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Gap Analysis

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Gap Analysis

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Gap Analysis

  1. 1. Gap Analysis Presentation by Stephen Coppola
  2. 2. Table of Contents <ul><li>Definition of Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Service Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SERVQUAL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gaps Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dimension Model </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Real World Gap Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 9001 2000 </li></ul></ul></ul>2
  3. 3. Definition of Gap Analysis <ul><li>Formal means to identify and correct gaps between desired levels and actual levels of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Used by organizations to analyze certain processes of any division of their company </li></ul>3
  4. 4. Service Gap Analysis <ul><li>Expected level of service vs. Actual level of service provided </li></ul><ul><li>SERVQUAL </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 gaps </li></ul><ul><li>- 5 dimensions </li></ul>4
  5. 5. SERVQUAL <ul><li>A gap analysis research instrument </li></ul><ul><ul><li>created by Parasuraman, Zeithamel, and Berry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced in 1988 </li></ul></ul>5
  6. 6. SERVQUAL Model 6
  7. 7. SERVQUAL Model Gaps <ul><li>Gap 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference between actual customer expectations and management’s idea or perception of customer expectations </li></ul></ul>7
  8. 8. SERVQUAL Model Gaps <ul><li>Gap 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mismatch between manager’s expectations of service quality and service quality specifications </li></ul></ul>8
  9. 9. SERVQUAL Model Gaps <ul><li>Gap 3 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor delivery of service quality </li></ul></ul>9
  10. 10. SERVQUAL Model Gaps <ul><li>Gap 4 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between service delivery and external communication with customer </li></ul></ul>10
  11. 11. SERVQUAL Model Gaps <ul><li>Gap 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between Expected and Perceived Quality </li></ul></ul>11
  12. 12. Gaps Model 12
  13. 13. Gaps Model <ul><li>There are 22 items which can be rated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>i.e. modern looking equipment, prompt service, understanding of needs, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These items are broken up into 5 dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles (Items 1-4) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability (Items 5-9) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness (Items 10-13) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance (Items 14-17) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy (Items 18-22) </li></ul></ul></ul>13
  14. 14. Gaps Model <ul><li>Perceptions and Expectations are given a rating for certain dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ratings scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Average expectation rating is then subtracted from the average perception rating </li></ul>14
  15. 15. Gaps Model <ul><li>High Training needed </li></ul><ul><li>negative = in certain </li></ul><ul><li> rating dimension </li></ul>15 <ul><li>High Dimension is OK, </li></ul><ul><li>positive = no training </li></ul><ul><li>rating needed </li></ul>
  16. 16. Gaps Model Example <ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>If a survey was taken which showed the averages for each dimension is as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimension Perception Average Expectation Average </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles 5.4 2.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability 5.6 4.6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness 3.2 3.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance 6.2 3.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy 2.8 4.2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What dimension should be emphasized? </li></ul>16
  17. 17. Gaps Model Example <ul><li>Perception – Expectation = Difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles: 5.4 - 2.4 = 3.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability: 5.6 - 4.6 = 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsiveness: 3.2 - 3.5 = -0.3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assurance: 6.2 - 3.4 = 2.8 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empathy: 2.8 - 4.2 = -1.4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empathy has the lowest rating therefore it is the dimension where training should be emphasized the most. A focus should also be placed on Responsiveness because of its negative rating. </li></ul>17
  18. 18. Applications of Gap Analysis <ul><li>ISO 9001 2000 </li></ul><ul><li>Praxiom Research Group Limited </li></ul><ul><li>Process Approach </li></ul>18
  19. 19. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Phase 1: Identify Gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: Fill Gaps </li></ul>19
  20. 20. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Identify Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>Tool lists the five sets of requirements from the ISO 9001 2000 as questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytical </li></ul></ul>20
  21. 21. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Identify Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>Three answers are possible for each question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yes – organization has met one of ISO’s requirement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No – points to a gap </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N/A – question is not applicable to situation </li></ul></ul>21
  22. 22. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Identify Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>Each time “NO” is answered, there is a column to help organization identify which processes need to be fixed </li></ul><ul><li>22 total processes which can be fixed </li></ul>22
  23. 23. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Fill Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation and Implementation of System Development Forms </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the 22 processes listed in Phase One has a system development form </li></ul>23
  24. 24. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Fill Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>These system development forms are used to prepare System Development Plans </li></ul><ul><li>The Gap Analysis questions are turned into action statements </li></ul><ul><li>These action statements formulate remedial actions which will fill in the gaps </li></ul>24
  25. 25. ISO 9001 2000 Gap Analysis Tool <ul><li>Fill Gaps: </li></ul><ul><li>Once all actions are performed and gaps are filled, the organization will have a </li></ul>ISO 9001 2000 compliant Quality Management System 25
  26. 26. Summary of Gap Analysis <ul><li>Gaps can be found in any process of an organization’s operations </li></ul><ul><li>Tools like SERVQUAL, Two-Dimensional Analysis, and ISO 9001 2000 can all be used to perform gap analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis is one of the best procedures to help lead a company to not only improve their processes, but recognize which processes are in need of improvement. </li></ul>26

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