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CHAPTER 5:
Classroom Assessments
Observations
Assessment In Early Childhood Education
Fifth Edition
Sue C. Wortham
Develop...
Chapter Objectives
1. Understand the purposes for teacher assessments
2. Understand the purposes of observation
3. Use dif...
Informal Teacher-conducted
Assessments
• Obtain more specific information than
standardized tests about each child relativ...
Disadvantages Of Using
Classroom Assessments
Improper development and implementation of
teacher-designed assessments:
• va...
Beaty’s Reasons for Observing and Recording
the Development of Young Children
1. To make an initial assessment of the chil...
Assessment of Young
Children with Disabilities
Play-based assessment is a more effective way of
assessing than testing chi...
Skills of the Observer
• Know what to look for, how to record the desired
information, and how to explain the behavior
• H...
Ecobehavioral assessment
• Assessment of behavior in natural
environments
• Systematic observation of the child
• Criterio...
Ecobehavioral assessment
• Behavior of child is described
• The relationship with environmental
variables are analyzed
• B...
Ecobehavioral assessment
• A) Analyzes the physical and social
environment of the school
1) grouping of students
2) instru...
Ecobehavioral assessment
• B) analyzes the teacher’s behavior
1) physical location
2) verbalizations
3) response to the st...
What is a Behavior?
• 1) Observable
• 2) Definable
• 3) Measurable
- frequency (how often does it occur?)
- duration (how ...
• Place a B or N in each blank, depending whether the term is a
specific Behavior or Not a specific behavior
_______ 1. An...
Types of Observation
The purpose for gathering information helps determine
the best observation method to use.
• Anecdotal...
Anecdotal Record (narrative summary)
An objective account of an incident that tells what
happened, when, and where.
• It i...
Follow This Case
Matt, a 4th grade student, seems to react in a negative manner
towards his peers. During his reading clas...
Anecdotal Recording of Matt
Matt entered the classroom. He went to his desk and talked to the
student sitting next to him....
IDEA requires assessment teams to conduct
functional behavioral assessments (FBA).
• “what is the function of the behavior...
Write each in the following format:
Antecedents Behaviors Consequences
Antecedents Behaviors
Matt enters the
room.
Matt talks to his
peer.
The peer responds.
Teacher gives
command.
Matt talks t...
Event Recording
Event recording-Recording the frequency of a target
Behavior; also called frequency counting.
Matt’s teach...
Event Recording for Matt
Target Behavior: Talking to Peers
Monday Tuesday Wednesday
Reading 1111 11 1111 1111 1111 1111 11...
Review the frequency count presented on the
Previous page. Discuss the following questions.
1. Is Matt’s behavior consiste...
Special Education Teacher and General
Classroom Teacher Discussion
The teachers discussed the data and made the following
...
Special Education Teacher and General
Classroom Teacher Discussion
Other questions they considered were:
Does Matt have fr...
Frequency or Event Recording
Latency Recording
One intervention that Matt’s teacher implemented was a change in seating
arrangement. Matt was no longer...
Latency Recording
Instruction
Get reading
Books out
Take out
Paper
Begin
Chapter
questions
Matt
145 seconds
90 seconds
120...
As you can see, Matt seems to take significantly more time responding to
requests in reading class.
Can you suggest some s...
Momentary Time Sampling
T: Observation 1 = 20% C: Observation 1 = 80%
T: Observation 2 = 60% C: Observation 2 = 100%
Running Record
A record of the situation so that future readers can visualize
what occurred.
• more detailed narrative tha...
Specimen Record
• similar to a running record, but more
detailed and precise
• used by researchers who are not part of
the...
Observing Development
• Development is continuous, multidimensional
and sequential
Although each individual develops at a ...
Purposes for Observing
Physical Development
• To learn how children develop gross- and
fine-motor skills
• To become famil...
Purposes for Observing Social and
Emotional Development
• To learn how children develop social skills
• To become familiar...
Purposes for Observing Cognitive
Development
• To understand how children use cognitive
abilities to learn
• To understand...
