What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Ann...
Factors that affected the health “caring” Culture. Time  orientation Subjective Vs Objective cultures Supremacy Of family ...
Women’s disempowered status I <ul><li>Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners </li></ul><ul><li...
The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and put...
Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results
Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)
TBA <ul><li>Donkey ride for pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Massaging/kneading the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling on t...
No “caring culture” <ul><li>Lepers were burnt or buried alive </li></ul><ul><li>Sick in an “epidemic” were left to die </l...
Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don...
Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing
IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III <ul><li>THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>The Judeo Ch...
One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. I...
Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.
Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while att...
High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of bo...
THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT SOLITARY WORSHIP LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL FAMILY...
Cont.
Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V <ul><li>We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity...
Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures Subjective Objective Changing standards Absolutes Non-shared standards Widel...
Subjective cultures do not support  scientific development because <ul><li>Interpret reality subjectively </li></ul><ul><l...
Indian religions… <ul><li>In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. </li></ul><ul><li>WAS...
Family versus truth-VI A father and a husband is like a God
Country Rank  Country  2004 CPI Score*  Confidence Range**  Surveys Used*** 1 Finland 9,7 9.5 - 9.8 9 2 New Zealand 9,6 9....
Family values & corruption <ul><li>Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) </li></u...
Women’s  transformation Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Role Modeling of care Sustainability of  transfor...
Women’s health <ul><li>Women medical missionaries ushered in “caring” for women </li></ul><ul><li>Women in India did not a...
Maharani’s locket <ul><li>Elizabeth Bielby-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Maharani of Panna </li></ul><ul><li>Locket message to  <...
SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women...
7. Ms Hewlett  1877  England Zenana Mission  Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell  1878  American Baptist Board  Burma 9. Fanny Butler...
Name of Women   Year of  Affiliation to Mission   Place of work Arrival 17. Edith Brown  1893  Society for Female Educatio...
Ida Scudder <ul><li>Not a medical college but the kingdom of God </li></ul><ul><li>(1918) </li></ul>
Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access <ul><li>One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by </l...
Transformation of women <ul><li>The highest number of women doctors in the world </li></ul><ul><li>India is a huge “nurse ...
Ancient India did not have a culture of “care” <ul><li>By a “caring culture” I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospi...
In what was a caring “void” <ul><li>Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care </li></ul><ul><li>The firs...
Social work in India…   <ul><li>The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist ...
By 1940 AD…. <ul><li>There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 40% of all beds were made up ...
Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78 <ul><li>Pioneer missionary educationist  </li></ul><ul><li>English education can have a transfo...
Christians ushered in a culture of “care” <ul><li>Started many NGO’s that looked at specific needs of the poor and provide...
Welfare-Social capital did not exist <ul><li>The only safety net for the poor was </li></ul><ul><li>The joint family </li>...
The concept of the voluntary sector…. <ul><li>Indian culture did not have this concept of “volunteerism” </li></ul><ul><li...
The concept of the ”voluntary” sector….. <ul><li>Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry...
As a result …1825 onwards <ul><li>Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools </li></ul><ul><li>Started s...
The many champions of “caring” <ul><li>Some were Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Some liked “Christian” values but were not C...
Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833) founder of “Brahmo Samaj” A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the ...
Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83 <ul><li>Founded Arya Samaj </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and fem...
The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone
Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875 <ul><li>Educated in “The Scottish mission school” </li></ul><ul><li>Became a great ...
Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar <ul><li>From 1854-55 he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu societ...
As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism
Indian reformer <ul><li>Vivekananda 1863-1902 </li></ul><ul><li>Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement!...
Vivekananda <ul><li>He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamana...
Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian “caring” <ul><li>Calcutta Ramakrishna M. Institute of Cultur...
Ramakrishna mission locale <ul><li>Bangalore Vivekananda Ashram Kochi Ramakrishna Math, Kerala Ranchi Ramakrishna Mission ...
Vivekananda <ul><li>Swami Vivekananda  wrote in one of his letters :  </li></ul><ul><li>A hundred thousand men and women, ...
Karsondas Mulji-1832-71 <ul><li>Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer </li></ul><ul><li>While in Elphinstone ...
Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer <ul><li>1824-1876 AD- became a Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Both ‘The Capti...
