Origin and geography of the philippines

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Origin and geography of the philippines

  1. 1. There are many explanations about the origin of our land, as follows:  As , we believe that the land forms were made by as part of his creation. After the , many continents and islands appeared. So the descendants of Noah spread out to many parts of the world.  The other religions of some tribes explain the origin of our land by telling are stories that are not true, but people use them to explain some thing in colorful way. 
  2. 2. One legend says our land came from a who was . He got tired and threw the rock down, so it broke to many pieces and formed the many islands of our country.  Another legend about between the . The sky threw the rocks down to the sea, and thus was formed the islands. have different opinions about the origin of our country.  Some geologist claim that it was the remnant of prehistoric continent called in the Pacific Ocean. Due to volcanic eruptions or earthquakes, this vast continent sank beneath the ocean. 
  3. 3.  Other believed that the eruption caused the gradual emergence of the islands above the ocean. was part of the or the continental shelf of Asia.  About 25,000 years ago, the ended the worlds , and the rising sea level flooded the land bridges connecting the continent of Asia and the Philippines. The , a little above the Equator, between latitudes 4 23’N and longitude 116 E and 127 E.  The map shown the Philippine Territorial sea and Exclusive Economic Zone. 
  4. 4.      It is bounded in the east by the Pacific Ocean, in the west by the South China Sea, Bashi channel, and in the south by the Zulu and Celebes Seas. The northernmost island is only 240 km. from Taiwan, which can be seen on a clear day. The southernmost island in , about 24 km. from Sabah (North Borneo). It is the in the non-Christian Asian world. It is the melting pot of races and cultures, with a from Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America. It is the that links the Occidental and Oriental worlds.
  5. 5.      It is at the of Asia’s air and sea routes. It is the bastion of in Asia where most countries are kingdoms, military dictatorships, or oneparty government . The total land area of the Phil. Is . km. or 0.2percent of the worlds land mass. Having , it is one of the world’s largest archipelagos or group of islands. The and their areas are (104,687 sq. km.); (94,630sq.km.); (13,080sq.km.); (12,709sq.km.); (11 ,785sq.km.); (11,515sq.km.); (9,735s sq.km.); (7,214sq. km.); (4,422)sq.km.); (3,864sq.km.);and (3,269sq.km.)
  6. 6.   On June 11,1978, President Marcos signed Presidential Decree No.1596, declaring the a part of the Philippines, to be administered as municipality of the Province of Palawan. means the physical features of country. The Philippines is an inverted archipelago of numerous islands, and islets, coral reefs, abundant rivers, lakes and bays; mountains and valleys; cool plateaus and scenic volcanoes. It has the in the world-34,600kilometer. It has 61 and 20
  7. 7. is the finest harbor in Asia and also the largest Bay in the Philippines .  The narrowest strait in the world is between Samar and Leyte, now connected by the San Juanico Bridge.  The in the country are historic Bataan Peninsula and the fertile Bicol Peninsula in Luzon , and The Zamboanga and Davao Peninsula in Mindanao.  The lowest place in the country is the some 89 km. northeast of Mindanao. With depth of 37,732 ft. below sea level, it is said to be “the deepest place in the world.”  The Philippines has softly mountains and numerous valleys
  8. 8. The longest being the range from Cagayan Province in the north and to Laguna in the south.  The highest mountain is in Mindanao(9,690 feet or 2,954) meters above sea level.) The second highest peak is on the Ifugao-Benguet boundary in Luzon (2,982 meters).  Other noted peaks are Mt.Banahaw in Laguna-Quezon ;Mt. Bulusan in Sorsogon; Mt. Halcon in Mindoro Oriental; Mt. Kanloan in Negros Occidental; and Mt. Matutum in Cotabato. 
  9. 9.    The Central Plain and Cagayan Valley in Luzon, and Agusan Valley and the Cotobato Valley in Mindanao. The of the Philippines. is the greatest tobaccoproducing region in Asia, is also the largest valley. Among the famous plateaus are the Plateau in northern Luzon on which nestles the summer capital of the Philippines, (“City of Pines”), and the fertile in Mindanao. Famous for its delicious pineapples.