Purposes for Observing Language
Development
• To understand the child’s ability to use
language to communicate
• To unders...
Purposes for Observing Language
Development for English Language
Learners (ELLs)
• To determine how ELLs are progressing i...
Advantages of Observation for
Assessment: Validity
Observations are ecologically valid when the
observer can:
• observe ch...
Disadvantages of Observation for
Assessment: Validity
The validity of the observation may be in doubt if the
observer:
• m...
Observation Guidelines
• Determine the purpose of the observation
to identify the site
• Appropriate observer behaviors du...
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
•Learning is a relatively permanent change
in behavior that occurs through expe...
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
• Behaviorism: Behavior is explained by observable experiences.
•
• Mental Proc...
Contiguity or Associated
Learning
• Learning by simple associations: Pairing
• Stimulus → Response
• Examples:
– Golden Ar...
Classical or Pavlovian
Conditioning
We learn to
associate
two stimuli
Behavioral and Social
Cognitive Approaches
53
Behavioral
Approaches to
Learning
Classical
Conditioning
Operant
Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
Ivan Pavlov
1849-1936
Russian physician/
neurophysiologist
Nobel Prize in 1904
studied digestive
se...
Behavioral Approaches
•Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which an
organism learns to connect or associate st...
Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and
naturally--triggers a...
Classical Conditioning
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
originally irrelevant stimulus that, after
association with an unconditio...
• The Water Show
• Jeannette was happy when she heard her family’s plan to
go to a water sports show. Then she heard the w...
• The Troublesome Shower (example of an acquired
behavior via CC)
• Martin is taking a shower in the men’s locker room aft...
Pavlov’s ClassicalPavlov’s Classical
ConditioningConditioning
Neutral Stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Respon...
Classical Conditioning: AnClassical Conditioning: An
ExampleExample
Flash of camera (UCS) Blinking (UCR)
Camera (NS) Flash...
Nausea Conditioning in
Cancer Patients
UCS
(drug)
UCR
(nausea)
CS
(waiting
room)
CS
(waiting
room) CR
(nausea)
UCS
(drug)
...
John B. WatsonJohn B. Watson
 viewed psychology as
objective science
 generally agreed-upon
consensus today
 recommende...
Classical Classroom Examples
• A first grader feels ill when recess time
approaches because he was beat up on
the playgrou...
Behavioral Approaches
Classical Conditioning
• Generalization The tendency of a new
stimulus similar to the
original condi...
Behavioral Approaches
Classical Conditioning
• Systematic Desensitization reduces
anxiety by getting the individual to ass...
Behavioral Approaches
Operant Conditioning is a form of
learning in which the consequences of
behavior produce changes in ...
Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning
B.F. SkinnerB.F. Skinner
 Elaborated
Thorndike’s Law of
Effect
 developed behav...
Behavioral Approaches
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on
environment produces consequenc...
Reinforcement ExamplesReinforcement Examples
Primary Reinforcers:
Water Warmth SecurityFood Sex
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 20...
Reinforcement ExamplesReinforcement Examples
Secondary Reinforcers
Money Grades Stars Praise
Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement – giving something that
the person wants that increases the behavior
Example...
Types of Punishment
Presentation Punishment (type I) – giving
something that the person does not want that
decreases the b...
Behavioral Approaches
74
Generalization
Giving the same response
to similar stimuli.
Discrimination
Differentiating among ...
Schedules of ReinforcementSchedules of Reinforcement
 Continuous Reinforcement
 reinforcing the desired
response each ti...
Reinforcement Schedules
C o n t in u o u s
I n t e r v a l R a t io
F ix e d
R a t io I n t e r v a l
V a r ia b le
I n t ...
Schedules ofSchedules of
Reinforcement:Reinforcement:
Frequency and PredictabilityFrequency and Predictability
Fixed Ratio...
Francis sells jewelry to a local gift shop. Each time he
completes 10 pairs of earrings, the shopkeeper
pays him for them....
Vernon is practicing his golf putting. On the
average, it takes him four tries before the ball
goes in the hole. This is a...