Dadabhai Naoroji 1824-1917 <ul><li>Grand Old Man of India </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Elphinstone college-influenced by D...
Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only <ul><li>Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>G...
Jains now have many hospitals <ul><li>Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, C...
In personal conversation with Jains <ul><li>We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the mis...
Emergence of Gandhian NGO’s <ul><li>From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGO’s were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran San...
Mushrooming of NGO’s… <ul><li>Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGO’...
Ripple effect Non-Xian hospitals Other caring NGO’s Advocacy Doctors & Nurses Man power for mission Activists Women’s   st...
Disaster 1947 onwards.. <ul><li>700 Protestant hospitals in India </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indian trained D & N </li></ul><u...
Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people Paradigm shift 1 RUNNING PROGRAMS   PEOPLE BUILDING 2 Programs produ...
Programme Development to  People Development - 2 <ul><li>Jesus – “ Follow me and I will make you fishers of men”. </li></u...
Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care <ul><li>3 Types of Caring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial caring </l...
Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon India West Christian Caring Commercial Professional Christian cari...
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What Motivated The Early Christian Health Missions Anatomy Of Transformation In India

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What Motivated The Early Christian Health Missions Anatomy Of Transformation In India

  1. 1. What Motivated the Early Christian Health Missions? Anatomy of Transformation in India Dr.Vinod Shah Presented at CCIH Annual Conference, May 29, 2005
  2. 2. Factors that affected the health “caring” Culture. Time orientation Subjective Vs Objective cultures Supremacy Of family & Corruption Women’s Disempowered status Body soul dissociation Low trust versus High trust Role-modeling Caring & Relationship Health
  3. 3. Women’s disempowered status I <ul><li>Pregnant women were not allowed access to high caste practitioners </li></ul><ul><li>Had to access low caste women traditional dais </li></ul><ul><li>Dais were illiterate women </li></ul>
  4. 4. The eldest son of the family pays his last respects to his deceased father before completing the customary rituals and putting torch to the funeral pyre.
  5. 5. Erotic sculptures abound & temple prostitution was one of the results
  6. 6. Decorated Sati from a Hero-stone (Mahasati Stone)
  7. 7. TBA <ul><li>Donkey ride for pregnant women </li></ul><ul><li>Massaging/kneading the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Pulling on the cord </li></ul><ul><li>Cow dung as lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>Took responsibility for female-feticide and disposal of body </li></ul>
  8. 8. No “caring culture” <ul><li>Lepers were burnt or buried alive </li></ul><ul><li>Sick in an “epidemic” were left to die </li></ul><ul><li>Female children were sold to buy food during an epidemic </li></ul><ul><li>Mentally retarded, handicapped were chained to trees </li></ul><ul><li>Sick had no recourse to help </li></ul>
  9. 9. Caring not role modeled: Religion sans caring-II If I am at prayer…I will not leave my prayer and go to help someone…I don’t think it is important. If I leave my god and my karma and help someone then my god will get angry…my karma will be lost…
  10. 10. Did god role model healing? There is no such example of God role modeling healing
  11. 11. IMPORTANCE OF THE BODY & THE BODY SOUL DISSOCIATION-III <ul><li>THE JUDEO CHRISTIAN CONTEXT </li></ul><ul><li>The Judeo Christian view would think of the person as one “ whole ” </li></ul><ul><li>The body had intrinsic dignity however deformed or diseased. Even in death, the body needed to be respected </li></ul>
  12. 12. One of the most difficult austerities a practitioner can attempt is to hold his arm upright in the air for twelve years. It is said that if successfully completed, the practice results in the attainment of supernatural powers
  13. 13. Perhaps the most well known austerity is lying on a bed of sharp nails to overcome the limitations of the physical body.
  14. 14. Offerings are made to a mediator who is buried up to the neck in sand. He suppresses the sensations of the flesh while attempting to free his mind through meditation.
  15. 15. High and low trust societies SENSE OF COMMUNITY-IV IMPACT ON HEALTH/ ECONOMICS ACCORDING TO FRANCIS FUKUYOMA. Author of book on Trust
  16. 16. THE ORTHODOX INDIAN CONTEXT SOLITARY WORSHIP LOW TRUST SOCIETIES LESS SPONTANEOUS SOCIALIBILITY LESS SOCIAL CAPITAL FAMILY BUSINESS ONLY LESS WEALTH CREATION
  17. 17. Cont.
