Chapter10

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Chapter10

  1. 1. Ch 10 - Chapter 10 Planning and Cabling Networks
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Identify the basic network media required to make a LAN connection </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the types of connectors for intermediate and end device connections in a LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the pinout configurations for straight-through and crossover cables </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the different cabling types, standards and ports used for WAN connections </li></ul><ul><li>Define the role of device management connections </li></ul><ul><li>Design an addressing scheme for an internetwork and assign range for hosts, network devices and router interface </li></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast the importance of network design </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  3. 3. Routers <ul><li>Primary devices used to interconnect networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Have the ability to break up broadcast domains (BD) and collision domains (CD) </li></ul><ul><li>Used to interconnect networks that use different technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAN and WAN interfaces </li></ul></ul>hub switch router router switch
  4. 4. Hubs <ul><li>A hub receives a signal, regenerates it, and sends the signal over all ports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ports use a shared bandwidth approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces the LAN performance due to collisions and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintains a single collision domain </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Used in a small LAN that requires low throughput requirements or when finances are limited </li></ul><ul><li>Less expensive than a switch </li></ul>
  5. 5. Switches <ul><li>A switch receives a frame and regenerates each bit of the frame on to the appropriate destination port </li></ul><ul><li>Used to segment a network into multiple collision domains </li></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Each port on the switch creates a separate collision domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creates a point-to-point logical topology to the device on each port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides dedicated bandwidth on each port </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be used to interconnect network segments of different speeds </li></ul>
  6. 6. Device Selection Factors <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Speed and types of ports/interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Expandability </li></ul><ul><li>Manageability </li></ul><ul><li>Additional features and services </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  7. 7. Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>its capacity and features </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>network management capabilities, embedded security technologies and optional advanced switching technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Simple “cost per port” calculation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deploy one large switch at a central location </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><ul><li>cost savings may be offset by the expense from the longer cables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare the cost of deploying a number of smaller switches connected by a few long cables to a central switch </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch (cont’d) <ul><li>Investing in redundancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a secondary switch to operate concurrently with the primary central switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>additional cabling to allow the physical network to continue its operation even if one device fails </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  9. 9. Speed and Type of Ports (Interfaces) <ul><li>Purchasing decisions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>just enough ports for today’s needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mixture of UTP speeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>both UTP and fiber ports </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  10. 10. Factors to Consider in Choosing a Router <ul><li>Expandability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>modular devices have expansion slots that provide the flexibility to add new modules as requirement evolve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>basic number of fixed ports as well as expansion slots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>additional modules for fiber optics can increase the cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Operating system features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different versions of the operating system support certain features and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security, quality of service, voice over IP, routing multiple Layer 3 protocols, NAT and DHCP </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  11. 11. LAN Cabling Areas <ul><li>Work area </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunication room, also known as distribution facility </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone cabling, also known as vertical cabling </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution cabling, also known as horizontal cabling </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  12. 12. LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d) <ul><li>Cable length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B standard for UTP installations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximum distance of 100 meters per channel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>up to 5 meters of patch cable for interconnecting patch panels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>up to 5 meters of patch cable from the cable termination point on the wall to the computer and telephone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>end user devices are located </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>minimum of two jacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patch cables, which are straight-through UTP cables, are used to connect end user devices to the wall jacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIA/TIA standard specifies the UTP patch cords to connect devices to the wall jacks have a maximum length of 10 meters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a crossover cable is used to connect a switch or hub to the wall jack </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  13. 13. LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d) <ul><li>Telecommunications room </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains the intermediary devices – hubs, switches, routers and data service units (DSUs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where connections to intermediary devices take place </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these devices provide the transitions between the vertical (or backbone) cabling and the horizontal cabling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>patch cords are used to connect patch panels and intermediary devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>servers are also housed in the telecommunication room </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Horizontal cabling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refers to cables connecting the telecommunication rooms(Server Room) with the work areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maximum cable length from a termination point in the telecommunication room to the termination at the work area outlet must not exceed 90 meters </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  14. 14. LAN Cabling Areas (cont’d) <ul><li>Vertical cabling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>refers to the cabling used to connect the telecommunication rooms to the equipment rooms( Cabling that runs between floors ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>also interconnects multiple telecommunication rooms throughout the facility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>used for aggregated traffic, such as traffic to and from the Internet access to corporate resources at a remote location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>typically require high bandwidth media such as fiber-optic cabling </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  15. 15. Types of Media <ul><li>UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6 and 7) </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber optics </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  16. 16. Choosing a Media <ul><li>Cable length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the cable need to span across a room or from a building to a building? