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What do we want from digital education?
Siân Bayne, The University of Edinburgh, @sbayne
Digital Education research group
digital cultures in education
digital education policy
learning analytics
children and te...
the promises and threats of digital education
the human-technology divide and beyond
applying the thinking
from ‘what work...
Digital education: promises and threats
efficiency
scale and reach
relevance
effectiveness
measurability
co-presence
embod...
Humans and non-humans are engaged in a history that should render
their separation impossible.
(Latour 2003)
The point is ...
“One does not have to fix ones
gaze on a material world from
which all traces of humanity
have been expunged; or on a
soci...
‘Seeing double’ in digital education
Introna and Hayes: plagiarism detection
Introna, L. D. and Hayes, N. (2011) ‘On socio...
Culturally specific ways of knowing
A new ‘regime of knowledge’
Normalisation of Turnitin and the ‘winnowing’ algorithm
The delegation of plagiarism detection to a technical actor
produces a particular set of agencies and intentionalities (a
...
Aggregating blog posts on a MOOC (E-learning and Digital Cultures)
1,340 posts displayed during the first instance of the course
931 RSS feed URLs added to the Google spreadsheet
visited 1,...
1. A Google spreadsheet behind a web form which allowed
participants to submit the RSS feed to their blog
2. 48 individual...
— Pipes limits posts to those published within 72 hours of each
‘collection’
— Wordpress aggregates posts in pages, 100 pe...
The EDCMOOC News front page is thus a complex performance
of human contribution, algorithmic process, and spatial
ordering...
An intervention in teacher automation
“One can predict that in a
few more years millions of
school children will have
access to what Philip of
Macedon’s son Ale...
The goal [of corporate strategists and
‘futurologists’] is to replace (at least for the
masses) face-to-face teaching by p...
The critical pedagogy
approach re-focuses attention
away from the functionality of
e-learning environments back
to the cor...
E-learning and digital cultures MOOC
c.12,000 enrolments from 158 countries
4,000+ in the student Facebook group
9,000+ in...
twitterbots
“Twitter bots are, essentially, computer
programs that tweet of their own
accord... it’s a code-to-code connec...
made by Amit Agarwal made by Bill Snitzer
made by Felix Jung
At a time when even our most glancing online
activities are processed into marketing by for-
profit bots in the shadows, T...
Teacherbot
#edcmooc
“While I was trying to figure out what the hell
‘post-humanism’ means, the teacher bot led
me on a merry chase looking up ...
deficit  excess
what works?  what do we want?
supercession  entanglement
embrace/resistance  play
Instead of falling back
on the sedimented
habits of thought that
the humanist past has
institutionalised, the
posthuman pr...
@sbayne
sian.bayne@ed.ac.uk
Thank you
Bayne, S. (2015) Teacherbot: interventions in automated teaching. Teaching in Higher Education,
20(4): 455-467.
Clarke, A....
Images
slide 1: L'Adolessencefrom Le Livre de la Sante by Joseph Handler (Monte Carlo: Andre Sauret, 1968), volume
13: Ado...
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015
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Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015

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Keynote for 'Critical Call': the international EuroCALL conference

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Sian Bayne Padova keynote, August 2015

  1. 1. What do we want from digital education? Siân Bayne, The University of Edinburgh, @sbayne
  2. 2. Digital Education research group digital cultures in education digital education policy learning analytics children and technology
  3. 3. the promises and threats of digital education the human-technology divide and beyond applying the thinking from ‘what works?’ to ‘what do we want?’