  18. 18. Subjective culture vs Objective Low O/S ratio-V <ul><li>We believe that each organ of the body is influenced by some deity. </li></ul><ul><li>When we deviate from the path of religion …the gods leave our side. </li></ul><ul><li>This is why we fall sick . </li></ul>
  19. 19. Subjective cultures versus Objective cultures Subjective Objective Changing standards Absolutes Non-shared standards Widely shared standards Kings/Leaders above Standards Standards above Kings/Leaders Oral tradition; scripture not rooted in history Documentary tradition; rooted in history
  20. 20. Subjective cultures do not support scientific development because <ul><li>Interpret reality subjectively </li></ul><ul><li>Access knowledge subjectively </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective attitudes in justice and gender </li></ul>
  21. 21. Indian religions… <ul><li>In their fundamentals were subjective till Global influences reached them. </li></ul><ul><li>WASAV (Widely Accepted & Shared Absolute Values) characterize an objective culture and needed for development. </li></ul><ul><li>Polytheistic idolatry does not produce a WASAV culture. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Family versus truth-VI A father and a husband is like a God
  23. 23. Country Rank Country 2004 CPI Score* Confidence Range** Surveys Used*** 1 Finland 9,7 9.5 - 9.8 9 2 New Zealand 9,6 9.4 - 9.6 9 3 Denmark 9,5 9.3 - 9.7 10 Iceland 9,5 9.4 - 9.7 8 5 Singapore 9,3 9.2 - 9.4 13 6 Sweden 9,2 9.1 - 9.3 11 7 Switzerland 9,1 8.9 - 9.2 10 8 Norway 8,9 8.6 - 9.1 9 9 Australia 8,8 8.4 - 9.1 15 10 Netherlands 8,7 8.5 - 8.9 10 11 United Kingdom 8,6 8.4 - 8.8 12 12 Canada 8,5 8.1 - 8.9 12 13 Austria 8,4 8.1 - 8.8 10 Luxembourg 8,4 8.0 - 8.9 7 15 Germany 8,2 8.0 - 8.5 11 16 Hong Kong 8,0 7.1 - 8.5 13
  24. 24. Family values & corruption <ul><li>Scale of familism (World Values survey code book 1994 & World Bank statistics) </li></ul><ul><li>Correlates well with the CPI .(Regression analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Tribalism- Africa and India </li></ul>
  25. 25. Women’s transformation Transformation of Ritualistic Hinduism & Jainism Role Modeling of care Sustainability of transformation What did the Christian Medical missionaries do?
  26. 26. Women’s health <ul><li>Women medical missionaries ushered in “caring” for women </li></ul><ul><li>Women in India did not access hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Only home visits allowed and that only by women doctors </li></ul>
  27. 27. Maharani’s locket <ul><li>Elizabeth Bielby-1880 </li></ul><ul><li>Maharani of Panna </li></ul><ul><li>Locket message to </li></ul><ul><li>The Queen </li></ul><ul><li>“ The women of India </li></ul><ul><li>Suffer greatly” </li></ul>
  28. 28. SOME POINEER WOMEN MEDICAL MISSIONARIES IN INDIA During the late 19th Century and early part of 20th Century Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 1. Clara Swain 1870 American Methodist Mission Bareilly, UP. 2. Sara Seward 1871 American Presbyterian Allahabad, UP Mission 3. Seeyle 1871 Women’s Missionary Calcutta, WB Society of America 4. Sarah Norriss 1873 American Board of Medical Women --- 5. Rose Greenfield 1875 Society for female Education in the east, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 6. Elizebeth Bielby 1876 Zenana Bible and Medical Mission UK. Lucknow, UP
  29. 29. 7. Ms Hewlett 1877 England Zenana Mission Punjab 8. Ellen Mitchell 1878 American Baptist Board Burma 9. Fanny Butler 1880 Church of England Jabalpur, Mp. 10. Ida Faye 1881 American Baptist Mission Nellore, AP. 11. Anna Kugler 1883 Lutheran Mission, US Guntur, AP. 12. Elizabeth Beatty 1884 United Church of Canadian Mission Indore, MP. 13. Mana White 1886 United Presbyterian Church of America Siakot, (Jammu Border) 14. Jessie Carelton 1887 American Presbyterian Board Ambala, Punjab. 15. Matilda Machphail 1887 Free Church of Scotland Madras, TN 16. Ottoman 1890 Baptist Missionary Society Ganjam, Orissa Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival
  30. 30. Name of Women Year of Affiliation to Mission Place of work Arrival 17. Edith Brown 1893 Society for Female Education in the East, UK Ludhiana, Punjab 18. Alene Calkins 1895 American Friends Mission Chhatrapur, UP. 19. Pearl Chute 1896 Canadian Baptist Mission Akkividu, AP. 20. Ida S Scudder 1900 Arcot American Mission Vellore, TN. 21. Gertude Hulet 1904 Canadian Baptist Mission Vuyyuru, AP. 22. Charlotte Pring 1915 Godavari Delta Mission Narsapur, AP. 23. Catherine ? American Methodist Episc. Board Jagadalpur, MP. 24. Annie Mackay 1926 Free Church of Scotland Lakhnadon, MP. 25. Katherine Lehmann 1928 ? Renigunta, AP.