  10. 10. Its longest river is the , whose annual flood fertilizes the Cagayan Valley as the Nile river of Egypt.  In water volume, the is the Largest river .  Most historic of the is the , which is unfortunately is now so badly polluted it is gradually dying.  Out of 59 natural Lakes, the which was source of inspiration for Jose Rizal our national hero. 
  11. 11.  There are that are vulnerable for their like in Los Baños and Pan sol in Laguna Pandi and Sibul in Bulacan; Tiwi in Albay; and Magsingal in Ilocos sur. provide tourist attractions and hydroelectric power. The world renowned is a favorite tourists resort and move location. Maria Cristina Falls in Lanao del Norte;  Hinulugang Taktak in Antipolo;  Tamaraw Falls in Mindoro Oriental; and Darosdos Falls in Samar. 
  12. 12. The Philippine climate is in character.  The temperature varies from 21 to 32 C(70 to 90 F)  There are the two instincts seasons(from December to May) and (from June to November.)  The month is January and the month is May. in rather high from 71 to 85 percent. Due to the tropical weather and surrounding seas. is the most important factor in its climate, with most rainy days from July to Oct. 
  13. 13. The Philippines sits on where most natural calamities happen. These are typhoons, earthquakes or volcanic eruptions. They cause great damage to people , property and nature.  One natural calamity is the . It is the meaning .  In it is called a During the months of June to October , more than a dozen Typhoon hit the country. that hit the country was on July 16, 1990. The earthquake, which measured 7.7 on the Richter scale, killed more than 1,500people on the main island of Luzon. 
  14. 14. There are more than 50 volcanoes in the country.  Most famous and scenic of the Phil. volcanoes is , which has a nearly perfect one. It has erupted more than 30 times in recorded history from 1616 to the present.  It is the most destructive eruption occurred on Feb.1,1814, when the town of Casagwa was buried 1,2oo people died. the smallest and most unusual volcano, being surrounded by a lake in Batangas erupted more than 20 times.  The in history happened at in June 1991. The Pinatubo volcanic eruption damaged six provinces in Central Luzon. It is believed that the Pinatubo Affected climate around the world. 
  15. 15. God, Land and People. There are about knowing the country’s history. These are: The Philippines is blessed in all three ways.
  16. 16. Early visited Mindoro called our nation ”. This , because they bought gold in Mindoro.  A Greek map maker named (90168A.D.) called our islands in his ancient map.  When came in 1521 he called the Philippines But the name did not become popular.  In 1543, a Spanish Explorer named gave the name to the Philippines Phil. In honor of Crown Prince Felipe(Philip) who later became King Philip II of Spain. 
  17. 17. The later became during the Spanish colonial era. Then it became “ during the American colonial era. Then “the Republic of the Philippines.  Then “ ” after our independence in 1946.  -the for the Philippines. This was the given to our country by two Famous writers. One of them was a named in 1751. But the Filipino who popularized this name was , our National Hero.
  18. 18.  The of a country include soil, plant and animal life, fish and marine resources, minerals, energy sources, and scenic beauty of nature. Soil the country’s because most of the people earn a living from tilling the land. The people are fortunate to have a highly fertile soil.  According to the Bureau of Soils, about of the country’s arable land of 11 million hectares has been badly eroded. 
  19. 19. When properly cultivate the farms and plantation can yield good crops – rice and corn, coconuts, sugar abaca and tobacco, and fruits (bananas, pineapples and mangoes) and nuts.  God has blessed our country with the greatest diversity of plant and animal life on earth. We have species of plant and animals. According to agricultural experts, 8,120 species of plant grow in the country. About 1000 varieties of orchids, 1000 species of rice, and 3000 species of trees found in it.  The is the famous , the national flower. 
  20. 20.  About species of birds are found in country, more than Australia, Japan, and other Asian countries. The Biggest Bird is the eastern Sarus Crane, known as tipol in Luzon and labong in Visayas. It is the wadding bird with very long legs andf neck. When full grown, it is five and half feet. The Philippine or , the World’s Largest Eagle, which is now the National Birds.  The , called the “ Clock of the Mountains” by the Spanish colonizers because, it always makes a loud call at noon in the mountains.  The , which can talk and sing like a human. 
