Urinary system


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Urinary system

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  • Retroperitoneal - between the body wall and peritoneum
  • Urinary system

    1. 1. Urinary System
    2. 2. Human Physiology – NTN 1224 Faculty of Livestock Fisheries & Nutrition Wayamba University of Srilanka 108003 108030 108033 108034 108035 108049 108054 108058 108060 108078 108081
    3. 3. Topics <ul><li>Anatomy of Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of Kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Unit Of Kidney – Nephron </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of Urinary Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Anatomy of Urethra </li></ul><ul><li>Hormone controls </li></ul><ul><li>Summary </li></ul>
    4. 4. Kidney Location Lateral to vertebral column high on body wall, under floating ribs in retro-peritoneal position
    5. 5. Sectional Anatomy <ul><li>Cortex: outer layer, light reddish brow, granular appearance (due to many capillaries) </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla: darker striped appearance (due to tubules) Subdivided into distinct renal pyramids, terminating with a papilla. Separated by renal columns from the cortex . </li></ul>
    6. 6. Urine collection: <ul><li>Ducts within each renal </li></ul><ul><li>papilla release urine </li></ul><ul><li>into minor calyx </li></ul>major calyx renal pelvis ureter
    7. 7. Functions of Urinary System (Kidneys): <ul><ul><li>Regulate various properties of the blood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionic composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PH </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure Produce hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excrete waste products & foreign substances. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Functional unit: Nephron <ul><li>Renal corpuscle: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tubular passageways with associated blood vessels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximal Convoluted Tubule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loop Of Henle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distal Convoluted Tubule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting Duct </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Two Types of Nephrons <ul><li>Cortical nephrons (85%) shorter, mostly in cortex of kidney, </li></ul><ul><li>Juxtamedullary nephrons (15%), &quot;juxta-next-to&quot; the medulla - responsive to ADH, can concentrate urine </li></ul>
    10. 10. Anatomy of Urinary Bladder <ul><li>Hollow muscular organ </li></ul><ul><li>Internal folds - rugae - permit expansion (max. holding capacity ~ 1L) </li></ul><ul><li>Area at base delineated by openings of ureters and urethra - without muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of… </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transitional epithelium </li></ul><ul><li>2. Detrusor muscle – smooth muscle </li></ul>
    11. 11. Transitional Epithelium empty bladder full bladder from renal pelvis to neck of urethra.
    12. 12. Urethra <ul><li>Muscular tube </li></ul><ul><li>2 types </li></ul><ul><li>1)External urethral sphincters – voluntary skeletal muscle spincter </li></ul><ul><li>2)Internal urethral sphincter-involuntery smooth muscle spincter </li></ul><ul><li>Female - short – from base of bladder to vestibule </li></ul><ul><li>Male </li></ul><ul><li>1. prostatic urethra </li></ul><ul><li>2. membranous urethra </li></ul><ul><li>3. penile (spongy) urethra </li></ul>
    13. 13. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function
    14. 14. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function hypothalamus posterior pituitary antidiuretic hormone collecting ducts
    15. 15. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function
    16. 16. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function reduced blood pressure and glomerular filtrate juxtaglomerular apparatus renin
    17. 17. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function renin angiotensinogen angiotensin I angiotensin II
    18. 18. Hormonal Control of Kidney Function angiotensin II adrenal cortex aldosterone convoluted tubules
    19. 19. <ul><li>  Glucose - when present in urine condition called glycosuria (nonpathological) [glucose not normally found in urine] </li></ul><ul><li>Indicative of: </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive carbohydrate intake </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Diabetes mellitus </li></ul>Abnormal Constitutes of Urine
    20. 20. Albumin - abnormal in urine; it’s a very large molecule, too large to pass through glomerular membrane > abnormal increase in permeability of membrane Albuminuria - nonpathological conditions- excessive exertion, pregnancy, overabundant protein intake-- leads to physiologic albuminuria Pathological condition- kidney trauma due to blows, heavy metals, bacterial toxin Abnormal Constitutes of Urine
    21. 21. Ketone bodies - normal in urine but in small amts Ketonuria - find during starvation, using fat stores Ketonuria is couples w/a finding of glycosuria-- which is usually diagnosed as diabetes mellitus RBC - hematuria Hemoglobin - Hemoglobinuria - due to fragmentation or hemolysis of RBC; conditions: hemolytic anemia, transfusion reaction, burns or renal disease Abnormal Constitutes of Urine
    22. 22. Bile pigments - Bilirubinuria (bile pigment in urine)- liver pathology such as hepatitis or cirrhosis WBC - Pyuria - urinary tract infection; indicates inflammation of urinary tract Casts- hardened cell fragments, cylindrical, flushed out of urinary tract WBC casts- pyelonephritus RBC casts- glomerulonephritus Fatty casts- renal damage Abnormal Constitutes of Urine
    23. 23. Summary <ul><li>There are several important functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Excretion of waste products of metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of a constant extracellular environment </li></ul><ul><li>Production of the hormones erythropoietin and renin, </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism of vitamin D to its active form. </li></ul><ul><li>Nephron is the functional unit of kidney, Involves in formation of urine. </li></ul>
    24. 24. <ul><li>List several functions of the kidneys. </li></ul><ul><li>What is the glomerulus? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the glomerulus do? </li></ul><ul><li>What are several constitutes you should not find in urine? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the two hormones effect fluid volume and sodium </li></ul><ul><li>concentration in the urine? </li></ul><ul><li>Where are the pyramids located in the kidney? </li></ul><ul><li>What vessel directs blood into the glomerulus? </li></ul><ul><li>Where does most selective reabsorption occur in the nephron? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the hormones important in action of kidney? </li></ul><ul><li>How the anatomy of urinary bladder helps to its function? </li></ul>Inquiry
    25. 25. Thank you...