  4. 4. Digital education: promises and threats efficiency scale and reach relevance effectiveness measurability co-presence embodiment community surveillance de-professionalisation Essentialism: “technology drives social practice and change...humans must adapt to technical demands, while technology, like a Newtonian god, watches unaffected as the drama unfolds.” Instrumentalism: “technologies are seen as neutral means employed for ends determined independently by their users.” (Hamilton and Friesen 2013) “pedagogy should drive technology” “using technology to enhance learning” “developing toolkits for innovative teaching” “harnessing the power of technology” “technology is transforming education” “course design for digital natives”
  5. 5. Humans and non-humans are engaged in a history that should render their separation impossible. (Latour 2003) The point is that material things are performative and not inert... They act together with other types of things and forces to exclude, invite and regulate particular forms of participation in enactments, some of which we term education. (Fenwick, Edwards and Sawchuck 2011)
  6. 6. “One does not have to fix ones gaze on a material world from which all traces of humanity have been expunged; or on a social world from which the material world has been magically whisked away by linguistic conjuring tricks. The world itself does not impose this division upon us. ... Though none of the traditional disciplines does this, one can trying seeing double: seeing the human and the nonhuman at once, without trying to strip either away.” (Pickering 2005)
  7. 7. ‘Seeing double’ in digital education Introna and Hayes: plagiarism detection Introna, L. D. and Hayes, N. (2011) ‘On sociomaterial imbrications: what plagiarism detection systems reveal and why it matters’. Information and Organization, 21: 107-122. Knox: active algorithms Knox, J. K. (2014). ‘Active algorithms: sociomaterial spaces in the E- learning and Digital Cultures MOOC.’ Campus Virtuales, 3(1): 42-55. Bayne: teacherbot Bayne, S. (2015) Teacherbot: interventions in automated teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 20(4): 455-467.
  8. 8. Culturally specific ways of knowing A new ‘regime of knowledge’ Normalisation of Turnitin and the ‘winnowing’ algorithm
  9. 9. The delegation of plagiarism detection to a technical actor produces a particular set of agencies and intentionalities (a politics one might say) which unintentionally and unexpectedly conspires to constitute some students as plagiarists (who are not) and others as not (who are). (Introna and Hayes 2011)
  10. 10. Aggregating blog posts on a MOOC (E-learning and Digital Cultures)
  11. 11. 1,340 posts displayed during the first instance of the course 931 RSS feed URLs added to the Google spreadsheet visited 1,430 times by 997 unique visitors over course period
  12. 12. 1. A Google spreadsheet behind a web form which allowed participants to submit the RSS feed to their blog 2. 48 individual Yahoo Pipes each fetching 20 feeds from the Google spreadsheet filtering posts according to publishing time and the presence of the course hashtag sorting posts according to date 3. A WordPress instance using the FeedWordPress plugin to display aggregated posts
  13. 13. — Pipes limits posts to those published within 72 hours of each ‘collection’ — Wordpress aggregates posts in pages, 100 per page — Viewers only tended to view/engage with the first page of EDCMOOC news — FeedWordpress more likely to ‘fetch’ posts made in the same time zone (GMT) — Global spread of participants
  14. 14. The EDCMOOC News front page is thus a complex performance of human contribution, algorithmic process, and spatial ordering… It is determined by a number of interrelated and co- constitutive factors that are human and non-human, social and algorithmic. (Knox 2014)
  15. 15. An intervention in teacher automation
  16. 16. “One can predict that in a few more years millions of school children will have access to what Philip of Macedon’s son Alexander enjoyed as a royal prerogative: the personal services of a tutor as well- informed and responsive as Aristotle.” (Suppes, 1966) “Productivity: Improved quantity or quality of learner achievement per unit of teacher time, and/or learner time.” (Laurillard 2011)
  17. 17. The goal [of corporate strategists and ‘futurologists’] is to replace (at least for the masses) face-to-face teaching by professional faculty with an industrial product, infinitely reproducible at decreasing unit cost. (Feenberg 2003)
  18. 18. The critical pedagogy approach re-focuses attention away from the functionality of e-learning environments back to the core relations between students and teachers and the conditions in which they find themselves. (Clegg 2003) “Mobilization in defense of the human touch.” (Feenberg 2003) ....the ideological shaping of educational technology along individualistic, neo- liberal and new capitalist lines. (Selwyn 2014)
