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  1. 1. Origin of life<br />Celeste Roderno-Desingaño<br />
  2. 2. Abiogenesis (17th century)<br />Also known as “Spontaneous Generation”<br />This doctrine states that organic life could and does arise from inorganic matter.<br />This was opposed by 3 experiments which gave rise to biogenesis (19th century):<br />Francesco Redi in 1668 <br />LazzaroSpallanzani in 1768<br />Louis Pasteur in 1861<br />
  3. 3. Redi’s experiment (1668)<br />Redi’s experiment proved that maggots did not come from meat<br />
  4. 4. Spallanzani’s experiment (1768)<br />Spallanzani demonstrated that microbes were present in the air, and could be killed by boiling.<br />
  5. 5. Pasteur’s experiment (1861)<br />Louis Pasteur performed a series of experiments which demonstrated that organisms such as bacteria and fungi do not spontaneously appear in sterile, nutrient-rich media.<br />
  7. 7. Natural Selection, Adaptation and Artificial Selection<br />JEAN BAPTISTE DE LAMARCK (1744-1829)<br />Published his “Hypothesis of Evolution (1809) <br />2 Principles:<br />Use and Disuse<br />Stated that parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger, while those that are not used deteriorate. <br />Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics<br />Stated that an organism could pass the modifications to its offspring. <br />
  8. 8. Natural Selection, Adaptation and Artificial Selection<br />CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882)<br />He coined the term evolution as descent with modification, meaning the many species of Earth are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present day species. <br />Main Ideas of Natural Selection<br />1. Individuals that have certain heritable characteristics survive and reproduce at a higher rate than other individuals <br />2. Over time, Natural selection can increase the match between organism and the environment<br />3. If an environment changes, or if individuals move to a new environment, natural selection may result in adaptation to these new conditions, sometimes giving rise to new species in the process. <br />
  9. 9. Natural Selection, Adaptation and Artificial Selection<br />Artificial Selection<br />Process of selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals by humans to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits. <br />
  11. 11. CLASSIFICATION<br />Identifying, naming and grouping of organisms into a formal system based on similarities such as internal and external anatomy, physiological functions, genetic make-up, or evolutionary history. <br />Carolus Von Linnaeus (1707-1778)<br />Father of Taxonomy<br />Author of the Binomial System of Nomenclature where organisms are given two names, the generic name and the species name<br />He used the 2-kingdom classification (Plants and Animals)<br />Used Latin words for the scientific names<br />Rules in Writing scientific names<br /><ul><li>First letter of the Genus should be capital letter and the first letter of the species is small letter
  12. 12. Genus and species should be underlined separately or italicized.</li></li></ul><li>Classification<br />Ernst Haeckel (1866)<br />Suggested that the unicellular form with different reproductive patterns be placed in a separate kingdom (Protista)<br />Herbert Copeland (1938)<br />Suggested the 4-kingdom classification (Monera)<br />Robert H. Whittaker (1969)<br />Suggested the 5-kingdom classification (Fungi)<br />Carl Woese (1970’s)<br />Suggested the 6-kingdom classification separating prokaryotic organisms (Kingdom Monera) into two kingdoms, the Archaebacteria and Eubacteria<br />
  13. 13. Scientific names and Common names<br />Carica papaya– papaya<br />Aleurodicusdispersus – spiraling whitefly<br />Pterophyllumscalare – angelfish<br />Felisdomesticus – cat<br />Alliumcepa –onion<br />Musmusculus– mouse<br />Muscadomestica– housefly<br />
  14. 14. Scientific names and Common names<br />Cheloniamydas – Green sea turtle<br />Turnixworcesteri- Button quail<br />Pithecophagajefferyi- Philippine eagle<br />Oryza sativa – rice<br />Cocosnucifera – coconut<br />Tarsiussyrichta-Philippine tarsier<br />Cervusalfredi- Philippine spotted deer<br />
  15. 15. Scientific names and Common names<br />Candida albicans – fungus causing itchiness to vagina<br />Staphylococcus aureus – bacterium found on open wound and pimples<br />Plasmodium vivax – protozoa that causes malaria<br />Penicilliumnotatum– fungus where penicillin is derived<br />Rafflesiaspeciousa – largest flower<br />Cyatheaceae spp. - Fern<br />
  16. 16. Scientific names and Common names<br />Carettacaretta – loggerhead sea turtle<br />Saccharomycescerevisiae – yeast used for production of beer. <br />Clostridium botulinum– bacteria that causes food poisoning. <br />Bubalusmindorensis– Tamaraw<br />Dugong dugong – Dugong <br />
