using effective advertisement
  145. 145. Why Would Objectives Fail ? • Objectives are imposed on subordinates • Objectives are unrealistic • Time is not managed • Easy objectives are selected • Time spent in paper work • Objectives are not amended when necessary
  146. 146. Time is Life Time cannot be stored or replenished Understanding Time
  147. 147. Consider These Two Questions: What would happen if you spent company money as easy as you spend company time? When was the last time you reviewed your time allocation?
  148. 148. Waste Disposal • If an average employee earns about 27,000 pounds per year: about 12.50 pounds per hour, around 1 pound every 5 minutes; How many 5 minute sections of your activity deserves a pound? This is a critical appraisal of how you spend your time and to question some of your habits.
  149. 149. Time Waste , Why ? • Ignorance of the value of time • Late arrival to work or meetings • Failing to prioritize • Failing to delegate • Unnecessary interruptions
  150. 150. Time Waste , Why ? • Unexpected, unplanned visits • Lengthy , unnecessary telephone calls • Procrastination • Piled work • Unnecessary discussions
  151. 151. Changing Attitudes • Our attitudes to time are constantly changing • Changes are due to advent of new technology • Exchange of information has become instantaneous • Travel has become much faster • It is possible for us to do more in a day • It has also increased the pressure on our time
  152. 152. Estimating Value Of Time 1.5 x annual salary Working hours per year = Cost per hour Cost per hour 60 = Cost Per minute
  153. 153. Daily Routine Work With manager Discretionary Urgent With subordinates • Organize • Plan • Coordinate • Meeting • Discussion • Problems • Crisis • Coaching • Discussion • Complaints
  154. 154. Breaking Down Tasks
  155. 155. On-going projects Routine Planning & development Organizing a meeting Writing a Regular report Making new contacts
  156. 156. Breaking Down Tasks • Categorize your tasks • Estimate how long each task takes you • Look at the distribution of these tasks throughout the day
  157. 157. Ideal Time Allocation Group 1: Routine tasks Group 2: Ongoing projects Group 3: Planning and development 60% of time 25% of time 15% of time
  158. 158. Actual Time Allocation Group 1: Routine tasks Group 2: Ongoing projects Group 3: Planning and development 60% of time 15% of time 25% of time
  159. 159. If distribution is incorrect, re-organize your working day Breaking Down Tasks
  160. 160. Looking For Patterns • Does the breakdown meet the expectations of your working day? • Are you spending too much time on a particular group? • Are there times when you are very busy and times when you are slack? • If so, reorganize work more efficiently
  161. 161. Questions To Ask Yourself • Am I doing work somebody else should do? • Are there patterns that repeat themselves in my time log? • Do jobs frequently take longer than expected ? • Do I have enough time to be creative and innovative?
  162. 162. Estimating Efficiency • How close is your work pattern to the ideal 60:25:15 work distribution ratio? • If you spend too much time on one group,reorganize your daily schedule • Delegate jobs that can be done by juniors • Concentrate your energies on more important tasks
  163. 163. Setting Priorities Importance Urgency
  164. 164. Prioritizing a Task
  165. 165. Analyzing Tasks C B A Important and urgent Important or urgent Neither Important nor urgent - routine
  166. 166. B C Urgency Importance Analyzing Tasks A B
  167. 167. Prioritizing And Delegating Work • Make three separate lists for A, B, and C tasks • For each list, decide: - which tasks only you can do? - which tasks can be delegated? - which tasks need not be done?
  168. 168. Start With A’s And Not With C’s
  169. 169. Pareto Principle The 20 – 80 % Rule 80% 80% 20% 20%
  170. 170. Balancing Daily Tasks A-Tasks You should try to complete a few of these urgent, difficult tasks each day B-Tasks These account for the majority of your work and should take up most of your day C-Tasks These are non-urgent tasks that should be done when time allows One working day
  171. 171. Prioritizing A Task Priorities Should Continually Be Altered in Line With Changes or New Information
  172. 172. Is the task urgent and important? No Yes Is the task urgent or important? No Yes Is the task routine? No Yes Do you need to complete it today? No Yes Is there a deadline to work towards? No Yes Take Immediate action Is the task necessary? No Yes Save the task for a quiet time Allocate a time to complete The task Set a realistic deadlineDoes that task help you work more efficiently? No Yes Set aside a time to complete The task C Task B Task A Task Don’t do It discard it
  173. 173. Balancing Demands • Priorities change all the time • New information may change a task’s importance or urgency • When you receive new information, quickly reassess your list of priorities
  174. 174. Being Realistic • Be realistic about what you can achieve in a given period of time • Recognize the limits of your capabilities • Be realistic about others’ capabilities • Don’t demand too much of your colleagues • Stretch your expectations from time to time
  175. 175. Maximizing Efficiency • Recognize your energy levels • Understand your mental and physical cycles that your body follows each day • Plan and prioritize your workload accordingly • Flexible hours policy
  176. 176. 0 2 1 3 4 5 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 9 a.m 3 p.m1 p.m11 a.m 5 p.m Performancelevel Time of day Late-morning peak- best time for A-tasks Late- afternoon peak- best time for B-tasks Energy level Falls towards End of day After lunch trough- best time for C-tasks
  177. 177. Stress Stress is likely to affect all of us at some time in our lives. Learning how to reduce the stress that you encounter, will allow you to achieve your goals without damaging your health.
