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Science supplement

  1. 1. Human life is priceless. It’s something which money can’t buy. Hindu mythology says that oneactually gets life as a human on the basis of deeds done in the past. Religion says that we havebeen granted (or gifted) human life by God. But my question to God is “When he is the onegranting us life, why does he take it?” Alas! I never realised that the answer was so simple.Putting it in Steve Jobs’ words I can say “Remembering that I’ll be dead soon is the mostimportant tool I’ve ever encountered to help me make the big choices in life. Because almosteverything — all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure - thesethings just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering thatyou are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something tolose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.”Now technology has changed the face of the world. Technology has helped us to predict naturaldisasters. Indirectly, one could say that humans have learnt to cheat Gods’ systems throughtechnology! Yet, the Tsunami which occurred in the year 2004 in the south-eastern part of theAsia heavily damaged the south-eastern countries like Indonesia, Singapore, and Thailand and isa stark reminder of how wrong we are when we think so. Humans have developed technologiesfor all sorts of things. One could use a private jet to go from New York to Tokyo for dinner yetwe don’t have any efficient way of helping people in calamities. In this paper I intend to make aprototype for a biplane that could act as an amphibious helicopter as well as an airplaneincreasing its scope to go into the areas where it would otherwise be tough at times of calamaties.The backbone of the plane i.e. the engines are chosen to be radial engines. These engines aregenerally used to generate large amount of power, similar to those such as jets, helicopters,choppers etc. These engines are similar to reciprocating engines, in which the combustioncylinders point outwardly, from one point, and the crankshaft in the centre, is joint to thepistons and hence translates the linear motion of the pistons, together, to a rotatorymotions, which can then be directly, with the help of gears, transferred to the propellers ofthe amphibious tiltrotor.The details about the structure of the amphibious tiltrotor are as follows-Length= 20.2mWing span= 16.1mWing area= 30 m2Hull area= 250 m2Total volume of the plane= 2,500 m3Disk area= 300 m2Rotor diameter= 40 ftCrew= 2(pilot, co-pilot)Radial engines can generate huge amounts of power. There are in total 2 radial engines. Eachbeing 10,000 HP that in total will generate 20,000hp. This will be distributed as follows- • 10,000 will be given to the left propeller, which is on the wings of the plane. • 10,000 will be given to the right propeller, which is on the right wing of the plane.The details of the engines are as follows-(Both the engines are the same)
  2. 2. RADIAL 112 Cylinder Series (2x 56 Cylinder combined):Engine Model- BM507A-2Fuel stop power- 7360kW @ 2000RPM (10000HP)Dimensions LxWxH (mm) - 7000x1820x2490Dry weight (kg) - 17100Total weight (kg) (approx) 34200The engines are Four-stroke, supercharged & turbocharged, with heptagonal radial scheme,B=160mm, S=170mm for extra power which might be required due to the high winds ofgale speed.The 56 Cylinder Series has a low fuel consumption of 225 g/kWh. But this will haveconsumption, twice of that, as it is 2x56 Cylinder Series._____________________________________________________________________Hydraulic SystemsThe hydraulic systems would be used for changing the alignment of the engines for the purposeof running the aircraft.The hydraulic systems are also used in the following things(Ref 1) o Retraction and extension of landing gear o Shock absorption systems and valve lifter systems o Dive, landing, speed and flap brakes o The ailerons o Spoilers o Rudders o Some other minute parts for the purpose of manoeuvreRef 1- sourced from rotorcraft has two set of propellers. One set on each wing. The propeller fan has two spokeson it. The rotorcraft, in order to be strong, has its propellers made up of Nibral. The reasonNibral was chosen was due to its strength and durability. Also, it’s lightweight thus decreasingthe gross weight of the aircraft. Its melting point is roughly around 1930º F (1054º C) whichmakes it suitable for the plane. An anti-torque fan just the same, as found in helicopters etc isfound in this also. The size of this fan is not as large as the main propellers. These are alsomade out of Nibral, same as the main propellers. The motor is an electric motor, for thesame. This anti-torque rotor is to make the plane more stable, during windy conditions.Changing directions in this is very easy, due to the side propellers. One of the propeller’s
