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Gender,Religion & Caste


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Gender,Religion & Caste

  1. 1. Gender, Religion & Caste<br />By Mr. SiddharthChandrasekar<br />
  2. 2. What Disadvantages Do Women Face?<br />Literacy Rate - 54% for women.76% for men showing disparity<br />Smaller proportion of girls go for higher studies<br />Preferential treatment meted out to boy`s education rather than for girls<br />Proportion of women among highly paid and valued job is small<br />Equal wages Act provides equal wages but discrimination continues in sports, cinema, factories and fields<br />Preference to have sons and abortion of girl child<br />Sex selective abortions have led to decline in child sex ratio<br />Various types of harassment, exploitation and violence <br />Urban areas too have become unsafe for women<br />
  3. 3. Solution To This Problem…<br />To make it legally binding to have a fair proportion of women in elected bodies<br />Reservation of 1/3 seats in local bodies<br />10 lakh elected representatives in rural and urban local bodies<br />Demand for 1/3 seats in Lok Sabha and State Assemblies<br />
  4. 4. Give A Few Instances That Involve Relationship Between Religion & Politics.<br />Gandhiji believed that politics must be guided by ethics drawn from religion<br />Human rights groups demanding the Government to take special steps to protect religious minorities<br />Women`s movements want Government to change family laws to make it equitable<br />
  5. 5. Communalism…<br />To place ones community above everything including the nation<br />When does it begin?<br />When religion is seen as the basis of the nation<br />When does it become acute? <br />When religion is expressed in politics in exclusive and partisan terms<br />When one religion and its followers are pitted against the other<br />
  6. 6. Communalism…<br />What factors promote communalism?<br />Beliefs of one religion are presented as superior to those of other religions.<br />When demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another.<br />When state power is used to establish domination of one religious group over the rest.<br />What is Communal Politics?<br />It is based on the idea that religion is <br /> the principal basis of social community.<br />
  7. 7. Communalism…<br />What Do Communalists Think?<br />Followers of one religion must belong to one community.<br />Their fundamental interests are same.<br />People who follow different religions cannot belong to the same social community.<br />
  8. 8. Communalism…<br />What forms can Communalism take in Politics?<br />It involves religious prejudices, stereotypes of religious communities and belief in the superiority of one`s religion over other religions.<br />Communal mind leads to a quest for Political dominance of one’s own religious communities.<br />If it is a Majority community – Majoritarian Dominance.<br />If it is a Minority community – It forms a separate Political Unit.<br />Political mobilisation – using symbols, religious leader`s emotional appeal and plain fear in order to bring the followers of one religion together in political arena.<br />Communal violence. <br />
  9. 9. Secular State…<br />There is no official religion for India. Constitution does not offer special status to any religion.<br />Constitution provides to all freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion.<br />Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.<br />State will intervene in matters of religion to ensure equality within religious communities. It bans un-touchability.<br />
  10. 10. Caste & Politics…<br />Hereditary occupational division sanctioned by rituals.<br />Members of the same caste group formed similar occupation, married within the caste and did not eat with members from other caste groups.<br />
  11. 11. Efforts Taken to Check Casteism…<br />Political leaders and social reformers like JOTHIBHA PHULE,GANDHIJI,AMBEDKAR and EVR PERIYAR have done a lot to check casteism.<br />Socio economic changes have brought in a check.<br />Large scale urbanisation.<br />Literacy and education.<br />Occupational mobility.<br />Weakening of the position of landlords.<br />Constitution prohibited caste based discrimination.<br />
  12. 12. Caste & Politics…<br />Why is there a disproportionately large <br />presence of Upper Caste among Urban Middle <br />Class ?<br />Groups that did not have access to education were prohibited from acquiring it have lagged behind.<br />
  13. 13. Caste can take various forms in Politics…<br />During the choice of candidates before an election , care is taken that the composition of electorate and nomination of candidates from different castes to muster support to win elections.<br />During formation of Governments, political parties take care that representatives of different castes and tribes find a place in it.<br />To make appeals to caste sentiment to muster support.<br />Universal adult franchise - one person one vote.<br />
  14. 14. Elections are all about Caste & nothing else…<br />No parliamentary constituency has a clear majority of one single caste. Every candidate /party must win the confidence of more than one caste and community to win elections.<br />No party wins the votes of all voters of a caste /community.<br />Many political parties may put up candidates from same caste.<br />Ruling party /sitting MP losing election could not have happened if all castes and communities were frozen in political preferences.<br />
  15. 15. What forms does Caste take when it is Politicised?<br />Caste group becomes big by including neighbouring castes.<br />Party enters into a coalition with other castes.<br />Rise of backward caste and forward caste group.<br />
  16. 16. Effects of Exclusive Attention to Caste…<br />Is negative.<br />Politics based on caste identity alone is not healthy.<br />Diverts attention from poverty ,development and corruption.<br />Leads to tension, conflict and even <br /> violence.<br />