  178. 178. Stress Stress in individuals is defined as any interference that disturbs a person’s healthy, mental, and physical well- being. It occurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normal range of capabilities.
  179. 179. Stress Possible gains Restricts ability A threat that may cause A loss
  180. 180. Analyzing The Effect Of Stress ON SOCIETY Pressure on public services ON INDIVIDUALS Illness and Behavioral problems ON INDUSTRY Industrial accidents And inefficiencies
  181. 181. Stress In Management Motivating staff Adapting to change Staying with budgetsMeeting deadlines Reporting to superiors
  182. 182. Stress In Others Stress is infectious; You need to recognize it in others before it affects the people with whom they work !!
  183. 183. Stress In Others Looking for Signs of Stress Toward colleagues • Greets colleagues on arrival • Has lunch with colleagues • Maintains a friendly manner • Asks for opinions Toward colleagues • Sits at work in silence • Ignores opinions • Becomes irritable • Lunches alone Normal Stressed
  184. 184. Stress In Others Looking for Signs of Stress Toward the organization • Keeps workplace clean and neat • Files paperwork in an orderly fashion • Knows where to find things • Deals with correspondence immediately Toward the organization • Works in a chaotic fashion • Scatters paper everywhere • Takes long to find things • Leaves in-box full of correspondence Normal Stressed
  185. 185. Stress In Others Looking for Signs of Stress Toward own appearance • Is smartly dressed • Wears clean and well- pressed clothes • Looks well groomed • Maintains good personal hygiene Toward own appearance • Wears clothes unsuited for the job • Wears dirty and wrinkled clothes • Looks unkempt • Does not appear to care about appearance Normal Stressed
  186. 186. Effect of Stress on Work Performance • Can be useful or harmful • Depends on magnitude of stress • Absence causes slackness and impotency
  187. 187. Identifying And Handling Stress Cases • Beneficial stressors to properly perform a job function, a certain amount of stress is required. Motivation, Energy, Alertness, Promotes enthusiasm Promotes accepting challenges
  188. 188. Identifying And Handling Stress Cases • Negative stressors situations in the work place that leave a feeling of depression, anxiety, or pressure. Overwork, Ambiguity, Workplace Conflicts, Responsibility Poor performance, Anxiety Low morale
  189. 189. Effect of Stress on Work Performance Turning Point Work stress Performance Optimum stress
  190. 190. Sources and Signs of Stress
  191. 191. Individual factors Family problems Economical problems Environmental factors Economical fluctuations Political fluctuations Technological challenges Organizational factors Job stress Organizational hierarchy Management stress Physiological symptoms Headaches High blood pressure Heart diseases Psychological symptoms Insomnia/depression Job dissatisfaction Behavioral symptoms Absenteeism Work turnover Accidents
  192. 192. Individual factors Family problems Economical problems Environmental factors Economical fluctuations Political fluctuations Technological challenges Organizational factors - Workplace Stress Not knowing what you want or if you're getting it. The feeling that there's too much to do. Not enjoying your job. Most people always blame their jobs. Conflicting demands on the job. Insufficient resources to do the job. Not feeling appreciated. Physiological symptoms Headaches High blood pressure Heart diseases Psychological symptoms Insomnia/depression Job dissatisfaction Behavioral symptoms Absenteeism Work turnover Accidents
  193. 193. Stress Management Strategy  Individual Strategy - Time management - Physical fitness - Relaxation - Social support
  194. 194. Stress Management Strategy  Organizational Strategy - The right person for the right job - Competent, meaningful objectives - Participation in decision-making - Maintaining effective communications
  195. 195. How To Reduce Stress In The Workplace • Set realistic goals and priorities • Encourage good time-management techniques • Take short breaks after a particularly stressful event • Don’t procrastinate • Know your limits, be realistic
  196. 196. How To Reduce Stress In The Workplace • Learn to say "no“ • Give positive reinforcement • Set up employee recognition programs • Take responsibility • Provide a sympathetic ear • Most important, MAINTAIN A SENSE OF HUMOR
  197. 197. Objective of Delegation To get the job done by someone else. Not just the simple tasks of reading instructions and turning a lever, but also the decision making and changes which depend upon new information With delegation, your staff have the authority to react to situations without referring back to you
  198. 198. “Many managers resist Delegation authority for fear A job won’t be done well – Or that it will be done too well”
  199. 199. Centralization Vs Delegation • Centralization • Delegation
  200. 200. Advantages of Delegation • Higher efficiency • Increased motivation • Develops the skills of your team • Better distribution of work through the group • Makes the manager focus on more important tasks • Preparing the “second line”
  201. 201. The Act of Delegation manager Assigns tasks Grants authority Creates commitment What should Be done The right to use resources Contracting to Take responsibility
  202. 202. The Effective Delegator Does not Feel insecure Has confidence In subordinates Knows the value Of delegation Ensures staff Are trained Allow subordinates to be seen as the “experts”
  203. 203. To Determine Level of Maturity Skills and capabilities of doing work Technical expertise And the knowledge Of work The motive, self-confidence and willingness to take responsibilities
