Employee socialization & orientation

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Employee socialization & orientation

  1. 1. Employee Socialization and Orientation By Si hosseini
  2. 2. Organizational Socialization   How employees adjust to a new organization What is at stake:  Employee satisfaction, commitment, and performance  Work group satisfaction and performance  Start-up costs for new employee  Likelihood of retention  Replacement costs 2
  3. 3. Two Approaches to Socialization Realistic Job Preview (RJP)  Employee Orientation  3
  4. 4. Organizational Socialization Defined  “The process by which an individual acquires the social knowledge and skills necessary to assume an organizational role.” 4
  5. 5. Organizational Role  A set of behaviors expected of individuals who hold a given position in a group. 5
  6. 6. Dimensions of Organizational Roles Inclusionary– social dimension (e.g., outsider, probationary, permanent status)  Functional – task dimension (e.g., sales, engineering, administrative)  Hierarchical – rank dimension (e.g., line employee, supervisor, management, officer)  6
  7. 7. Role Situations  Role – a set of behaviors expected of individuals holding a given position in a group  Role overload – more than can be reasonably expected from an individual  Role conflict – unclear expectations from others  Role ambiguity – role itself is unclear  Common in newly created positions 7
  8. 8. Issues Relevant to Socialization   Role communication – how well the role is communicated to the individual and the group Role orientation – how innovative an individual is in interpreting an organizational role  Custodial  Status quo  Innovative  Redefining role 8
  9. 9. Group Norms  Unwritten rules of conduct established by group members  Types:  Pivotal– essential to group membership  Relevant– desirable, but not essential  Peripheral– unimportant behaviors 9
  10. 10. Expectations  A belief or likelihood that something will occur 10
  11. 11. Socialization Categories  Preliminary learning  Learning about the organization  Learning to function in the work group  Learning to perform the job  Personal learning 11
  12. 12. Feldman’s Stage Model of Socialization (1981) Three stages:  Anticipatory socialization  Encounter  Change and Acquisition 12
  13. 13. Feldman’s Model of Organizational Socialization 13
  14. 14. Anticipatory Socialization Setting of realistic expectations  Determining a match with newcomer  14
  15. 15. Encounter Formal commitment made to join the organization  “Breaking in” (initiation into the job)  Establishing relationships  Roles clarified  15
  16. 16. Change and Acquisition New employee accepts group norms and values  Employee masters tasks  Employee resolves any role conflicts and overloads  16
  17. 17. People Processing Strategies (Van Maanen) Formal versus Informal  Individual versus Collective  Sequential versus Nonsequential  Fixed versus Variable  Tournament versus Contest  Serial versus Disjunctive  Investiture versus Divestiture  17
  18. 18. Formal versus Informal Formal Strategy– All newcomers will likely have very similar experiences. Formal activities are isolated and make newcomer’s role explicit (clear)  Informal Strategy– each newcomer’s experience will likely be unique. Informal processes take place within work context and do not clearly specify newcomer’s role.  18
  19. 19. Individual versus Collective Degree to which newcomers are socialized individually or as a group  Are newcomers part of a new group, or are they treated individually?  Group camaraderie formed, versus feeling of isolation  Generally, Collective strategy is less expensive  19
  20. 20. Sequential versus Nonsequential  Sequential – individual progresses through a series of established stages to achieve a position & gain a recognized role or status  e.g., mail clerk, mailroom supervisor, information manager  Nonsequential – individual achieves position immediately  e.g., six-month training program to become a bank branch manager 20
  21. 21. Fixed versus Variable Fixed – employee knows when transition period will end  Variable – length of transition period varies from individual to individual  21
  22. 22. Tournament versus Contest Tournament– as time passes, candidates are sorted according to potential, ambition, background, etc., and then assigned to various tracks (fast)  Contest– all individuals pass through all stages according to observed abilities and interests (slow)  22
  23. 23. Serial versus Disjunctive  Serial – using senior employees to provide a mentoring approach  Tends  to perpetuate the status quo Disjunctive – uses outsiders (trainers) to provide mentoring  Encourages innovation 23