Role of Consequences:Role of Consequences:
ReinforcementReinforcement
“If you eat your
vegetables, you
may have
dessert.”
...
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Reinforcement: Prompts and Shaping
Prompts: Added stimuli that are given just before the
likel...
Real World Example
Training a cat to use
the toilet will
involve:
Shaping.
Preparing “the
training arena.”
Positive
reinfo...
Operant Chamber
Skinner Box
chamber with a bar
or key that an
animal
manipulates to
obtain a food or
water reinforcer
cont...
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Applied Behavioral Analysis:
Applying the principles of
operant conditioning to change
human b...
Classroom Uses of
Reinforcement
1. Identify behaviors you want from your students, then
reinforce them when they occur.
2....
Maintenance of Behavior inMaintenance of Behavior in
the Classroomthe Classroom
When teaching a new behavior/skill, reinfo...
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Reinforcement
Guidelines for the Classroom:
─Initial learning is better with continuous
reinfo...
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Increasing Desirable Behaviors
.
1. Choose effective
reinforcers.
4. Consider contracting.
2. ...
Reward Chart
Token Economy
Applied Behavioral Analysis
Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors
1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing
more appropr...
Social, Cognitive, and
Behavioral factors play
important roles in learning.
Observational Learning
occurs when a person
ob...
Menu
LO 5.21 Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study
Social Cognitive Approaches
to Learning
Bandura’s Contemporary Model
.
Production
Poor motor ability inhibits
reproduction...
Modeling Violence
Research has shown that viewing media violence does lead to
increased expression of aggression.
Children...
Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his
classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln
often scolds Nick fo...
Social Cognitive Approaches
to Learning
Classroom Use of Observational Learning
Decide the type of
model you will be
Use p...
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
Chapter 5   wortham - classroom assessments - observation
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Chapter 5 wortham - classroom assessments - observation

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Chapter 5 wortham - classroom assessments - observation

  1. 1. CHAPTER 5: Classroom Assessments Observations Assessment In Early Childhood Education Fifth Edition Sue C. Wortham Developed by: Dr. Margarita Pérez, Worcester State College
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives 1. Understand the purposes for teacher assessments 2. Understand the purposes of observation 3. Use different types of observation 4. Conduct observations of physical, social, cognitive, and language development by using appropriate observation strategies
  3. 3. Informal Teacher-conducted Assessments • Obtain more specific information than standardized tests about each child relative to the instructional objectives of the class • Can be used for placement, diagnostic evaluation and instructional planning • For preschool, teacher-designed evaluation strategies are a first step in evaluation
  4. 4. Disadvantages Of Using Classroom Assessments Improper development and implementation of teacher-designed assessments: • validity and reliability are questionable • there is misapplication and inappropriate use • there may be confusion over what constitutes mastery and what kind of assessment is appropriate to determine mastery
  5. 5. Beaty’s Reasons for Observing and Recording the Development of Young Children 1. To make an initial assessment of the child’s abilities 2. To determine a child’s areas of strength and areas needing strengthening 3. To make individual plans based on observed needs 4. To conduct an ongoing check on the child’s progress 5. To learn more about child development in particular areas 6. To resolve a particular problem involving the child 7. To use in reporting to parents or to specialists in health, speech, and mental health 8. To gather information for the child’s folder, for use in guidance and placement
  6. 6. Assessment of Young Children with Disabilities Play-based assessment is a more effective way of assessing than testing children who may be delayed in development. Arena assessment by transdisciplinary teams of professionals simultaneously observe the child’s play. Transdisciplinary play-based assessment (TPBA) is used to observe children’s development in structured and unstructured play situations to study child–child and parent–child interactions.