  17. 17. The Five-Kingdom Classification<br />Kingdom Monera<br />Kingdom Protista<br />Kingdom Fungi<br />Kingdom Plantae<br />Kingdom Animalia<br />
  18. 18. Classification<br />Kingdom: Animalia<br />Phylum: Chordata<br />Subphylum: Vertebrata<br />Class: Mammalia<br />Order: Primates<br />Family: Hominidae<br />Genus: Homo<br />Species: sapiens<br />Scientific Name: Homo sapiens<br />Common Name: Human<br />
  19. 19. Classification<br />Kingdom: Plantae<br />Phylum: Tracheophyta<br />Class: Angiospermae<br />Order: Graminales<br />Family: Graminae<br />Genus: Oryza<br />Species: sativa<br />Scientific Name: Oryza sativa<br />Common Name: Rice<br />
  20. 20. Classification<br />Kingdom: Fungi<br />Phylum: Zygomycota<br />Class: Zygomycetes<br />Order: Mucorales<br />Family: Mucoraceae<br />Genus: Rhizopus<br />Species: stolonifer<br />Scientific Name: Rhizopusstolonifer<br />Common Name: Black bread mold<br />
  21. 21. MONERA<br />The cells lack a membrane-enclosed nucleus as well as other membranous structures present in the cells of all other types of organisms.<br />Example: Bacteria<br />
  22. 22. Classification of Bacteria<br />Based on flagellar arrangement<br />Based on shape<br />
  23. 23. phyla of Subkingdom Archaebacteria<br />Phylum Thermoacidophiles<br />Phylum Halophiles<br />Phylum Methanogenes<br />phyla of Subkingdom eubacteria<br /><ul><li>Phylum Proteobacteria
  24. 24. Phylum Rhizobacteria
  25. 25. Phylum Cyanobacteria
  26. 26. Phylum Prochlorophyta
  27. 27. Phylum Schizophyta</li></li></ul><li>PROTISTA<br />Unicellular and multicellular.<br />Have cells that contain membrane–bounded nucleus and other intracellular membranous structures<br />Reproduce sexually or asexually<br />Free living or parasitic in form. <br />Animal-like protist<br />Plant-like protist<br />Fungus-like protist<br />
  28. 28. Phyla of Protists<br />Euglenophyta – Euglena<br />Ciliophora– Paramecium<br />Zoomastigina –Trypanosoma<br />Sarcodina – Amoeba<br />Phaeophyta- Brown Algae<br />Chlorophyta – Green algae<br />Rhodophyta –Red algae<br />
  29. 29. Phyla of Protists<br />Sporozoa – Plasmodium<br />Chrysophyta – Pinnularia<br />Pyrrophyta – Dinoflagellate<br />Myxomycota – plasmodial Slime molds<br />Acrasiomycota – Cellular slime molds<br />Oomycota – water molds and downy mildews<br />
  30. 30. FUNGI<br />They have cell walls with chitin, but lack chlorophyll and therefore cannot manufacture their own food. <br />They cannot ingest large particles of food and depend entirely on absorption of nutrient molecules.<br />Some are saprophytic – feed on dead and decaying organisms <br />Reproduce asexually by spore formation or budding. <br />
  31. 31. Phyla of fungi <br />Zygomycota – Bread Molds<br />Ascomycota – Saccharomyces<br />Basidiomycota – Mushroom<br />Deuteromycota – Candida, Penicillium<br />
  32. 32. PLANTAE<br />Cells contain rigid cell walls and chloroplast.<br />Autotrophic – can produce their own food for maintenance and growth<br />
  33. 33. kingdom plantae<br />Division Bryophyta<br />Non-Vascular and multicellular plants<br />Reproduce by alternation of generation<br />Division Tracheophyta<br />Vascular and multicellular plants<br />Types: seedless plants and seed plants <br />Seed plant is divided into gymnosperm and angiosperm <br />
  34. 34. Gymnosperms<br /><ul><li> Plants that bear seeds not enclosed in a fruit</li></ul>Division Coniferophyta<br />Conifers or evergreen <br />Ex: Pines and spruce<br />Division Cycadophyta<br />Palm- like gymnosperms<br />Ex: Cycad, zamia<br />Division Ginkgophyta<br />Deciduous trees that can tolerate air pollution<br />Ex: Ginkgo biloba<br />Division Gnetophyta<br />Cone-bearing gymnosperms but vascular system is more like those of angiosperms. <br />Ex: Gnetum<br />
  35. 35. ANGIOSPERMS<br /><ul><li> Flowering plants whose seeds are enclosed in an ovary that ripens into a fruit</li></ul>Division Anthophyta<br />Class Monocotyledonae<br />Have embryo with a single cotyledon, leaves with parallel veins, flower parts in trees or sixes and vascular bundles scattered throughout the stem<br />They are primarily herbaceous<br />Ex: Rice and corn<br />Class Dicotyledonae<br />Have embryo with two cotyledon, veins of leaves in the form of network, flower parts in fours or fives, and vascular tissue organized in a concentric ring.<br />Some are herbaceous and some are woody<br />Ex: magnolia, mango, cucumber <br />
  36. 36. Kingdom Animalia<br />Multicellular, heterotrophic organisms with specialized tissues<br />Most are motile and have no cell wall<br />Performs sexual reproduction<br />Some have rigid parts on the inside of the body, others have rigid coverings outside the body<br />Some animals with backbone (vertebrates)<br />Some animals without backbone (invertebrate) <br />
  38. 38. Agnathans<br />MAMMALIA<br />AVES<br />cephalochordates<br />CHORDATA<br />Urochordata<br />OSTEICHTYES<br />REPTILIA<br />Chondrichtyes<br />AMPHIBIA<br />