  24. 24. Investiture versus Divestiture Investiture– Strategy that reinforces the uniqueness and viability of newcomer’s individual characteristics. Preserves newcomer’s identity, such as in recruiting upper management  Divestiture– suppressing certain characteristics like attitudes and selfconfidence and replace it with others of value to organization (e.g., basic military training)  24
  25. 25. People Processing Tactics & Strategies 1. 2. A process that is: sequential, variable, serial and involves divestiture practices will lead newcomers to develop a custodial orientation (will define their roles as organization has defines them) e.g. military A process that is: collective, formal, random, fixed and disjunctive will lead to content innovation role orientation (newcomers will make changes and improves their roles from org. perspectives) 25
  26. 26. Insider Advantages Accurate expectations  Knowledge base  Relationships with other insiders  26
  27. 27. What Do Newcomers Need?  Clear information on:     Expectations Norms Roles Values Assistance in developing needed KSAOs  Accurate help in interpreting events  27
  28. 28. Effects of Realistic Job Preview (John Wanous: 4 interrelated mechanisms) 1 2 4 3 28
  29. 29. The Realistic Job Preview   Vaccination Against Unrealistically High Expectations (recruiters provide accurate information to outsiders) Self-Selection   Coping Effect   Does job & organization meet individual needs? If no, individual will be dissatisfied & quit Realistic expectations help newcomers develop clear idea of their roles and cope with selected job Personal Commitment  Based on personal choice, individual will develop a strong personal commitment to that choice. 29
  30. 30. When to Use Realistic Job Previews (RJPs) When candidates can be selective about jobs  When there are more applicants than jobs  When recruits lack necessary information  When replacement costs are high  30
  31. 31. Issues in determining RJP Content  A variety of media for delivering RJP has been suggested (booklet, DVD, presentation) Descriptive or Judgmental Content   Extensive or Intensive Content   Massive information given or selective information presented in brief? Degree of Content Negativity   Factual information or incumbent feelings? Positive or negative approach? Message Source  Actors or company members? 31
  32. 32. Employee Orientation Programs        Reduce newcomer stress Reduce start-up costs Reduce turnover Expedite proficiency Assist in newcomer assimilation Enhance adjustment to work group and norms Encourage positive attitude 32
  33. 33. Orientation Program Content Information about company as a whole  Job-specific information  33
  34. 34. Company Information Overview of company  Key policies and procedures  Mission statement  Company goals and strategy  Compensation, benefits, safety  Employee relations  Company facilities  34
  35. 35. Job-Specific Information       Department functions Job duties and responsibilities Polices, rules, and procedures Tour of department Introduction to departmental employees Introduction to work group 35
  36. 36. A Large Company Procedure (Table 8-4) Material distribution  Pre-arrival period  First day  First week  Second week  Periodic updates  36
  37. 37. Orientation Roles  Supervisor  Information source  Guide for new employees  Coworkers  Socialize into organization  Help learn norms of the work group and organization 37
  38. 38. Orientation and the HRD Staff HRD staff designs and implements new employee orientation program  HRD schedules participation by various level of management  HRD staff evaluates orientation program and implements needed changes  38
  39. 39. Common Problems in Employee Orientation Too much paperwork  Information overload  Information irrelevance  Scare tactics  Too much “selling” of the  organization 39
  40. 40. Common Problems in Employee Orientation – 2 Too much one-way communication  One-shot mentality  No evaluation of program  Lack of follow-up  40
  41. 41. Designing and Implementing an Orientation Program Set objectives  Research orientation as a concept  Interview recent new hires  Survey other company practices  Review existing practices  Select content and delivery method  Pilot and revise materials  41
  42. 42. Designing and Implementing an Orientation Program – 2 Produce and package the printed and audiovisual materials  Train supervisors and install program  Evaluate program effectiveness  Improve and update program  42
  43. 43. Summary New employees face many challenges  Realistic job previews and employee orientation programs can:   Reduce stress  Reduce turnover  Improve productivity 43

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