What is Systems Theory? Systems Theory: the transdisciplinary study of the abstract organization of phenomena, independent of their substance, type, or spatial or temporal scale of existence. It investigates both the principles common to all complex entities, and the (usually mathematical) models which can be used to describe them.
Systems theory was proposed in the 1940's by the biologist Ludwig von Bertalanffy (: General Systems Theory, 1968), and furthered by Ross Ashby (Introduction to Cybernetics, 1956). von Bertalanffy was both reacting agaInst reductionism and attempting to revive the unity of science. He emphasized that real systems are open to, and interact with, their environments, and that they can acquire qualitatively new properties through emergence, resulting in continual evolution. Rather than reducing an entity (e.g. the human body) to the properties of its parts or elements (e.g. organs or cells), systems theory focuses on the arrangement of and relations between the parts which connect them into a whole (cf. holism). This particular organization determines a system, which is independent of the concrete substance of the elements (e.g. particles, cells, transistors, people, etc). Thus, the same concepts and principles of organization underlie the different disciplines (physics, biology, technology, sociology, etc.), providing a basis for their unification. Systems concepts include: system-environment boundary, input, output, process, state, hierarchy, goal-directedness, and information. The developments of systems theory are diverse (Klir, Facets of Systems Science, 1991), including conceptual foundations and philosophy (e.g. the philosophies of Bunge, Bahm and Laszlo); mathematical modeling and information theory (e.g. the work of Mesarovic and Klir); and practical applications. Mathematical systems theory arose from the development of isomorphies between the models of electrical circuits and other systems. Applications include engineering, computing, ecology, management, and family psychotherapy. Systems analysis, developed independently of systems theory, applies systems principles to aid a decisIon-maker with problems of identifying, reconstructing, optimizing, and controlling a system (usually a socio-technical organization), while taking into account multiple objectives, constraints and resources. It aims to specify possible courses of action, together with their risks, costs and benefits. Systems theory is closely connected to cybernetics, and also to system dynamics, which models changes in a network of coupled variables (e.g. the "world dynamics" models of Jay Forrester and the Club of Rome). Related ideas are used in the emerging "sciences of complexity", studying self-organization and heterogeneous networks of interacting actors, and associated domains such as far-from-equilibrium thermodynamics, chaotic dynamics, artificial life, artificial intelligence, neural networks, and computer modeling and simulation. Francis Heylighen and Cliff Joslyn Prepared for the Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy.(Copyright Cambridge University Press)
Cybernetics, deriving from the Greek word for steersman (kybernetes), was first introduced by the mathematician Wiener, as the science of communication and control in the animal and the machine (to which we now might add: in society and in individual human beings). It grew out of Shannon's information theory, which was designed to optimize the transmission of information through communication channels, and the feedback concept used in engineering control systems. In its present incarnation of "second-order cybernetics", its emphasis is on how observers construct models of the systems with which they interact (see complex systems to maintain, adapt, and self-organize. Such circularity or self-reference makes it possible to make precise, scientific models of purposeful activity, that is, behavior that is oriented towards a goal or preferred condition. In that sense, cybernetics proposes a revolution with respect to the linear, mechanistic models of traditional Newtonian science. In classical science, every process is determined solely by its cause, that is, a factor residing in the past. However, the behavior of living organisms is typically teleonomic, that is, oriented towards a future state, which does not exist as yet. Cybernetics has discovered that teleonomy (or finality) and causality can be reconciled by using non-linear, circular mechanisms, where the cause equals the effect. The simplest example of such a circular mechanism is feedback. The simplest application of negative feedback for self-maintenance is homeostasis. The non-linear interaction between the homeostatic or goal-directed system and its environment results in a relation of control of the system over the perturbations coming from the environment.
To focus on Herbal materia medica we have to note that, a large and increasing number of patients in all over the world use medicinal herbs or seek the advice of their physician (Developed world) or Traditional Healers and Hakim’s (least developing world), yet patients and(physicians) often lack accurate information about the safety and efficacy of herbal remedies. Popular use of medicinal herbs makes it necessary for physicians to became aware of their health benefits, risks, and uncertainties so that they can educate their patients and the public in general . Plants have been used medicinally through out the history, you can not ignore this fact specially if you are located in one of the least developing countries, where uses of plants are intensified in proportion with the increase of certain diseases such as AIDS. Even in the most developed countries , many herbs were considered conventional medicines and as such were included in medical curricula (e.g British Pharmacopoeia and the United States). Also a pharmaceutical industry capable of mass production of purified herbs were developed, but unlike the purified herbs in the developed countries, medicinal herbs are not required to demonstrate either safety or efficacy prior to prescription by the traditional healers in the least developed countries, nor are their preparation, time of harvesting and storage condition be identified. It is worth to recognize that more than about 25 % of modern pharmaceutical drugs have botanical origins, such as digoxin from foxgloves, morphine from poppies, aspirin from willow bark and tomoxifen from pacific yew tree, and so on…..
WHAT IS HERB?
Any plant with
or flowers used
HOW TO IDENTIFY HERBS
ON THE BASIS OF COLOUR OF ITS FLOWER Yellow flower-it can be for
Reddish –antibiotics,skin disorders.
Purple-stress,blood purifier,treating muscles.