  7. 7. Skills of the Observer • Know what to look for, how to record the desired information, and how to explain the behavior • Have knowledge of developmental theories and stages of development to identify the significant events of an observation • Use this knowledge to interpret the child’s level of development and to determine the need for experiences to further the child’s development
  8. 8. Ecobehavioral assessment • Assessment of behavior in natural environments • Systematic observation of the child • Criterion referenced rather than norm referenced
  9. 9. Ecobehavioral assessment • Behavior of child is described • The relationship with environmental variables are analyzed • Behaviors change in different situations and with different informants • Focus is on naturalistic observations
  10. 10. Ecobehavioral assessment • A) Analyzes the physical and social environment of the school 1) grouping of students 2) instructional materials utilized 3) instructional methods 4) schedule of the school day 5) physical location
  11. 11. Ecobehavioral assessment • B) analyzes the teacher’s behavior 1) physical location 2) verbalizations 3) response to the student’s behavior
  12. 12. What is a Behavior? • 1) Observable • 2) Definable • 3) Measurable - frequency (how often does it occur?) - duration (how long does it occur?)
  13. 13. • Place a B or N in each blank, depending whether the term is a specific Behavior or Not a specific behavior _______ 1. Angry _______ 11. Happy _______ 2. Hits classmates and yells _______ 12. Walks to the door _______ 3. Is bad _______ 13. Loves food _______ 4. Does not complete _______ 14. Eats all the homework food on the plate in 1 minute ______ 5. Is sad _______ 15. Good boy ______ 6. Cries 4 times during the day _______ 16. Sings at recess ______ 7. Good student _______ 17. Verbally abusive ______ 8. Pays attention _______ 18. Uses swear words 20 times in 10 minutes ______ 9. Raises hand _______ 19. Is afraid ______ 10. Neurotic _______ 20. Hides in the corner when confronted by the class bully
  14. 14. Types of Observation The purpose for gathering information helps determine the best observation method to use. • Anecdotal records • Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) • Event sampling (frequency recording) • Duration recording • Latency recording • Time sampling • Running records • Specimen records • Checklists • Rating scales
  15. 15. Anecdotal Record (narrative summary) An objective account of an incident that tells what happened, when, and where. • It is a prompt, accurate, and specific account of an event. • It includes the context of the behavior. • Interpretations of the incident are recorded separately from the incident. • It focuses on behavior that is either typical or unusual for the child being observed.
  16. 16. Follow This Case Matt, a 4th grade student, seems to react in a negative manner towards his peers. During his reading class, he pushed another student and said a sarcastic remark to his teacher when he was instructed to get his reading homework out to pass toward the front of the class. During this reading class, Matt’s teacher requested that the special education teacher observe to assist her with figuring out why Matt seemed to be having difficulty. The special education teacher completed an anecdotal recording.
  17. 17. Anecdotal Recording of Matt Matt entered the classroom. He went to his desk and talked to the student sitting next to him. The student responded. When the teacher requested that the students prepare for their oral reading period, Matt continued talking with his peer. The peer asked Matt to leave him alone. Matt continued talking to the student and the student replied “Leave me alone. Stop talking. We are going to get into trouble.” At this point, Matt shoved the student. Peer repeats request. The teacher instructed the students to hand in their reading questions that were assigned for homework. The peer told Matt, “ Pay attention. Get your homework out.” At this point, Matt replied, “I didn’t do the stupid homework.” The peer laughs.
  18. 18. IDEA requires assessment teams to conduct functional behavioral assessments (FBA). • “what is the function of the behavior?” • Task avoidance or escape, sensory stimulation, attention, continuing a reinforcing activity – Antecedents • Difficulty of assignment, noise levels, fatigue – Behavior – Consequences • Reinforcement or punishment Functional Behavioral Assessment
  19. 19. Write each in the following format: Antecedents Behaviors Consequences
  20. 20. Antecedents Behaviors Matt enters the room. Matt talks to his peer. The peer responds. Teacher gives command. Matt talks to his peer. The peer responds. Peer tells Matt to stop. Matt pushes peer. The peer responds. Peer tells Matt to get homework out. Matt talks to peer. The peer responds (laughs). Consequences
  21. 21. Event Recording Event recording-Recording the frequency of a target Behavior; also called frequency counting. Matt’s teacher and the special education teacher reviewed the anecdotal recording. They determined that Matt’s talking was being reinforced by the responses of his peer. In other words, talking to the peer served the function of receiving peer attention. The special education teacher asked Matt’s teacher if Matt behaved in the same manner during other classes. The teacher decided to complete an observation for other classes and other days to see if the behavior was consistent. The next slide illustrates the data.