  17. 17. Popular Struggle & Movements<br />
  18. 18. Nepal…<br />Won democracy in 1990. <br />Formal power was with the King.<br />Real power with elected representatives.<br />2001 – Massacre of Royal Family, Gyanendra took charge.<br />2005 – Dissolution of Parliament.<br />2006 - Popular control over Govt. headed by the King.<br />7 Party alliance called for a 4 day strike. Maoists & other organisations joined.<br />21st April, King conceded to all demands leading to :<br />Restoration of Parliament.<br />Seizure of power from the Ruler.<br />To make Koirala Prime Minister.<br />Maoists & SPA came to an agreement about a new constituent assembly to be elected.<br />
  19. 19. Bolivia…<br />Fight against Privatisation of Water<br />World Bank pressurised Government to give up control of Municipal Water supply.<br />Sale of rights to a MNC for the City of Cochabamba.<br />Company raised the price of water 4 times.<br />4 day general strike by Labour and Human Rights and Community leaders.<br />Government agreed to negotiate.<br />Power of the people forced MNC to flee & made Government to concede to all demands.<br />Water supply was restored to municipality at old rates.<br />
  20. 20. Similarities…<br />
  21. 21. Differences…<br />
  22. 22. Two way roles of these organisations are …<br />Direct participation in competitive politics<br />Creation of parties contesting elections and forming Governments<br />
  23. 23. Formation of Organisations…<br />Those organisations that undertake activities to promote their interest are called INTEREST GROUPS or PRESSUREGROUPS.<br />PRESSURE GROUPS :<br />Influence Government policies<br />Do not aim at directly controlling or sharing political power.<br />Formed when people with common occupation, interests, aspirations or opinions come together to achieve a common objective.<br />
  24. 24. Pressure Groups…<br />Movements : Narmada BachaoAndolan Women’s Movement<br />Influence politics rather than directly take part in electoral competition<br />They are loose organisations<br />Make informal decisions and are flexible<br />They depend on spontaneous mass participation<br />
  25. 25. Interest Groups…<br />Are united organisations<br />Do not care much for mass participation<br />Promote the interest of a particular section or group of society<br />Example : Trade Unions, Business Associations & Professional Bodies<br />Sectional Groups…<br /><ul><li>Represent a section of society
  26. 26. Example : Workers, Employees, Business Groups, Industrialists, Followers of Religion & Caste Groups
  27. 27. Aims : Betterment of their members & not society in general</li></li></ul><li>Groups…<br />FEDECOR (FeracionDepartamentalCochabambina de Regantes)<br />Represents some common or general interest that needs to be defended. <br />Members may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents.<br />Promotional Groups <br />Promote collective good<br />Aim to help groups rather than their own members<br />Group fighting against bonded labour is an example<br />They are also called public interest groups<br />
  28. 28. Groups…<br />BAMCEF(Backward & Minorities Community Employees Federation)<br />Made of Govt. employees that campaigns against caste discrimination<br />It addresses problems of its members who suffer discrimination<br />Its concern is with social justice and social equality for the entire society<br />Movement Groups <br />Issue specific movements and seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame<br />
  29. 29. Single Issue Movements…<br />Nepalese Movement<br />Specific objective of reviving the king’s orders that led to suspension of democracy<br />Narmada BachaoAndolan<br />Specific issue of people displaced by creation of SardarSarovar Dam<br />Objective<br />To stop the dam<br />Questioned all such big dams and requirement of such dams<br />Has a clear leadership and organisation<br />Active life is short<br />
  30. 30. Long Term & More Than One Issue Movements…<br />No single organisation controls /guides such movements.<br />All these have a separate organisation, independent leadership and different views on policy.<br />Example :<br />Environmental movement<br />Women’s movement<br />
  31. 31. National Alliance for People’s Movements(NAPM)…<br />Movement groups struggling on specific issues are constituents of this loose organisation which co ordinates the activities of a large number of people`s movements<br />
  32. 32. How do Pressure Groups & Movements exert influence on Politics ?<br />They gain public support and sympathy for their goals by carrying out information campaigns, meetings and petitions.<br /> They influence media by giving attention to these issues<br />Protest activities like strikes are done to force the Government to take note of their demand<br />Business groups employ professional lobbyists or sponsor expensive advertisements<br />They participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the Government<br />Sometimes political parties grow out of movements Example DMK and AIADMK<br />
  33. 33. Groups…<br />Interest groups and movements do not directly engage in politics but seek to influence on political parties<br />Movement groups take a political stance without being a party<br />They have political ideologies and position on major issues<br />Is their influence healthy? <br />Pressure groups have deepened democracy.<br />Governments can often come under undue pressure from a small group of rich and powerful people<br />Public interest groups and movements perform a useful role of countering this influence and reminding the Government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens<br />Sectional groups prevents the domination of one group over the rest<br />They bring about a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests<br />