Scientific Methods of Research in Economics

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Scientific Methods of Research in Economics

  1. 1. Paper Presentation<br />BA Economics Program<br />WELCOMES<br />Group B<br />FASNA P.E.<br />NAJMUNNIS A .K.<br />SUNEESH K.K<br />SABEEH E.<br />SAFI Institute of Advanced Study <br />
  2. 2. Scientific and Alternative Methods of Research in Social Science <br />
  3. 3. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Introduction to Social Science and Social Science Research<br />Alternative Methods<br />Historical Method<br />Case study method<br />The comparative method<br />The cross Culture method<br />The Mathematical method <br />Sample survey<br />Participant observation<br />The experiment Method<br />The Scientific Methods & Steps <br />Selection and defining topic<br />Reviewing the Literature <br />Formulating Hypothesis <br />Research Design (Collection, Classifying, Analysis of data)<br />Testing Hypothesis <br />Generalization<br />Interdisciplinary Approach <br />Statistical Analysis and Social Science<br />Conclusion <br />Contents<br />
  4. 4. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /> Introduction to Social Science and Social Science Research<br />
  5. 5. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Social Science <br />The field of human knowledge that deals with all aspects of the group life of human beings. So it is subject to change with the changes the human behavior.<br />Meaning of Research <br />Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as any systematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using a scientific method. <br />
  6. 6. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Alternative Methods<br /><ul><li>Historical Method
  7. 7. Case study method
  8. 8. The comparative method
  9. 9. The cross Culture method
  10. 10. The Mathematical method
  11. 11. Sample survey
  12. 12. Participant observation
  13. 13. The experimental Method</li></li></ul><li>Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>Historical Method</li></ul>The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history<br />
  14. 14. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>Case study method</li></ul>A case study is an intensive analysis of an individual unit (e.g., a person, group, or event) stressing developmental factors in relation to context.<br />
  15. 15. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>The comparative method </li></li></ul><li>Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>Cross-cultural studies</li></ul>Cross-cultural studies, is a specialization in anthropology and sociology, psychology, economics, political science that uses field data from many societies to examine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses about human behavior and culture. <br />
  16. 16. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>The Mathematical method </li></ul>Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent economic theories and analyze problems posed in economics.<br /> It allows formulation and derivation of key relationships in a theory with clarity, generality, and simplicity.<br />
  17. 17. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>Sample survey</li></ul>In statistics and survey methodology, sampling is concerned with the selection of a subset of individuals from within a population to estimate characteristics of the whole population<br />
  18. 18. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>Participant observation
  19. 19. Participant observation is a type of research strategy.
  20. 20. It is a widely used methodology in cultural anthropology, sociology, communication studies, social psychology and etc
  21. 21. Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals such as a religious, occupational, or sub cultural group, or a particular community and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their natural environment, usually over an extended period of time.</li></li></ul><li>Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br /><ul><li>The experimental Method</li></ul>An experiment is a methodical procedure carried out with the goal of verifying, falsifying, or establishing the validity of a hypothesis. Experimentation is also used to test existing theories or new hypotheses in order to support them or disprove them<br />
  22. 22. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />The Scientific Method & its steps <br />Selection and defining Topic<br />Reviewing the Literature <br />Formulating Hypothesis <br />Research Design (Collection, Classifying, Analysis of data)<br />Testing Hypothesis <br />Generalization<br />
  23. 23. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />The Scientific Method of Research <br />Scientific method of research refers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge. <br />
  24. 24. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Terms related to Scientific Methods <br />Concept <br />Theory <br />Research. <br />
  25. 25. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Selection and defining Topic<br />Reviewing the Literature <br />Formulating Hypothesis <br />Research Design (Collection, Classifying, Analysis of data)<br />Testing Hypothesis <br />Generalization<br />
  26. 26. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Selection and defining Topic<br />FORMULATING A RESEARCH PROBLEM : Researchers organize their research by formulating and defining a research problem. This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the real world in the best possible way.<br />
  27. 27. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Reviewing the Literature <br />A literature review is aims to review the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic. Literature reviews are secondary sources<br />
  28. 28. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Formulating Hypothesis <br />A hypothesis is a tentative statement or explanation for a phenomenon that is subjected to testing and verification. <br />
  29. 29. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Research Design <br />Collection of Data<br /> Classification of Data<br /> Analysis of Data<br />
  30. 30. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />The Scientific Method & its steps <br />Testing Hypothesis <br />A statistical hypothesis test is a method of making decisions using data, whether from a controlled experiment or an observational study is valid or not.<br />
  31. 31. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Steps in Scientific Method <br />Generalization<br />Generalization is to which extent the research and the conclusions of the research apply to the real world. <br />
  32. 32. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Introduction to Social Science and Social Science Research<br />Alternative Methods<br />Historical Method<br />Case study method<br />The comparative method<br />The cross Culture method<br />The Mathematical method <br />Sample survey<br />Participant observation<br />The experiment Method<br />The Scientific Methods & Steps <br />Selection and defining topic<br />Reviewing the Literature <br />Formulating Hypothesis <br />Research Design (Collection, Classifying, Analysis of data)<br />Testing Hypothesis <br />Generalization<br />Interdisciplinary Approach <br />Statistical Analysis and Social Science<br />Conclusion <br />Contents<br />
  33. 33. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Interdisciplinary Approach <br />
  34. 34. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Interdisciplinary Approach <br />Interdisciplinary Approach involves the combining of two or more academic fields into one single discipline or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged.<br />
  35. 35. Scientific and Alternative methods of Research in Social Science <br />Statistical Analysis and Social Science<br /><ul><li>Population study
  36. 36. Poverty analysis
  37. 37. Testing theory and Hypothesis
  38. 38. Correlation and regression analysis
  39. 39. Analysis of Data
  40. 40. Sample survey
  41. 41. Prediction and inference
  42. 42. Etc</li></li></ul><li>Conclusion <br />
  43. 43. Questions …??? <br />?<br />

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