  22. 22. Event Recording for Matt Target Behavior: Talking to Peers Monday Tuesday Wednesday Reading 1111 11 1111 1111 1111 1111 11 Spelling 111 11 11 Writing 11 1111 11 Math 1 11 1
  23. 23. Review the frequency count presented on the Previous page. Discuss the following questions. 1. Is Matt’s behavior consistent in all of the other periods observed? 2. When does the behavior seem the most problematic? 3. Is the behavior the same across the three days of the observations? 4. What hypotheses can you generate or, in other words, what other information would you want to find out to help you understand the behaviors?
  24. 24. Special Education Teacher and General Classroom Teacher Discussion The teachers discussed the data and made the following Observations. Matt’s talking is consistently more problematic during reading class. His talking seemed to increase through the week in reading class. The questions that the teachers decided they wanted to answer were: How is Matt achieving in reading? How does Matt feel about the reading tasks he is required to do? For example, does he dislike the oral reading time or the written homework for the stories read in class?
  25. 25. Special Education Teacher and General Classroom Teacher Discussion Other questions they considered were: Does Matt have friends in his other classes? (The peer he talked with is only in his reading class.) Are there factors outside the classroom that prevent him from completing his homework for reading? Because reading is the first class of the day, are there factors that occur in the mornings before school or on the way to school that impact his behavior (setting events)? Does Matt use his time in class to complete his work?
  26. 26. Frequency or Event Recording
  27. 27. Latency Recording One intervention that Matt’s teacher implemented was a change in seating arrangement. Matt was no longer sitting next to the same peer. He continued to have some difficulty in reading class. As the teachers discussed Matt’s behaviors, one of the factors that seems to influence Matt’s ability to make academic progress was the length of time it required Matt to complete his assignments. His teacher noted that Matt seems to take a long time getting organized and getting to work. His teacher decided to complete a latency recording. For comparison, the teacher also completed a latency recording for 2 peers sitting beside Matt. Latency recording- Observations involving the amount of time that elapses from the presentation of the stimulus until the response occurs.
  28. 28. Latency Recording Instruction Get reading Books out Take out Paper Begin Chapter questions Matt 145 seconds 90 seconds 120 seconds Peer 1 20 seconds 15 seconds 18 seconds Peer 2 5 seconds 12 seconds 10 seconds Stimulus Time to Respond Terry Overton Assessing Learners with Special Needs, 5e Copyright ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 All rights reserved.
  29. 29. As you can see, Matt seems to take significantly more time responding to requests in reading class. Can you suggest some strategies or interventions that might be beneficial to try? Matt’s teacher analyzed Matt’s permanent products in his academic subjects. His teacher noted that Matt’s skills seemed to be somewhat weak in the areas of reading decoding, reading comprehension, and writing. Discuss the impact of his academic skills on his behavior and the impact of his behavior on his academic achievement. Review the other types of informal academic and behavioral assessment that should be used next. Analyzing the Data
  30. 30. Momentary Time Sampling
  31. 31. T: Observation 1 = 20% C: Observation 1 = 80% T: Observation 2 = 60% C: Observation 2 = 100%
  32. 32. Running Record A record of the situation so that future readers can visualize what occurred. • more detailed narrative that includes the sequence of events--everything that happened and was said during the observation period • the description is objective • comments or analysis of the behaviors are kept separately from the record • used in assessments of emergent literacy as informal assessments conducted while the child is reading
  33. 33. Specimen Record • similar to a running record, but more detailed and precise • used by researchers who are not part of the classroom • researchers may later code observation information to analyze the findings
  34. 34. Observing Development • Development is continuous, multidimensional and sequential Although each individual develops at a different rate, – stages do not vary; children do not skip a stage of development – all children progress, regardless of cultural or social differences, through the stages in the same order; the stages are universal
  35. 35. Purposes for Observing Physical Development • To learn how children develop gross- and fine-motor skills • To become familiar with the kinds of physical activities young children engage in as they practice the use of gross- and fine-motor skills • To become familiar with individual differences in physical development