  3. 3. speeds can be decreased, to turn it towards that side. And the front facing propellers canpull this forward, quite easily. The anti torque rotor can be switched of in this stage._____________________________________________________________________Floating propertiesThe base of the plane is double layered with a titanium mesh in between the outer and the layerbelow. This will help the plane be more resistible to shocks etc, when in water, as mostly, after atsunami etc, there is a lot of debris in water. Then, when it is to land, it will have to resist certainshocks due to the debris, which might hit it while landing. This is even more important, as, if byany chance, the layers get damaged then plane will have no means, to float.There are pressurised air cylinders in the body of the plane. When in air, theses cylinders arefully pressurised. But when the plane is about to land, then the air in these cylinders is made tofill the cavity in the lower part of the plane. Then the plane can land in the water. This willdecrease the density of the plane, thus making it capable of floating. It will be able to siphonwater in two little tanks, made in the lower sides of the plane. This water will be let in, when twovalves will open. While taking off, these two valves will be opened again, and then, the watercan be taken out. This siphoning in of water, when the plane is in water will help the plane to bebalanced much more properly in water. Water will be siphoned in, into a tank in the lower side ofthis ‘water plane’, when two valves will open, on both sides of the ‘water plane’. This is done, tolower the centre of gravity of the plane.Further more, there are two pontoons of the two wings. These pontoons can help the plane to bebalanced, when floating in water. The dimensions of the pontoons are 4 feet. These pontoons canbe pulled in, while the plane is in air, as this will prevent friction and further, loss of power. Thecoming out of the wings is totally vertical, and no bending in the holding pipes will take place. Aslot in the lower side of the plane will open, and the holding pipe extends. It is compressed in away that the pipe’s larger areas came over the smaller diameter pipe area. Hence, the pontoonjust comes out of the wing vertically. And vice-versa happens, when it goes back into thewing, when the plane has taken off, and is airborne. This coming into the wing and beingable to go out has been designed, as otherwise, the pontoons could break due to the frictionand pressure on then, when the plane is moving in air with quite high speeds.This would also reduce sound._____________________________________________________________________Emergency FeaturesThe following are the emergency features that need to be present in the plane the reasons fortheir presence are given with them:-Emergency signaling-A self-contained emergency signal has a base which contains a battery and a high-intensityflash/lamp actuating unit. The actuating unit is electrically connected to a battery and to a high-intensity flash lamp. A switch turns the actuating unit on and high-intensity lamp bursts are
  4. 4. displayed through a transparent, translucent, polarized, and colored or symbol containing a lensarrangement, or a combination of such elements. The emergency signal may have different formssuch as cylindrical, elliptical, rectangular or triangular. This can help the aircraft to signal otheraircrafts also, especially, when there is too much dust. E.g. After a volcanic eruption.High performance pontoonsThe trailing end of the pontoons end in a sharp edge, thus eliminating the need for a hull or floatstep or venting. A channel is formed by the pontoons and the underside of the fuselage, whichchannel has a constant cross-section and produces a surface lift effect facilitating take-off andlanding.Emergency power supply-There is an emergency power supply, which can therefore power the various importantequipment on the aircraft, and also the important medical equipment for the causalities. Also thiswould help power the aircraft in case of an engine malfunction and would atleast give the chanceof the pilot to have some of the information about the airplane by powering the vital instrumentssuch as altimeter, glide slope etc.Energy generating turbines-Some slots in the wings and the body of the plane can be opened up, if there is a failure of theengines, to generate electricity. Due to the speed of the plane, these turbines will rotatehence generating electricity, again, to power the various important equipment on the aircraft,and also the important medical equipment for the causalities, which have been rescued. They cangenerate power, till the aircraft remains in motion, and in enough speed that these turbines canrevolve. If the plane can recover, then the covers of these turbines can be put back, as otherwisethere would be a lot of friction. These covers are shape in such a way, that, when they are fixed,they merge with the main streamlined body of the plane.Medical equipmentSince this is a plane designed to handle emergencies, it is recommended to carry some equipmentsuch as life boats. Also the plane would be fitted with a medical recovery unit consisting of vitalequipment to provide aid to the casualties.Wings-The information about the basic structure is already given above. The main design of the plane isas follows-The wings of this tiltrotor are basically of two parts. One is the part with the propeller, and theother is the part which is fixed. • The first part is fixed to the main body of the plane, and joins the second part to the body of the plane. It is on the end of this part of the wing that the second part rotates. • The second part which is the part with the propellers has the capacity to rotate with the propellers, when they change their direction, from vertical to a horizontal position. That is from the helicopter mode to the airplane mode respectively.The second part rotates with the propellers, because if they didn’t, then, when the propellerswould be facing upwards i.e. in the helicopter mode, then, the wing would act like a barrier in heway of the air being pushed by the propeller. But when it rotates with the plane, it alwaysremains perpendicular to the flow of air, hence providing the least friction. In the helicoptermode, this will also help in turning the helicopter.