  204. 204. •· What tasks am I doing that does not need to be done at all? •· What tasks am I doing that only I can do? •· What am I doing that can be done by somebody else? Evaluating Your Activities Do not complete them yourself or delegate them Don’t delegate these, so prioritize them Delegate these tasks to subordinates
  205. 205. Steps to Delegate
  206. 206. Identify a suitable person for the task Praise / acknowledge a job well done Keep in touch with the person for support and monitoring progress. Do not get too close Grant the necessary authority to do the job properly Explain the task clearly. Leave room for ingenuity / initiative
  207. 207. Gaining Agreement Define task to be delegated Push for commitment Discuss any reservations Seek agreement In principle Discuss with Selected person Win acceptance From delegate Offer solutions and reassurance Do not push for Commitment yet
  208. 208. Make a final decision based on responses to the questions above Assume that anyone will suit the role within the team Ignore signs of individual not Being a team player Hope weaknesses will be Overlooked by the team Ignore shortfalls in favor of Particular experience Rely solely on word-of- mouth recommendations Expect them to overcome Problems “on the job” Offer the role to the individual Who excels at one particular skill Draw up a job profile before Starting to talk to people Check “on paper” profile Against details of individuals Note any shortcomings in Personal skills Give serious consideration To any shortcomings Favor individuals with Wide ranging skills Offer the role to the individual Who brings most overall to the team Are there any suitable people? Which qualities are required for the role? What are their respective key strengths? Can any weakness be overcome? Will I enjoy working With this person? Do’s Don’ts
  209. 209. Morale Overall attitude that employees have toward their workplace Job Satisfaction Degree of enjoyment people derive from performing their jobs Defining Satisfaction and Morale
  210. 210. Recent Trends in Managing Satisfaction and Morale • The booming economies of the 1990’s forced companies to work harder not only to retain current employees, but also to offer creative incentives to secure new employees • Many leading companies came up with innovative benefits designed to keep employees happy, boost satisfaction, and enhance morale
  211. 211. “The Set of Forces that cause People to Behave in Certain Ways” Motivation in the Workplace “The Inner Strivings that Initiate a Person’s Actions”
  212. 212. What makes it more difficult is the diversity of the workforce ..due to the complexity of the process; .. but it’s rather difficult for a manager to motivate his subordinates.. You can easily motivate a machine by providing maintenance..
  213. 213. Dimensions of Diversity Person Values and beliefs Needs Secondary dimensions Skills and abilities Primary dimensions
  214. 214. Needs Desire to Satisfy needs Needs satisfaction Action Motivation
  215. 215.  Reasonable salary Physiological Needs  Stability  Pension Plan  Friends at work  Cooperation  Assigning tasks  Assigning responsibilities  Advancement  Job Title Security Needs Social Needs Esteem Self- Actualization
  216. 216. Behavior Theory The Hawthorne Studies Tendency for Productivity to increase when Workers believe they are receiving special Attention from Management
  217. 217. Two-factor Theory • Hygiene factors: working conditions • Motivation factors: recognition for a job well done according to the two-factor theory, hygiene factors affect motivation and satisfaction only if they are absent or fail to meet expectations
  218. 218. THEORYHERZBERG Conditions that lead to Employee satisfaction Conditions that lead to Employee Dissatisfaction
  219. 219. Maintenance factors  managers  Working conditions  Interpersonal relations  Pay & security  Policy & administration Motivational factors  Achievement  Recognition  The work itself  Responsibility  Advancement & growth No dissatisfaction No satisfactionSatisfaction Dissatisfaction Two-factor theory of motivation
  220. 220. Basic income, fringe benefits, Bonuses, company car, etc. Working hours, workplace layout, equipment provided for the job Rules and regulations, that govern employers and employees Establishing Basic Needs At Work Hygiene Factors Definitions Company policy Working conditions Salary and benefits
  221. 221. Determined by the rank, authority and relationship to others The extent of control an employee has over the content and execution of a job Degree of confidence regarding Continuous employment in an organization Establishing Basic Needs At Work Definitions Status Job security Supervision and autonomy Hygiene Factors
  222. 222. Reaching or exceeding task objectives. It is one of the most powerful motivators and a great source of satisfaction. A job that provides positive, satisfying pleasure is a great motivational force to individuals. Acknowledgement of achievements by senior staff helps to enhance self-esteem. It is viewed as a reward in itself. Heightening Workplace Motivation Why they work Achievement Recognition Job Interest Motivators
  223. 223. The opportunity to exercise authority and power demands leadership skills, risk- taking, decision making and self direction. Promotion, progress, and rising rewards for achievement. The main motivator, however , is the feeling that advancement is possible. Heightening Workplace Motivation Why they work Responsibility Advancement Motivators

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