  36. 36. Purposes for Observing Social and Emotional Development • To learn how children develop social skills • To become familiar with how children learn about social interactions • To understand how children differ in social skill development • To become familiar with the ways preschool children handle their emotions • To be aware of differences in children’s emotional behaviors and responses
  37. 37. Purposes for Observing Cognitive Development • To understand how children use cognitive abilities to learn • To understand differences in children’s cognitive styles • To understand how the child uses play and interaction with materials to extend his or her cognitive abilities • To become familiar with how children think and what they are capable of learning • To evaluate what children have learned
  38. 38. Purposes for Observing Language Development • To understand the child’s ability to use language to communicate • To understand the difference between egocentric and socialized speech • To learn how the child uses syntax, grammar, and vocabulary in the process of expanding and refining his or her language • To become aware of differences in language development among individual children
  39. 39. Purposes for Observing Language Development for English Language Learners (ELLs) • To determine how ELLs are progressing in learning English • To determine ELLs individual needs for language experiences • To determine a child’s dominant language when placed into a bilingual program
  40. 40. Advantages of Observation for Assessment: Validity Observations are ecologically valid when the observer can: • observe children engaged in the everyday life of the classroom • notice the child’s behaviors and the background factors that influence the behaviors • focus on the behavior or information that is needed
  41. 41. Disadvantages of Observation for Assessment: Validity The validity of the observation may be in doubt if the observer: • misses details • focuses on the wrong behaviors • becomes less attentive during the observation period • experiences observer bias – when there are preconceived notions about the child, which effect the interpretation • observes the incident out of context • affects children’s behavior with his/her presence
  42. 42. Observation Guidelines • Determine the purpose of the observation to identify the site • Appropriate observer behaviors during observation visit: unobtrusiveness • Ethics during the observation visit: confidentiality • Avoiding personal bias
  43. 43. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches •Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience. There are five major approaches to learning. 49
  44. 44. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches • Behaviorism: Behavior is explained by observable experiences. • • Mental Processes The observable thoughts, feelings, and motives that we experience • Associative Learning that two • Learning events are connected • Cognitive: Includes social cognitive, information processing, cognitive constructivist, and social constructivisttah 50
  45. 45. Contiguity or Associated Learning • Learning by simple associations: Pairing • Stimulus → Response • Examples: – Golden Arches = McDonalds – Times tables (7 X 8 = 56) – States & capitals (Lansing, MI)
  46. 46. Classical or Pavlovian Conditioning We learn to associate two stimuli
  47. 47. Behavioral and Social Cognitive Approaches 53 Behavioral Approaches to Learning Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning
  48. 48. Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Russian physician/ neurophysiologist Nobel Prize in 1904 studied digestive secretions
  49. 49. Behavioral Approaches •Classical Conditioning is a type of learning in which an organism learns to connect or associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response. • 55
  50. 50. Classical Conditioning Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) stimulus that unconditionally--automatically and naturally--triggers a response Unconditioned Response (UCR) unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus salivation when food is in the mouth
  51. 51. Classical Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS) originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response Conditioned Response (CR) learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus
  52. 52. • The Water Show • Jeannette was happy when she heard her family’s plan to go to a water sports show. Then she heard the weather report, which predicted temperatures exceeding 100 degrees. Jeannette suspected that the weather would be hard to bear, but she went anyway to the show. As she watched the water skiers perform their taxing routines to the blaring organ music, she became very sweaty and uncomfortable. Eventually she fainted from the heat. After the family outing, Jeannette could never again hear organ music without feeling dizzy and eventually fainting. • What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)? ___________________What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)? ___________________ • What is the unconditioned response (UR)? ___________________What is the unconditioned response (UR)? ___________________ • What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)? _______________________What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)? _______________________ • What is the conditioned response (CR)? _______________________What is the conditioned response (CR)? _______________________