  31. 31. Ida Scudder <ul><li>Not a medical college but the kingdom of God </li></ul><ul><li>(1918) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Catherine-Methodist church- redefined access <ul><li>One Dr Catherine from the Methodist church in the US travelled by </li></ul><ul><li>Ship for 6 months to Bombay </li></ul><ul><li>To Raipur by train for a week </li></ul><ul><li>Horse by several days to access the mission station called Bastar </li></ul><ul><li>Methodist hospital built in 1892. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest Methodist congregation in India </li></ul>
  33. 33. Transformation of women <ul><li>The highest number of women doctors in the world </li></ul><ul><li>India is a huge “nurse factory” </li></ul><ul><li>1947-95% of all nurses were Christian! </li></ul><ul><li>All traceable to the women’s medical colleges and nursing schools established by the missionaries </li></ul>
  34. 34. Ancient India did not have a culture of “care” <ul><li>By a “caring culture” I mean formalized caring eg. Orphanages/hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Religion was divorced from “loving your neighbor” </li></ul><ul><li>No hospitals existed except during the time of King Asoka in 2 nd century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Arya Vaidya Shalas existed for outpatient care for the privileged </li></ul>
  35. 35. In what was a caring “void” <ul><li>Christian Medical missionaries ushered in a culture of care </li></ul><ul><li>The first hospital (Royal hospital,Goa)in 1514 AD and then thousands afterwards.. </li></ul><ul><li>Orphanages…home for widows… </li></ul><ul><li>Sanatoria for TB, leprosy homes and hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Programs for epidemic care </li></ul>
  36. 36. Social work in India… <ul><li>The kind of missionary work which we see in Christianity …that kind of this did not exist in India for a very long time. </li></ul><ul><li>Now the social work being done in India…those going out to help and serve others is all because of missionary & global influences. </li></ul>
  37. 37. By 1940 AD…. <ul><li>There were 2000 Christian hospitals in India </li></ul><ul><li>Close to 40% of all beds were made up of Christian hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>TB sanatoria and leprosy institutions were predominantly Christian </li></ul>
  38. 38. Dr. Alexander Duff 1806-78 <ul><li>Pioneer missionary educationist </li></ul><ul><li>English education can have a transformative effect on the Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>Scripture education introduced but made optional </li></ul><ul><li>“ Downward filter theory”-working with High castes </li></ul><ul><li>Schools and colleges -Calcutta, Madras and Bombay </li></ul>
  39. 39. Christians ushered in a culture of “care” <ul><li>Started many NGO’s that looked at specific needs of the poor and provided succor </li></ul><ul><li>Role modeled caring </li></ul><ul><li>Taught “caring” </li></ul>
  40. 40. Welfare-Social capital did not exist <ul><li>The only safety net for the poor was </li></ul><ul><li>The joint family </li></ul><ul><li>Individual philanthropy and </li></ul><ul><li>The caste system </li></ul>
  41. 41. The concept of the voluntary sector…. <ul><li>Indian culture did not have this concept of “volunteerism” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Activism” for change was also not a part of Indian culture. (Barring a few exceptions no activists for social change) </li></ul>
  42. 42. The concept of the ”voluntary” sector….. <ul><li>Christian missionaries pioneered the NPO and NGO sector (Pande 1967,Terry 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>1810-1947 This time saw the emergence of major Christian voluntary sector church based and non-church based. (NGO’s) </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals, Schools, Orphanages and other welfare institutions flourished. </li></ul>
  43. 43. As a result …1825 onwards <ul><li>Many Hindu bourgeoisie who studied in English medium schools </li></ul><ul><li>Started social reform organizations for the purpose of “caring” </li></ul><ul><li>Care of widows & remarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Care of orphans & preventing child marriage </li></ul>