  21. 21. The , a dancing bird with gorgeous plumage and;  The , a hawk which screams repeatedly as it soars into the sky; tik-wee tik-wee.  The most useful of the animals is the (water buffalo), the farmers best friend.  2. 3. 4. of Mindoro which looks like a dwarf carabao and is fierce like a tiger; the , reputed to be the smallest monkey in the world; the of Balabac Island (Palawan Province which is the smallest deer in the world;and the , which is half zebra and half donkey, bred for the first time at the Manila Zoo in 1962.
  22. 22.  The forest lands have total area 16,633,000 hectares, representing55percent of the total land area.  More than 3,000 species of trees are found in our forests, 1000 of which are commercial timber.  The most famous of forest trees is the ,” ”. It is the National Tree.  At least 2,000 species of fish are found in the waters of the archipelago  Both and are found in the Philippines.
  23. 23. Rhincodon typus) is called (striped shark) by fishermen because of its black stripes. It is about 50 feet in length and weighs several tons, and was firsts sighted in 1816 at Mariveles Bay.  The (Pandaka pygmea) and tabios, the two smallest fish, were found in the Philippine waters. Like the size of a grain of rice.  Of the world’s 60,000 species of shells some 20,000 are available in the Philippines.  The world’s shell,called “ ”(Conus gloriamaris), and the Golden Cowrie, another rare shell, are both found here.  Also present in Philipppine waters are the , , and the ,  The huge of
  24. 24. -the world’s , is said to be 350 years old, 14 pounds in weight. It was valued at US $ 3.5million. Many minerals are found in the country ).Metallic mineral like nickel. Copper, iron, and gold are relatively abundant. The country is one of Asia’s great gold producing regions.  The best known district in the country is Mankayan in the Mountain Province where the oldest and best copper mine still exist.  The greatest iron bearing areas in the country are in the Surigao provinces (del norte and del sur). 
  25. 25. Energy (power) is used to supply electricity and fuel to run factories, light homes and offices, and to move cars, trucks and boats. After the 1973 “energy crisis” and the world economic slump, people have become more aware of the importance of their power and fuel supplied.
  26. 26. The Philippines energy needs are supplied by 1. Oil 2. hydroelectric power 3. bagasse (sugar cane wastes); 4. geothermal energy 5. coal and; 6. new sources of energy , like solar power biogas, agro-forestry wastes, natural gas, alcogas and wood.
  27. 27.  The Oil and Gas Discovery in Palawan.  In 2001, the discovery of more oil and gas in Malampaya, Palawan, caused great excitement. The delivery of oil and natural gas from this Field offers great economic improvement.  The Palawan find is the biggest oil and gas field in the country. It also deepest well in the world , going 3,000 meters above sea level.
  28. 28.  The first evidence of the systematic use of Stone-Age technologies in the Philippines is estimated to have dated back to about 50,000 BC, and this phase in the development of proto-Philippine societies is considered to end with the rise of metal tools in about 500 BC, although stone tools continued to be used past that date. Filipino Anthropologist F. Landa Jocano refers to the earliest noticeable stage in the development of proto-Philippine societies as the Formative Phase. He also identified stone tool and ceramics making as the two core industries that defined the economic activity of the time, and which shaped the means by which early Filipinos adapted to their environment during this period.
  29. 29.  About 30,000 BC, the Negritos, who became the ancestors of today's Aetas, or Aboriginal Filipinos, descended from more northerly abodes in Central Asia passing through the Indian Subcontinent and reaching the Andamanese Islands. From thereon, the Negritos continued to venture on land bridges reachingSoutheast Asia.  While some of the Negritos settled in Malaysia, becoming what is now the Orang Asli people, several Negrito tribes continued on to the Philippines through Borneo. No evidence has survived which would indicate details of Ancient Filipino life such as their crops, color, and architecture.
  30. 30.  The earliest human remains known in the Philippines are the fossilized remains discovered in 2007 by Armand Salvador Mijares in Callao Cave, Cagayan,Philippines. A 67,000 years old remains that predates Tabon Man. Specifically, the find consisted of a single 61 milimeter metatarsal which, when dated using uranium series ablation, was found to be at least about 67,000 years old. If definitively proven to be remains of Homo sapiens, it would antedate the 47,000 year old remains of Tabon Man to become the earliest human remains known in the Philippines, and one of the oldest human remains in the Asia Pacific.
