In the following presentation I am going to take you through the recruitment and selection principles module.
There are three major steps – First is Job Analysis. It is followed by recruitment and finally there is selection.
Job analysis is the systematic process of gathering and organizing data about jobs, the purpose of the jobs, its major duties, activities and conditions. A job analysis will reveal the tools, machinery and equipment employees use and the physical conditions they operate in.
Let us consider an example now. How about the position of a Marketing Officer for AMC. Purpose of the Role is to promote the courses that AMC has to offer. Duties involves taking students on tours, giving orientation, maintaining the website Activities include focus group discussions, surveys, going to expos Conditions: It may involve a bit of travelling Skill: Software Skill like Adobe Illustrator, Microsoft Office SkillsTasks: Writing content for newsletter is a task Behavior: Needs to be an extrovert and outgoing
How do we identify the purpose, the activities and the duties of a job? We can do this by observing directly or by videoWe can interview a marketing officer or the marketing manager to understand the tasks and activities of a job. We can send out structured questionnaires and current employees can give answers to a list of questions. We can look at records of effective or ineffective worker behavior We can take a look at performance reviews that record the tasks of a job.
So what is the end result of job analysis – it is a job description and a job specification. The job description gives a general description of the job – For example a cook who is in charge of desserts at a café in AMC The job specification gives a very very specific description of what the job demands – Such as we need a person who knows how to make French crepes and tarts. She must know how to make a lot of European styled dessert and she must be ready to work for long hours into the night – So Cecile are you ready to apply?
So simply put recruitment refers to the various activities HR professionals involve in to bring together a pool of applicants for a particular position.
This slide explains the recruitment part of the entire job analysis-recruitment-selection process. Step 1 is Resource Forecast: Where we know contracts of employees are ending, say in December 2010. Sometimes people submit their resignation half way through the contract. That should also be accounted for. Step 2 is deciding whether we are going to replace a person in a particular role. Step 3 is coming up with a recruitment requisition. This should be accompanied by a job description and a job specification i.e. We have a vacancy for a cook who is skilled in French Crepes Step 4 Budget is defining how much compensation we are going to offer this person per annumSo right now our problem statement is “We have a vacancy for a cook who is skilled in French Crepes and we have $60000 per year to offer in compensation. Now let us look at what recruitment strategies we can employ. NOTE: Sometimes applicants might apply directly before a position is posted or they may come through referrals inside the company. So let us take a look at the recruitment methods.
There are two basic ways of recruiting for a position. To look internally and identify talent that may be able to fulfill the duties of the vacant position. Or look outside. Both methods have their own advantages which are: Internal:Employees are familiar with the organization and therefore need not be trained from scratch. Also employing current employees in higher roles acts as an morale booster – with employees feeling recognized for their contributions and capabilities. External:Recruiting from outside has its own advantages – it brings to the firm fresh talent who come with lots of ideas and very little bias and preconceived notions in their minds. They can be mould easily.
Recruiting through print ads is probably the most common form of recruitment. This ad I have shown in the slide is the recent most talked about recruitment ad. The ad was for that of a position of an island caretaker close to Queensland and it had over a million application come in from all over the world. Applicants had to shoot a creative video of themselves telling why they would be the best person for that job. Usually print ads give a brief description of the job with a note on the specific skills required – annual salary and other conditions
Online recruiting refers to recruitment through the online medium – which includes your website, applications received through email and finally the newest kid on the block – Linkedin, a professional networking site where thousands of jobs are being posted and applications accepted. Explain how linkedin works if time permits.
Employment agencies both online and offline offer services to both applicants and business.For applicants they provide assistance in formulating career strategy and plans, in-depth résumé development, interviewing, negotiating and new culture assimilation.For Employers, Business and HR Professionals they offer marketing, shortlisting, testing and interview facilities.
Campus recruiting is a very sought after form of recruiting where employers come to campus and choose students who might be suitable to apply to a position in the organization. Campus recruitment is very cost effective and at the same time gives them access to a variety of talent from various backgrounds.
Finally we come to the selection process. Once applications have been received through the recruitment process we move on to the selection stage.
Selection involves many stages. We will discuss some of them in detail. Selection involves skill tests, interviews, followed by referee checks, medical testing, negotiation, offer and finally acceptance.
Eliminating non-qualified applicants is a part of the selection process and there are some points one must consider about the selection and elimination tools and techniques. The first is validity where it should be established that the tests measure exactly what they are intended to measure. Math test must accurately measure math capacity. The second is reliability – Where we must establish if this test is valid over time – Test without the use of calculator where calculators can be used in the job all the time. Generalisability: Whether the test or measurement tool is valid in all contexts – English speaking ability for a piano teacher is not as important as an English test for an English teacher applicant. Utility – Whether these tests are actually effective Legality – Whether selection and elimination methods are actually legal
Tests can be of two types – One to test ability, skills and knowledge required to be successful in that specific job. Or Personality tests that aims to understand if a particular person will fit well into the organization.
After testing – only a small percentage of the candidates will be taken to the interview round. The interviews can be of different types as shown in the slide. Behavioral interview is used to identify how people will behave in a particular situation and what type of decisions they will make. Panel Interview is one where there are many members interviewing and looking at various aspects of a candidate. Phone and video interview are done without coming face-face with the applicant Lunch and Dinner interview are very common in some industries Stress interview is one where the candidate is subject to a lot of pressure by the interviewer in order to see how he reacts to a high-pressure situation
After the interview, the most preferred candidate is asked to do medical testing, his references are checked and an offer is made. Selection ends when a candidate accepts the offer.
So what next after selection – It will be orientation into the firm, training and development which will be discussed in forthcoming chapters.
Why Can't We Figure Out How to Select Leaders? (HBS Working Knowledge) http://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/6103.htmlPlan Your Workforce for the Economic Rebound (http://www.businessweek.com/managing/content/nov2009/ca20091123_553689.htm)Employers Use Facebook More Than LinkedIn for HR Screening (http://www.cmswire.com/cms/social-media/employers-use-facebook-more-than-linkedin-for-hr-screening-005331.php)Ask About Changing Careers in New York (http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/03/22/ask-about-changing-careers-in-new-york-2/?scp=10&sq=Recruitment&st=cse)
Recruitment <br />Attracting a sufficient number of right people at the right time<br />
Recruitment Process <br />Staff turnover<br />Job Analysis<br />
Recruiting Methods<br />External <br />Internal<br />Employees familiar with organization <br />Lower training cost <br />Increase morale for employees<br />New Ideas and approaches<br />Clean slate <br />Level of knowledge not available in the organization<br />
Selection: Eliminating non-qualified applicants <br />Validity: Do tests measure exactly what they have to<br />Reliability: Is it consistent and free of errors<br />Generalisability: Does the test apply in all contexts<br />Utility: Effectiveness<br />Legality<br />
What next after selection?<br />Management of Talent <br />Induction<br />Training<br />Development <br />
Conclusion<br /> There are situations where almost nothing you can learn about candidates before they start predicts how they'll do once they're hired.<br />
Conclusion<br />But job analysis is an important step before recruitment and recruitment strategies influence who will be selected. <br />
Reference <br />Why Can't We Figure Out How to Select Leaders? (HBS Working Knowledge February 2009)<br />Plan Your Workforce for the Economic Rebound<br /> (Businessweek 2009) <br />Employers Use Facebook More Than LinkedIn for HR Screening (cmswire August 21, 2009) <br />Ask About Changing Careers in New York<br /> (nytimes March 2010)<br />