Product Devlopment Through CIM, Sequential Engineering & Concurrent Engineering


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Product Devlopment Through CIM, Sequential Engineering & Concurrent Engineering

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Product Devlopment Through CIM, Sequential Engineering & Concurrent Engineering

  1. 1. COMPUTER INTEGRA TED MANUFACTURING LESSON 4: PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH CIM, SEQUENTIAL ENGINEERING AND CONCURRENT ENGINEERING Topics Covered PILOT RODUCTION Product development process, sequential product development, CHANGES AT MARKET SENSING/ DEFINING PRODUCT NEED ANY STAGE concurrent engineering Objectives PRODUCTION The goal of this lesson is to: DESIGN / ANALYSIS / FEASIBILITY Know about the traditional design and manufacturing • INSPECTION /QUALITY process ASSURANCE Know about limitations of traditional design process • PROTOTYPE PRODUCTION /TESTING/EVALUATION Know the concurrent engineering approach to design • PACKAGING/MARKETING/ LITERATURE Dear students, in the last chapter we studied about various elements of a CIM system, in this chapter we are going to DRAWING PRODUCTION / closely look at the process of developing a new product. MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS PRODUCT If you have to design a product, you must first of all have a clear understanding of the functions and the performance particular alloys and vendor sources would be identified. expected of that product. The product may be new or it may be The specifications would then be sent to a manufacturing a revised version of an existing product as we all see that how department, where the detailed drawings would be reviewed the designs of mobile phones, watches and laptops keep on and processes selected for efficient production. This is a typical changing. We must also clearly define the market for the product sequential procedure for design and manufacture. While this and also the anticipated users of the product. This is important approach seems logical, it has been found in practice to be and it will be clear through an example. Let us say that you extremely wasteful of resources. design a tooth brush with a golden handle , or a paper clip In theory a product can flow from one department to another studded with diamonds. How many people do you think, will department in the organization and then from there to the purchase your product!? market place, but in practice, there are usually difficulties Hmm! Not many. Thus while designing a product it is encountered. For example a manufacturing engineer may want important that its affordability is kept in mind. The designing to taper a flange on a part to improve its castability, or may of product is a critical activity because around 70-80% of the decide that a different alloy may be desirable; such changes cost of product development and manufacture is determined necessitate a repeat of the design analysis stage, in order to by the decisions taken in the initial design stages. ensure that the product will still function satisfactorily. These Traditionally, the design and manufacturing activities have taken iterations certainly waste resources and more importantly they place sequentially rather than concurrently or simultaneously. waste time. Sometimes this results due to the corporate The various stages in sequential design and manufacture can be structures of organizations themselves as clear from Fig. 4.3. understood from the figure 4.1. Fig. 4.1 Sequential Product Design Designers would spend considerable effort and time in analysing components and preparing detailed part drawings; these drawings would then be forwarded to other departments in the organization, such as the materials department; where, for example © Copy Right: Rai University 8 7.373
  2. 2. Fig 4.2: Corporate Structure Impeding Concurrent known as simultaneous engineering has come in to existence. COMPUTER INTEGRA TED MANUFACTURING Engineering A more modern product development approach is shown in The importance of time factor will be clear through an example. figure 4.4: Imagine that you launch a product, say a mobile phone of a particular design in the market. Now say if a competitor has already launched a similar product in the market before you. So MARKET what do you think , the market situation would look like? Iterations People have already started using the product of your competitor. The market already has some people attesting the SPECIFICATION performance of the product of the competitor. Now it must be an uphill task to get a share of the market for your product. Each product has got a certain ‘life cycle’. By life cycle we mean the time duration between the launch of the product and the CONCEPT DESIGN time when it stops selling in the market because of lack of demand. Typically every product has three phases in its life cycle namely: DETAIL DESIGN i Growth phase: This is the phase, which is follows immediately after the launch of the product, in this phase, the demand of the product keeps on growing. ii Stabilization phase: In this phase the growth curve of the MANUFACTURE demand goes flat and the product has a steady demand in the market. iii Decline phase: In this phase, the demand for the product SELL keeps on declining. There can be several reasons for the decline of the demand. The main reasons are usually obsoletion of the technology or launch of better products Fig 4.4 Concurrent Engineering in the market. While it still has the general product flow from market analysis, The concept of product life cycle can be more clearly understood to design to manufacturing, it contains deliberate iterations. The from figure 4.4: main difference from the older approach is that all the disciplines are involved in the early design stages so that the iterations which by nature occur result in less wasted effort and less lost time. A key to the new approach is the well-recognized importance of communication between and within disciplines. That is, while there must be communication between engineering, marketing and service functions, so too must there be avenues of interaction between engineering sub-disciplines, for example, design for manufacture, design recyclability and design for safety. The design process begins with the development of an original product concept. An innovative approach to design is highly desirable at this stage- even essential – for the product to be successful in the market place. One important consideration in designing process is that the product should not be over designed. Surveys have indicated that in many products in past have been overdesigned- that is, they were either too bulky, Fig. 4.3: The concept of Product Life Cycle made of materials too high in quality, or made with precision (A firm with competitors) and quality unwarranted for the intended uses. Overdesign may Now imagine if you end up delaying the launch of your result from uncertainties in design calculations or from concern product in the market, then obviously, the life cycle of your by the designer and manufacturer about product safety, in order product will be less. Which means that the setup which you to avoid user injuries or deaths nad resulting product-liabilities have done especially for manufacture of this product won’t give and law suits. Many designs are based on past experiences and you as much profit as it would have given if the product were intuition rather than a thorough analysis. Overdesign can add launched earlier. significantly to a product’s cost. It must be pointed out however that this entire subject is somewhat controversial. This fact was increasingly realized with the growth of consumer From a customer’s point of view, an automobile, a washing electronic goods industry. The manufacturers wanted to bring machine or lawn mower that operates satisfactorily for many their products to the market as quickly as possible, for this years without needing repairs or part replacemnt may be a good reason a new paradigm of concurrent engineering also © Copy Right: Rai University 7.373 9
  3. 3. product despite a high initial price. Many manufacturers believe COMPUTER INTEGRA TED MANUFACTURING on the other hand that if a product functions well for an extended period of time, it may have been overdesigned. In such cases, the company may consider downgrading the materials and /or the processes used. Points to Ponder/Exercises Find out Some case studies in Concurrent Engineering and • Discuss in Class. What are the problems of sequential engineering? • What are the drawbacks of a short product cycle? • Internet References Introduction to Concurrent Engineering ConcEnMM.htm Notes © Copy Right: Rai University 10 7.373