  44. 44. The many champions of “caring” <ul><li>Some were Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Some liked “Christian” values but were not Christians </li></ul><ul><li>Most were provoked by the Christian gospel to “care” but remained Hindus </li></ul>
  45. 45. Raja Ram Mohan Roy (1774-1833) founder of “Brahmo Samaj” A Hindu reformer and visionary, Roy is considered by many as the father of modern India. Oil Painting by Atul Bose Raja Ram drew inspiration from William Carey “ The first feminist ”
  46. 46. Rishi Dayanand Saraswati 1824-83 <ul><li>Founded Arya Samaj </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke against idol-worship, casteism and female subjugation </li></ul><ul><li>Assassinated in 1883 AD </li></ul>
  47. 47. The prime object of the arya samaj is to do good; that is to promote physical, social &spiritual good for everyone
  48. 48. Satyasodhak Samaj- Jyotirao Phule-1875 <ul><li>Educated in “The Scottish mission school” </li></ul><ul><li>Became a great educationist </li></ul><ul><li>Started “caring”institutions </li></ul>
  49. 49. Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar <ul><li>From 1854-55 he single-handedly wedged a battle against the extremist of the Hindu society and insisted in the implementation of the Widow-Remarriage Act in 1856. </li></ul>
  50. 50. As a result Indian religions were challenged to reform Vivekananda brought in a new understanding of Hinduism
  51. 51. Indian reformer <ul><li>Vivekananda 1863-1902 </li></ul><ul><li>Father was given to reciting from the Bible-for amusement! </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Presidency college-Calcutta </li></ul><ul><li>Later in Scottish church college studied English literature and western logic which brought into sharp focus the short comings of Indian society </li></ul><ul><li>Was influenced by Raja Ram Mohan Roy also. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Vivekananda <ul><li>He elevated the status of the service of fellow beings to the level of real worship of God. (PS Kamanant) </li></ul><ul><li>Established Ramakrishna mission which began caring </li></ul>
  53. 53. Ramakrishna mission was a reformist reaction to the Christian “caring” <ul><li>Calcutta Ramakrishna M. Institute of Culture Advaita Advaita Ashram Calcutta SRM Sri Ramakrishna Math Calcutta Narendrapur Ramakrishna Mission College Udbodhan Mother's House Vidyapith Ramakrishna Vidyapith New Delhi Ramakrishna Mission Rajkot/Gujarat Ramakrishna Mission Ashram Chennai Ramakrishna Math Mylapore Chennai Ramakrishna Mission Ashram Itanagar Ramakrishna Mission Hospital AP Vidyapith Ramakrishna Vidyapith Chennai Chengalpattu Ramakrishna Mission Tamil Nadu Madurai Ramakrishna Math Coimbatore Ramakrishna Mission Vidyalaya </li></ul>
  54. 54. Ramakrishna mission locale <ul><li>Bangalore Vivekananda Ashram Kochi Ramakrishna Math, Kerala Ranchi Ramakrishna Mission Kaladi Ramakrishna Advaita Ashram Kerala Pune Ramakrishna Math and Mission Hydrabad Ramakrishna Math Varanasi Ramakrishna M.- Home of Service RKM Ramakrishna Vidyashala Kayamkulam Sri Ramakrishna Ashram, Kerala Jharkhand TB Sanatorium - Ranchi Mangalore Ramakrishna Mission Ashram </li></ul>
  55. 55. Vivekananda <ul><li>Swami Vivekananda wrote in one of his letters : </li></ul><ul><li>A hundred thousand men and women, will go over the length and breadth of the land, preaching the Gospel of salvation, the Gospel of help, the Gospel of social raising-up -- the Gospel of equality . </li></ul>
  56. 56. Karsondas Mulji-1832-71 <ul><li>Social Reformer, Educationist, Writer, Pamphleteer </li></ul><ul><li>While in Elphinstone college…. influenced by missionary John Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>The Primitive Religion of the Hindus and the Present Heterodox Opinions in his journal led to the famous Maharaja Libel </li></ul><ul><li>Widow remarriage-helped many </li></ul>
