An action expressed in the verb can take place in three different times- past, present, future-and ‘in each time’ it (the action) can be of three different types- simple, continuous, perfect. Three times with their types are called tenses.
Past Present Future Simple I played I play I shall play Continuous I was playing I am playing I shall be playing Perfect I had played for I have played. I shall have two hours by He has played played if you that time. I had for ten hours.* reach late.*** been playing for I have been two hours when playing for ten ravi came hours.*** We use this form for the present perfect tense forlaying stress on the time or duration of the action.
** We use this form for the present perfect tense for laying stress on the continuity of the action. This tense is called the present perfect continuous tense also. *** ‘If you reach late’. We do not use the future perfect tense for the dependent clauses of time or condition. ‘TIME’ AND ‘TYPE’ OF AN ACTION=TENSE
Simple: simple type is expressed directly. Example of simple type •I passed my B.A. examination in 1995. •Raja will play hockey. Continuous: Continuous type is that which is incomplete. Examples of Continuous type •Radha was cooking food. •Ravi is reading. Perfect: Perfect type isExampleswhich is that of Perfect type rounded off or complete.has been writing for two •Ravi hours. •Ravi has written for two hours.
‘Do’ is brought from I play hockey outside for making Do you play hockey? questions & negative Ravi does not play sentences of positive hockey. assertive sentences in the simple present and the simplest past tenses I do see. The auxiliary ‘do’ I did see. makes special emphatic tenses in the simple present and the past
There is one more tense. It is called ‘the Future in the past tense’. This tense marks an action as future from a past point of view. It is used.1. In simple sentences and in the main When summer came, they clauses of complex sentences. to make ‘would begin’ preparations to mobilize the army from Delhi to Shimla.2. In subordinate clauses. I knew that you ‘would come’. I ‘should like’(should have liked) to tell you.
PAST EXAMPLES simple past tense: it is used to •Raj killed a snake yesterday. indicate ‘direct action’ which happened once, or which •Did you get your car? happened at regular intervals •Shah Rukh Khan studied in St. in some past time: Columba’s School, New Delhi. past continuous tense: it is used for indicating an action •He ‘was reading’ his book when I that was incomplete at some met him in the morning. past time. past perfect tense: it is used •By the year 233 B.C. Alexander for an act in the past, which the Great had already come to took place prior to some India. intermediate time of that past time. Three types of past 1. The time of the arrival of perfect tense are Alexander1. The time of the action. 2. One intermediate time(2332. Some intermediate time. B.C.)3. The time of writing or 3. The time of writing. speaking.
PRESENT EXAMPLES Simple present tense The leaves of this tree fall1. Indicate action happens once only. once or regular interval. These boys play hockey.2. Present state of feeling, I do painting on Sundays. opinion or relation He loves his mother.3. Indicate permanent facts Raj goes to his school at4. Actions of books, plays, 7.00 am and films. This pen belongs to my5. It is used in the dependent sister. clause of time or condition. Who knows Ravis house?
PRESENT EXAMPLES Present continuous tense: Boys are playing outside.1. Indicating an action I am visiting Mumbai today incomplete in present time. evening.2. Indicate an action take Ravi is coming to Mumbai place in immediate future. next week.3. Used for talking about They are always giving something or decided to parties. do. Our teacher is always giving4. When a ‘serious of actions’ us tests. is there for a limited time. They love their mother.
PRESENT EXAMPLES Present perfect tense: this Ravi has come. tense indicates an action, I have not received my completed or rounded off in salary this month. the present time, whose effect remains till the time of speaking or writing. It tells us about the present status of the act.
FUTURE EXAMPLES Simple future tense: it is Ravi will play cricked today. used for ‘direct action’ of We shall visit Mumbai next future. month. Future continuous tense: it I am leaving for my office is used to indicate an action just now. that will be continuing some I shall be playing with my future time. brother when you come to Future perfect tense: it is my house tomorrow. used to indicate the I ‘shall have paid’ it to Ravi if completion or rounding off of you come after 10.00 am. an action in some future time.