  31. 31.  A fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone of three individuals, discovered on May 28, 1962 by Dr. Robert B. Fox, an American anthropologist of the National Museum. These fragments are collectively called "Tabon Man" after the place where they were found on the west coast of Palawan. Tabon Cave appears to be a kind of Stone Age factory, with both finished stone flake tools and waste core flakes having been found at four separate levels in the main chamber. Charcoal left from three assemblages of cooking fires there has been Carbon-14 dated to roughly 7,000, 20,000, and 22,000 BCE.
  32. 32. The Tabon man fossils are considered to have come from a third group of inhabitants, who worked the cave between 22,000 and 20,000 BCE. An earlier cave level lies so far below the level containing cooking fire assemblages that it must represent Upper Pleistocene dates like 45 or 50 thousand years ago.
  33. 33.  There have been several models of early human migration to the Philippines. Since H. Otley Beyer first proposed his wave migration theory, numerous scholars have approached the question of how, when and why humans first came to the Philippines. The question of whether the first humans arrived from the south (Malaysia, Indonesia, and Brunei as suggested by Beyer) or from the north (via Taiwan as suggested by the Austronesian theory) has been a subject of heated debate for decades. As new discoveries come to light, past hypotheses are reevaluated and new theories constructed
  34. 34. According to Dr. Beyer, the ancestors of the Filipinos came to the islands first via land bridges which would occur during times when the sea level was low, and then later in seagoing vessels such as the balangay. Thus he differentiated these ancestors as arriving in different "waves of migration", as follows:
  35. 35. "Dawn Man", a cave-man type who was similar to Java man, Peking Man, and other Asian homo sapiens of 250,000 years ago.  The aboriginal pygmy group, the Negritos, who arrived between 25,000 and 30,000 years ago.  The sea-faring tool-using Indonesian group who arrived about 5,000 to 6,000 years ago and were the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea.  The seafaring, more civilized Malays who brought the Iron age culture and were the real colonizers and dominant cultural group in the pre-Hispanic Philippines. 
  36. 36. BELLWOOD'S AUSTRONESIAN DIFFUSION THEORY
  37. 37.  This model suggests that Between 4500 BCE and 4000 BCE, developments in agricultural technology in the Yunnan Plateau in Chinacreated pressures which drove certain peoples to migrate to Taiwan. These people either already had or began to develop a unique language of their own, now referred to as Proto-Austronesian. By around 3000 BCE, these groups started differentiating into three or four distinct subcultures, and by 2500 to 1500 BC, one of these groups began migrating southwards towards the Philippines and Indonesia, reaching as far as Borneo and the Moluccas by 1500 BCE, forming new cultural groupings and developing unique languages.
  38. 38.  By 1500 BC, some of these groups started migrating west, reaching as far as Madagascar around the first millennium CE. Others migrated east, settling as far as Easter Island by the mid-13th century CE, giving the Austronesian language group the distinction of being the most widely distributed language groups in the world at that time, in terms of the geographical span of the homelands of its languages.  According to this theory, the peoples of the Philippines are the descendants of those cultures who remained on the Philippine islands when others moved first southwards, then eastward and westward.
  39. 39. Another alternative model is that asserted by anthropologist F. Landa Jocano of the University of the Philippines, who in 2001 contended that the existing fossil evidence of ancient humans demonstrates that they not only migrated to the Philippines, but also to New Guinea, Borneo, and Australia.  Another alternative model is that asserted by anthropologist F. Landa Jocano of the University of the Philippines, who in 2001 contended that the existing fossil evidence of ancient humans demonstrates that they not only migrated to the Philippines, but also to New Guinea, Borneo, and Australia. 
  40. 40.  In reference to Beyer's wave model, he points out that there is no definitive way to determine the "race" of the human fossils; the only certain thing is that the discovery of Tabon Man proves that the Philippines was inhabited as early as 21,000 or 22,000 years ago. If this is true, the first inhabitants of the Philippines would not have come from the Malay Peninsula. Instead, Jocano postulates that the present Filipinos are products of the long process of evolution and movement of people..
  41. 41.  He also adds that this is also true of Indonesians and Malaysians, with none among the three peoples being the dominant carrier of culture. In fact, he suggests that the ancient humans who populated Southeast Asia cannot be categorized under any of these three groups. He thus further suggests that it is not correct to consider Filipino culture as being Malayan in orientation

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