ON THE BASIS OF GROWING CONDITION Grow in gravel-Works as a stone breaker in
body parts like kidney ,gallbladder..
Grow in wet soil-Works in respiratory problems
Grow near fast moving water-clean the toxins
and wastes in body system…
ONE THE BASIS OF TEXTURESoft texture-for colds and chest disorders.
Thorny herbs-for sharp pain,hair…
Climbing herbs-for blood system and nervous
ON THE BASIS OF ROOT SYSTEMVein like roots- For blood and nerve disorders.
Thread like roots- Veins in the skin….
MEDICINE EXCLUSIVELY MADE FROM
It is the oldest still the most widely used
systemm of medicine in the world today.
6000 plants have medicinal
25% of “modern” prescription drugs
have botanical origins
WHY HERBAL MEDICINE
It is being used by about 80% of the world population
primarily in the developing countries for primary
SAFETY,EFFICACY, CULTURAL ACCEPTABILITY AND
LESSER SIDE EFFECTS.
Ancient literature also mentions herbal medicines
for age-related diseases namely Memory Loss,
Osteoporosis, Diabetic Wounds, Immune And Liver
Disorders, etc. for which no modern medicine or only
palliative therapy is available.
WHY DO PEOPLE USE HERBAL
Because it is natural and everybody believe that
nature provides solution to good health.
Unlike synthetic pharmaceutical medicine herbs
are easily absorbed in body and blood stream
leaving minimal residual and side effects.
In most cases it is based on the recommedation.
PERCEPTION OF NATURAL = SAFE
Used in developing countries where cost of drugs
is prohibitive, poor accessibility to drugs in rural
areas, shortage of physicians.
NEED A COMBO
Earliest recorded use of a medicinal plant has
been mentioned in ‘Rigveda’
one mentioned in the modern texts is that of the
herb called “Ma huang” a species of Ephedra used
medicinally in China for over 5000 years
Cinchona was used by local south American
tribes long before before the isolation of quinine
for treating malaria
Source of aspirin was used as pain killer for long
time before being identified
Middle of 19th century, 80% of all medicines were
Even today 25% of drugs are derived from plant
Most of these drugs came from traditional lead,
folk knowledge etc.
Some of these still could not substituted despite
the enormous advancement in synthetic
chemistry eg. Reserpine, taxol, vincristine etc.
HERBAL DRUGS IN INDIA
More than 70% of INDIA’S 1.1 billion population is
still using non-alopathic .
In India,nearly 9,500 registered herbal industries and
a multitude of unregistered cottage-level herbal
units depend upon the continuous supply of
medicinal plants for manufacture of herbal medical
formulations based on Indian Systems of Medicine.
It is estimated that more than 6,000 plant species
forming about 40% of the plant diversity of the
country are used in its codified and folk healthcare
More than 95 % of the population in the least
developing countries use herbs for health and
More than one third of Americans and
Europeans use herbs for health purposes,
spending over 7.0 billion annually.
More than 25 % of modern pharmaceutical
drugs have botanical origins.
HOW DO HERBS AND DRUGS
Holistic healing science,
System of medical practice , treats
comprises of two words, Ayu and
disease by the use of remedies
Veda. Ayu means life and Veda
which produce effects different
means knowledge or science. So
from those produced by the
the literal meaning of the word
disease under treatment.
Ayurveda is the science of life.
The term ‘allopathy’ was coined in
Ayurveda is a science dealing not
1842 by C.F.S. Hahnemann to
only with treatment of some
designate the usual practice of
diseases but is a complete way of
medicine (allopathy) as opposed
to homeopathy, the system of
Ayurveda aims at making a
therapy that he founded based on
happy, healthy and peaceful
the concept that disease can be
society. The two most important
treated with drugs (in minute
aims of Ayurveda are:
doses) thought capable of
1.to maintain the health of
producing the same symptoms in
healthy people as the disease
2.to cure the diseases of sick
ALLOPATHY OR MODERN
Pursued by most (influenced and so called ‘Literate’) in
India and, in western countries
Backed by TECHNOLOGICAL advances - investigations
Based on SOUND scientific reasoning –
EXPERIMENTAL EVIDENCE; not anecdotal
Thus, Modern Medicine is an EVIDENCE-BASED,
techno-savvy science that seems to provide ultimate
care to sick patients
The treatment is often SYMPTOMATIC,
COSTLY, OUT OF REACH of most in
Exception for incurable diseases, they do
not have much to offer except palliation
Treatment of CHRONIC LIFESTYLE
DISORDERS like NEURODEGENERATIVE
disorders is often very disappointing and
limited by adverse events
It treats the Disease NOT THE PATIENT ‘AS
A WHOLE’ (Holistic approach).
•DELAY IN EFFECTIVE TREATMENT for
•Interference with vital treatment
•Overloading patient with multiple
•Unexpected rare but serious liver toxicity
•Toxic plants used
•Interactions with other medicines
•Contamination during manufacturing
•Confusion over standards
Rule of thumb…Avoid using herbs in
infants, children, pregnant
women,nursing mothers, patients,daisy
allergies, patients on multiple
Medicines should be prescribed only
when they are necessary, and in all
cases the benefit of administering the
medicine should be considered in
relation to the risk involved