  57. 57. Micheal Madusudandas English and Bengali writer <ul><li>1824-1876 AD- became a Christian </li></ul><ul><li>Both ‘The Captive Lady’ and ‘Visions of the Past’ were written under the pen name Timothy. </li></ul><ul><li>Editor of “The Hindu Patriot”. He composed Bengali plays such as ‘Sharmistha’, ‘Ekey Bole Savyata’, ‘Buro Shaliker Ghare Ro’, ‘Krishnakumari’ and ‘Padmabati’. </li></ul><ul><li>In most of his plays, he criticized the lack of “caring” present in the society. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Dadabhai Naoroji 1824-1917 <ul><li>Grand Old Man of India </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Elphinstone college-influenced by Dr Wilson </li></ul><ul><li>Went from door to door recruiting girl students </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom fighter-concerned </li></ul><ul><li>for women </li></ul><ul><li>Member of the house of commons </li></ul>
  59. 59. Initially Jains were into hospitals for birds and animals only <ul><li>Jain Bird hospital in Old Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Gaushalas are “old age homes” for cows </li></ul>
  60. 60. Jains now have many hospitals <ul><li>Bombay- Nanavati hospital, Sarvoday hospital, Matunga hospital, Lilavati hospital, Cardiac hospital in Matunga are all Jain. </li></ul><ul><li>Surat Mahavir hospital is Jain </li></ul><ul><li>Ahmedabad Vadilal Sarabhai hospital is Jain. </li></ul><ul><li>Sri AmarJain hospital- Jaipur </li></ul><ul><li>Bhagwan MahavirJain Hospital-Bangalore </li></ul>
  61. 61. In personal conversation with Jains <ul><li>We (Jains) will not survive as a religion unless we begin to care like the missionaries.. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Jains go abroad and raise money from the US and the UK for their hospitals and projects </li></ul>
  62. 62. Emergence of Gandhian NGO’s <ul><li>From 1947 to 1960 onwards many new Gandhian NGO’s were started Hindu Kusht Nivaran Sangh was started at the behest of Gandhi. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Shame on us…why should missionaries… (Gandhi) </li></ul>
  63. 63. Mushrooming of NGO’s… <ul><li>Church related and Christian voluntary organizations led the way for the mushrooming of NGO’s </li></ul><ul><li>Though not all the NGO’s are into welfare more than 100,000 NGO’s are into some form of caring </li></ul>
  64. 64. Ripple effect Non-Xian hospitals Other caring NGO’s Advocacy Doctors & Nurses Man power for mission Activists Women’s status Training Christian Hospitals Restructured Hinduism Xian NGO’s Transformation
  65. 65. Disaster 1947 onwards.. <ul><li>700 Protestant hospitals in India </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indian trained D & N </li></ul><ul><li>No visionary leaders!! </li></ul><ul><li>400 Xian hospitals closed in 40 years </li></ul>
  66. 66. Missionary failure- Developed programs but not people Paradigm shift 1 RUNNING PROGRAMS PEOPLE BUILDING 2 Programs produces visible quick impact Harder and longer process involving several years 3 Anyone with skill can run programs Requires rapport with people and will not happen unless you are a authentic human being 4 Requires lot of capital for infrastructure specially in the healing ministry Does not require large capital for infrastructure 5 Not sustainable after the pioneer has retired Long term – very sustainable & greater impact 6 All about performing tasks or a task All about creating a visionary
  67. 67. Programme Development to People Development - 2 <ul><li>Jesus – “ Follow me and I will make you fishers of men”. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of people more strategic than programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Budgets do not reflect this – more used for programs. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning from history – Disaster in India </li></ul>Paradigm shift
  68. 68. Medical Missions - Custodians of the Culture of Care <ul><li>3 Types of Caring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial caring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional caring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian caring </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Either way Christian caring is an endangered phenomenon India West Christian Caring Commercial Professional Christian caring Professional Commercial

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