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ease of installation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is vendor required? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to EMI/RFI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the local environment going to interfere with the signal? </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  17. 17. Cable Length <ul><li>Total length of cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>all cables from the end devices in the work area to the intermediary device, usually a switch, in the telecommunication room </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cable from the devices to the wall plug, through the building from the wall plug to the cross-connect (or patch panel) and from the patch panel to the switch </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the horizontal cabling length for UTP needs to stay within the recommended maximum distance of 90 meters </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ethernet Cabling Standards Ch 10 - Ethernet Type Bandwidth Cable Type Maximum Distance 10Base-T 10Mbps Cat 3/Cat 5 UTP 100m 100Base-TX 100Mbps Cat 5 UTP 100m 100Base-TX 200Mbps Cat 5 UTP 100m 100Base-FX 100Mbps Multi-mode fiber 400m 100Base-FX 200Mbps Multi-mode fiber 2Km 1000Base-T 1Gbps Cat 5e UTP 100m 1000Base-TX 1Gbps Cat 6 UTP 100m 1000Base-SX 1Gbps Multi-mode fiber 550m 1000Base-LX 1Gbps Single-mode fiber 2Km 10GBase-T 10Gbps Cat 6a/Cat 7 UTP 100m 10GBase-LX 10Gbps Multi-mode fiber 100m 10GBase-LX 10Gbp Single-mode fiber 10Km
  19. 19. Cable Cost and Bandwidth <ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>depend on media type such as copper or fiber optic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>budget for fiber-optic cabling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>installation costs for fiber are significantly higher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>match the performance needs of the users with the cost of the equipment and cabling to achieve the best cost/performance ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>devices in a network have different bandwidth requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>select a media that will provide high bandwidth, and can grow to meet increased bandwidth requirements and newer technologies </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  20. 20. Cable Installation <ul><li>Ease of cable installation varies according to cable types and building architecture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access to floor or roof spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>physical size and properties of the cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cables are usually installed in raceways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a raceway is an enclosure or tube that encloses and protects the cable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UTP cable is relatively lightweight and flexible and has a small diameter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>can fit into small spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fiber-optic cables contain a thin glass fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crimps or sharp bends can break the fiber </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless networks require less cabling </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  21. 21. Types of Interference <ul><li>Electromagnetic interference (EMI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>undesirable disturbance that affects an electric circuit due to electromagnetic radiation emitted from an external source such as electrical machines and lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio frequency interference (RFI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radio frequency signals transmitted from nearby radio stations that interfere with the operating frequency of the equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless is the medium most susceptible to RFI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potential sources of interference must be identified </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  22. 22. UTP Cabling Connections <ul><li>Specified by the Electronics Industry Alliance/Telecommunications Industry Association (EIA/TIA) </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  23. 23. Types of Interfaces <ul><li>Media-dependent interface (MDI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pins 1 and 2 are used for transmitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pins 3 and 6 are used for receiving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>devices such as computers, servers or routers have MDI connections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media-dependent interface, crossover (MDIX) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>devices that provide LAN connectivity such as hubs or switches use MDIX connections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MDIX connections swap the transmit-receive pairs internally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>end devices connect to hubs or switches using straight-through cables </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  24. 24. Straight-Through UTP Cables <ul><li>A straight-through cable has the same termination at each connector end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in accordance with either the T568A or T568B standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the same color codes throughout the LAN for consistency in documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Used for connecting different types of devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switch to router Ethernet port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer to switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer to hub </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  25. 25. Cross-over UTP Cables <ul><li>A cross-over cable has T568A termination at one end and a T568B termination at the other end </li></ul><ul><ul><li>transmit pins at each end connect to the receive pins at the other end </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used for connecting same types of devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switch to switch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>switch to hub </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer to router Ethernet port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>router to router Ethernet port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>computer to computer </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  26. 26. LAN Connections <ul><li>Straight-through UTP cables are used for connecting different types of devices, such as a router LAN interface to a switch </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-over UTP cables provide connections between same type of devices, such as a switch to another switch </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  27. 27. MDI/MDIX Selection <ul><li>On some devices, ports may have a mechanism that electrically swaps the transmit and receive pairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>engage the mechanism to change the port setting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some devices allow for selecting whether a port functions as MDI or MDIX during configuration </li></ul><ul><li>Many newer devices have an automatic crossover feature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>device detects the required cable type and configures the interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>auto-detection can be enabled by default or via configuration command </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  28. 28. WAN Connections <ul><li>WAN links span extremely long distances </li></ul><ul><ul><li>over wide geographic areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The chart shows some examples of WAN connections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>telephone line RJ-11 connectors for dial-up or DSL connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coaxial cable F connector for cable connection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serial connections </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  29. 29. Serial Cables <ul><li>One end of the serial cable is either a smart serial connector or a DB-60 connector </li></ul><ul><li>The other end is a large Winchester 15-pin connector </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V.35 connection to a Physical layer device such as a CSU/DSU </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - Smart serial DB-60 Winchester block Smart serial
