Reasons for choosing this
1. The goal of this research was to provide a low cost
rescue robot for human detection in a disaster
2. Though, the existing Urban Search and Rescue Robots
are equipped with various sensors, but the problem with
them is the cost.
3. The sensors used in the development of this project are
easily available and cost effective.
Project details :-
In this project, a new method for detecting surviving
humans in destructed environments using simulated
autonomous robot is proposed.
The robot uses two levels of sensing in order to
achieve higher cost-effectiveness in the detecting process
in terms of the actual cost of equipment, the processing
cost, the communication cost, the storage cost, and the
The first level is a PIR sensor used with a temperature
sensor, that is used as the primary sensor in order to
detect the existence of living humans in a scene.
The second level is a human body shape sensor. This
level uses low-cost web camera in order to confirm
the existence of a human shape.
The robot is assumed to be equipped with a simple
Temperature sensor in order to detect fire in Rescue
scenario and a wireless communication link in order
to communicate with the rescue team whenever a
Project details :-
The basic operations of LCD is done by the following
Register select (RS)
POWER SUPPLY CKT.
IN4007 * 4
What is Ultrasonic Sensor ?
Why it is used ?
How it works?
Analog to Digital Converter
What is ADC ?
Why ADC is needed ?
How it works ?
Software & Hardware used :-
Windows 2000 & onwards version
The Robot is equipped with following hardware :
A PIR sensor.
An ultrasonic sensor.
A Temperature sensor.
A Microcontroller unit.
Materials Availability - Cost &
Procurement Strategy :-
The instruments used in this project are common
electronic devices and easily available.
Low cost and easy to use.
Hardware (to connect microcontroller)
Pony Prog (Serial, Parallel)
AVRdude (supports many hardware)
Code Vision AVR (CVAVR):
An IDE has following functions:
1. In military applications to detect the presence of
2. In Rescue operations where human reach is not
3. In War fields, to control unmanned aerial
Future enhancement :-
Since the system developed is a low cost system
therefore it has a wide future scope.
Though many systems with a wide range of sensors
have been developed, but there are many problems
faced by them such as cost, size, environment
Detail study about the microcontroller to be used.
Interfacing the peripheral devices with
Detail study on the sensors to be used and their
Connection of the circuits used with sensors and
Pissokas, John and Malcolm, Chris (2001)
“Experiments with Sensors for Urban Search and Rescue Robots”
Greer, Kerrow, & Abrantes (2002)
“Urban disaster environments and an approach to search and rescue