  5. 5. _____________________________________________________________________Flight controlsThis plane has, just like a rotorcraft, the controls of both, conventional aircrafts and helicopters.The thrust control levers (TCLs), in the left of each seat of the pilot, are the providers for themain fight controls. And the system is, just as in modern planes, has mostly a digitalised systemof controls. This system offers a lot of easiness hence in the controlling. It is very easy to controlthe two modes which this airplane is capable of having i.e. the helicopter mode and the airplanemode. The back anti torque rotor is also operated mostly by the digitalised system. This rotor iscapable of rotating both the sides. The automatic system of the plane always tries to keep theplane horizontal, during winds etc. also, while shifting from one mode to the other. But it can beoperated manually also. The direction and the speed of the propeller can be fed in manually also.The anti-torque rotor is shut, when the plane is in water.If the aircraft misbalances to the forward of the back, the propellers have the ability to adjust thedirections of the propeller a little, so as to be enough for the tiltrotor to gain back its originalhorizontal position.In the helicopter mode, the rotor disks tilt forward, and hence this ‘helicopter’ has its nosedownwards. Then, then, it increases its forward speed. When the speed has to be decreased, therotor disk tilts towards the back; hence the ‘helicopter’ gains a nose up position. The speed hencedecreases.In the airplane mode, the elevator present at the back of thos tiltrotor deflects downwards, andthe airplane also hence takes the position, with its nose downwards. Thus the plane’s altitudedecreases, and the speed increases. To decrease the speed, the elevator point upwards and so theairplane takes a position with its nose upwards. The airspeed decreases and the altitude increase.In the airplane mode, to increase the speed of the plane, without changing its altitude, the speedof the rotors can be increased. And to decrease the speed, the air brakes can be taken out, withdirectly decreses its speed.In water, this tiltrotor can be operated in the airplane mode. The helicopter mode is not possible.The speed can be decreased by the airbrakes etc._____________________________________________________________________Materials of the plane-This amphibious tiltrotor is made up of an alloy of many metals. The outer body of the planeexcluding the main structure i.e. the parts not requiring too much strength are made up of steeland aluminium in the ratioSteel : aluminium :: 35 : 65.Coated with a layer of Fibre Glass which makes it more elastic to be a good shockabsorber.Whereas the main structure of the plane, that is the inner body, the wings structure etc. (the partsrequiring a lot of strength) are made up of titanium.Please note, that it is only the parts requiring too much strength that are made up of titanium.Rest are made up out of the steel and aluminium. Many other materials will also be used in thewindscreen, the windows, the internal fitting etc. As mentioned above, we are using titaniummesh in between the double layering of the hull so as to make it shockproof.The following are the materials in the internal furnishing etc of the pane-
  6. 6. They are as follows- • Floor and floor covering – Epoxy/Carbon. It will have flexible urethane seat track covers and a urethane foam edge band. There will be Mylar film over gallery and entry floor panels. We will be keeping a wool or nylon carpet with double-backed tapes which will attach the carpet to the floor. • Lower Sidewall Panel – Glass and Phenolic will be the best material to use and we will have a scuff-resistant surface like Nomex for better results. • Upper Sidewall Panel – Carbon, decorative thermoplastic layer and Tedlar will be used. • Light covers – Polycarbonate will be very useful for light covers. • Gap fillers – Gap fillers shall be of Silicon and Urethane. • Passenger seats – The chief material will be wool with leather upholstery. There will be thermoplastic seat trays and Kevlar blocking layer. • Cabin attendant seats – It will be same as passenger seats. It will also have Polyethylene floatation foam. • Partitions – Phenolic honeycomb with thermoplastic laminate. • Insulation – For insulation, we will have a fiberglass batt and phenolic binder along with Mylar covers, Nitrile rubber and Polyimide foam. • Windows –Outer pane will be made up of stretched acrylic and Inner pane will be made up of cast acrylic. There will be a dustcover made up of Polycarbonate. • Passenger service units – These units will be made up of molded thermoplastics (Radel) and Aluminum. • Hoses – The hoses will be made up of Silicone, Nylon and Urethane. • Air Ducting – Air ducting will be made up of epoxy; but polyester in case of large ducts. There will be fire-retarded nylon for better results.
  7. 7. _____________________________________________________________________Bibliography-This rotor craft is based on the model V-22 Osprey.Information has been collected from- follwing sites were usedhttp://google.comhttp://www.wikipedia.org