  30. 30. Types of Devices <ul><li>Data terminal equipment (DTE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a device that receives clocking services from another device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>device is usually at the customer or the user end of the link </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data communications equipment (DCE) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a device that supplies the clocking service to another device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>device is typically at the WAN access provider end of the link </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  31. 31. Serial WAN Connections in the Lab <ul><li>Routers are DTE devices by default, but they can be configured to act as DCE devices </li></ul><ul><li>Two routers can be connected together using a serial V.35 cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V.35 cables are available in DTE and DCE versions </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  32. 32. Determining the Number of Hosts <ul><li>Every device needs an IP address </li></ul><ul><ul><li>consider present and future needs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Segment the network based on host requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>number of hosts in a network or subnetwork is 2 h – 2 </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  33. 33. Segmenting a Network <ul><li>Manage broadcast traffic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>divide one large broadcast domain into a number of smaller domains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not every host need to receive every broadcast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different network requirements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group users that share similar network or computing facilities together in one subnet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implement different levels of network security based on network addresses </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  34. 34. Creating Subnets <ul><li>Each subnet, is a physical segment, requires a router interface as the gateway for that subnet </li></ul><ul><li>Number of subnets on one networks is determined using 2 n </li></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><ul><li>n is the number of bits “borrowed” from the host bits to create subnets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed length subnet mask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one subnet mask for the entire network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each physical segment is assigned an unique subnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>each subnet has a same number of usable (or valid) host addresses </li></ul></ul>subnet 0 subnet 1 subnet 2 subnet 3 subnet 4
  35. 35. Designing an Address Standard <ul><li>Use addresses that fit a common pattern across all subnets can assist troubleshooting and expedite adding new hosts </li></ul><ul><li>Hosts can be categorized as general users, special users, network resources, router LAN interfaces, router WAN links and management access </li></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Document the IP addressing scheme </li></ul>
  36. 36. Case Study 1 Ch 10 - Calculating Addresses
  37. 37. Network Topology Ch 10 -
  38. 38. Network Requirements <ul><li>WAN link </li></ul><ul><ul><li>router-to-router connection requires 2 host addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There are 4 subnetworks in this topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>student, instructor, administrator and WAN </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - LAN Computers & servers Router (LAN gateway) Switches (management) Total Student 460 1 20 481 Instructor 64 1 4 69 Administrator 20 + 1 1 1 23
  39. 39. Fixed Length Subnet Mask <ul><li>Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of host addresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 9 – 2 = 510 usable host addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subnet mask is 255.255.254.0 (or /23 prefix) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 bits are assigned for subnets  2 2 = 4 subnets </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  40. 40. Variable Length Subnet Mask <ul><li>172.16.0.0/22 is assigned to this network </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to chapter 6, p51 on Using VLSM </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  41. 41. Variable Length Subnet Mask (cont’d) <ul><li>Require 9 host bits to support the largest number of hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mask is /23 prefix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 bit is used for subnet to create 2 subnets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.0.0/23 (subnet 0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.2.0/23 (subnet 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assign 172.16.0.0/23 (subnet 0) to Student LAN </li></ul><ul><li>Instructor LAN has the next fewer hosts, i.e. 69 hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>require 7 host bits to accommodate 69 hosts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use 172.16.2.0/23 to create 4 more subnets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.2.0/25 (subnet 0) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.2.128/25 (subnet 1) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.3.0 /25 (subnet 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>172.16.3.128/25 (subnet 3) </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  42. 42. Case Study 2 Ch 10 - Calculating Addresses
  43. 43. Network Topology Ch 10 -
  44. 44. VLSM <ul><li>Keep 5 host bits to accommodate the largest number of hosts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 5 – 2 = 30 usable host addresses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 bits are used to create 8 subnets (2 3 – 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network B will use 192.168.1.0/27 (subnet 0) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network E will use 192.168.1.32/27 (subnet 1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.33 to 192.168.1.62 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network A will use 192.168.1.64/28 (subnet 0 in subnet 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.65 to 192.168.1.78 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network D will use 192.168.1.80/28 (subnet 1 in subnet 2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.81 to 192.168.1.94 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network C will use 192.168.1.96/30 (subnet 0 in subnet 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>valid range of host addresses is 192.168.1.97 to 192.168.1.98 </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 -
  45. 45. Creating Subnets Ch 10 - 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3
  46. 46. Device Interfaces <ul><li>LAN interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used for connecting UTP cables that terminate LAN devices such as computers, switches and routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AUI, Ethernet and FastEthernet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WAN interfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>used for connecting WAN devices to CSU/DSU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>serial and BRI </li></ul></ul>Ch 10 - <ul><li>Console interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>provide configuration to the device </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary (AUX) interface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a modem is connected to the interface for remote management </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Device Management Connection <ul><li>A RJ-45 to DB-9 or RJ-45 to DB-25 adaptor is connected to the EIA/TIA-232 serial port of the PC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a rollover cable is used to connect the adapter to the device console </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The PC runs a program called a terminal emulator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>terminal emulator program, such as HyperTerminal, is used to access the functions of a networking device </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COM port settings are 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit and no flow control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This provides out-of-band console access </li></ul><ul><li>AUX port may be used for a modem-connected console </li></ul>Ch 10 -
  48. 48. Accessing the Device Console <ul><li>Connect the RJ-45 to DB-9 adapter to the console port using a rollover cable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>newer computers that do not have an EIA/TIA-232 serial interface will need a USB-to-serial adapter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The HyperTerminal program can be accessed via Start  All Programs  Accessories  Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>select the serial COM port and configure the port settings as shown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power on the device and the boot-up sequence will be displayed in the HyperTerminal window </li></ul>Ch 10 -

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