  19. 19. E-learning and digital cultures MOOC c.12,000 enrolments from 158 countries 4,000+ in the student Facebook group 9,000+ in the student G+ group 4000+ tweets to #edcmooc over course run 1,900 posts in Coursera forums c.50% with postgraduate degrees c.50% working in Education
  20. 20. twitterbots “Twitter bots are, essentially, computer programs that tweet of their own accord... it’s a code-to-code connection, made possible by Twitter’s wide-open application programming interface, or A.P.I.” (Dubbin 2013) “8.5% of all active users used third party applications that may have automatically contacted our servers for regular updates without any discernable additional user- initiated action.” (Twitter 2014)
  21. 21. made by Amit Agarwal made by Bill Snitzer
  22. 22. made by Felix Jung
  23. 23. At a time when even our most glancing online activities are processed into marketing by for- profit bots in the shadows, Twitter bots foreground the influence of automation on modern life, and they demystify it somewhat in the process. (Dubbin 2013)
  24. 24. Teacherbot #edcmooc
  25. 25. “While I was trying to figure out what the hell ‘post-humanism’ means, the teacher bot led me on a merry chase looking up quotes and obscure academic references, which had the interesting side effect of ‘ambush teaching’ me. I will happily admit, that I do not feel like I have been to a class. I do not feel like I have been taught, either. I do, however, think I have learned something. I’ve certainly been prompted to think. Isn’t this what every good teacher/trainer strives for?” Giddens 2013
  26. 26. deficit  excess what works?  what do we want? supercession  entanglement embrace/resistance  play
  27. 27. Instead of falling back on the sedimented habits of thought that the humanist past has institutionalised, the posthuman predicament encourages us to undertake a leap forward into the complexities and paradoxes of our times. (Braidotti 2013)
  28. 28. @sbayne sian.bayne@ed.ac.uk Thank you
  29. 29. Bayne, S. (2015) Teacherbot: interventions in automated teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 20(4): 455-467. Clarke, A. C. (1980). Electronic Tutors. Omni Magazine. June 1980. Clegg, S., Hudson, A. and Steel, J. (2003) The Emperor's New Clothes: Globalisation and Elearning in Higher Education, British Journal of Sociology of Education, 24(1): 39-53. Fenwick, Tara, Richard Edwards and Peter Sawchuk. 2011. Emerging approaches to educational research: tracing the sociomaterial. London: Routledge. Giddens, Seth (2013) Chatting to Teacherbot. Why Posthuman Teachers Can Never Happen In My Lifetime. http://www.digitalang.com/2014/11/chatting-to-teacherbot-why-posthumanism- can-never-happen-in-my-lifetime/comment-page-1/#comment-47433 Hamilton, Edward C. and Norm Friesen. 2013. Online Education: A Science and Technology Studies Perspective. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology. 39 (2). Introna, L. D. and Hayes, N. (2011) ‘On sociomaterial imbrications: what plagiarism detection systems reveal and why it matters’. Information and Organization 21: 107-122. Knox, J. K. (2014). ‘Active algorithms: sociomaterial spaces in the E-learning and Digital Cultures MOOC.’ Campus Virtuales, 3(1): 42-55. Laurillard, D. (2011) Productivity:Achieving higher quality and more effective learning in affordable and acceptable ways. http://www.tlrp.org/docs/ProdBeta.pdf Pickering, A. (2005). Asian eels and global warming: a posthumanist perspective on society and the environment. Ethics and the Environment, 10(2), 29-43. Selwyn, N. (2014) Distrusting Educational Technology Critical Questions for Changing Times. London: Routledge. Suppes, P. (1966). The uses of computers in education. Scientific American, 215(2): 206-20.
  30. 30. Images slide 1: L'Adolessencefrom Le Livre de la Sante by Joseph Handler (Monte Carlo: Andre Sauret, 1968), volume 13: Adolescence, Hygienes, Viellissement. http://50watts.com/L-Adolessence slide 4: 1) Milton Glaser, illustration for story by Apollinaire. http://50watts.com/Milton-Glaser-and-World- Literature; 2) Photochromosomes 2, http://50watts.com/Photochromosomes-2 slide 6: Riding an Ostrich, Cawston Ostrich Farm, South Pasadena, California http://50watts.com/Riding-an- Ostrich slide 8: Marchioness of Waterford - The Writing Lesson. http://www.myartprints.co.uk/a/waterford- marchioness-of/the-writing-lesson-1.html slide 13: Dedicated to you but you weren’t glistening. http://50watts.com/Dedicated-to-you-but-you-weren-t- glistening slide 17: clips from OMNI magazine (1980). https://archive.org/details/omni-magazine slide 18: 25 Vintage Cosmetics Ads from Japan, http://50watts.com/25-Vintage-Cosmetics-Ads-from-Japan slide 19: 2014 robot calendar, July. Sophia A Zhou on Deviant Art. http://sophiaazhou.deviantart.com/art/2014- Robot-Calendar-July-421230808 slide 26: E-learning and digital cultures MOOC sociogram, courtesy of Peter Evans slide 29: Ukranian space invaders, http://50watts.com/Ukrainian-Space-Invaders

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