  53. 53. • The Troublesome Shower (example of an acquired behavior via CC) • Martin is taking a shower in the men’s locker room after working out. While in the shower he hears someone flush a toilet. Suddenly, very hot water rushes out of the shower head causing Martin to get slightly burnt. As he continues to shower, he hears another toilet flushing and immediately jumps out from under the shower head. • What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)? ______________What is the unconditioned stimulus (US)? ______________ • What is the unconditioned response (UR)? ______________What is the unconditioned response (UR)? ______________ • What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)? __________________What is the conditioned stimulus (CS)? __________________ • What is the conditioned response (CR)? __________________What is the conditioned response (CR)? __________________
  54. 54. Pavlov’s ClassicalPavlov’s Classical ConditioningConditioning Neutral Stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus Unconditioned Response Conditioned Stimulus Conditioned Response causes an + causes a Unconditioned Stimulus = Conditioned Stimulus Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  55. 55. Classical Conditioning: AnClassical Conditioning: An ExampleExample Flash of camera (UCS) Blinking (UCR) Camera (NS) Flash of camera (UCS) Camera (CS) Blinking (CR) causes + = Camera (CS) causes Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  56. 56. Nausea Conditioning in Cancer Patients UCS (drug) UCR (nausea) CS (waiting room) CS (waiting room) CR (nausea) UCS (drug) UCR (nausea)
  57. 57. John B. WatsonJohn B. Watson  viewed psychology as objective science  generally agreed-upon consensus today  recommended study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental processes  not universally accepted by all schools of thought today
  58. 58. Classical Classroom Examples • A first grader feels ill when recess time approaches because he was beat up on the playground the last 3 days in a row. • Certain smells that can elicit nauseous sensations (Hopefully NOT from the cafeteria!) • Speech phobia : cold sweat, shaking knees and hands • Phobias in general
  59. 59. Behavioral Approaches Classical Conditioning • Generalization The tendency of a new stimulus similar to the original conditioned stimulus to produce a similar response. • Discrimination The organism responds to certain stimuli and not others. • Extinction The weakening of the conditioned response (CR) in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus ( US). 65
  60. 60. Behavioral Approaches Classical Conditioning • Systematic Desensitization reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasing anxiety-producing situations. 66
  61. 61. Behavioral Approaches Operant Conditioning is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. Thorndike’s Law of Effect Behavior Positive Outcome Behavior Strengthened Behavior Negative Outcome Behavior Weakened 67
  62. 62. Operant ConditioningOperant Conditioning B.F. SkinnerB.F. Skinner  Elaborated Thorndike’s Law of Effect  developed behavioral technology
  63. 63. Behavioral Approaches Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Operant Behavior  operates (acts) on environment produces consequences Consequences (rewards and punishments) are contingent on the organism’s behavior. Reinforcement (reward) increases the probability that a behavior will occur. Punishment decreases the probability that a behavior will occur. 69
  64. 64. Reinforcement ExamplesReinforcement Examples Primary Reinforcers: Water Warmth SecurityFood Sex Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  65. 65. Reinforcement ExamplesReinforcement Examples Secondary Reinforcers Money Grades Stars Praise Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  66. 66. Types of Reinforcement Positive reinforcement – giving something that the person wants that increases the behavior Examples: Praise Teacher attention Rewards Negative reinforcement – taking away something that the person does not want that increases the behavior Chores Taking away time-out
  67. 67. Types of Punishment Presentation Punishment (type I) – giving something that the person does not want that decreases the behavior Detention Extra work Removal Punishment (type II) – taking away something that the person wants that decreases the behavior Loss of recess Loss of privileges
  68. 68. Behavioral Approaches 74 Generalization Giving the same response to similar stimuli. Discrimination Differentiating among stimuli or environmental events. Extinction Previously reinforced response is no longer reinforced and the response decreases. One way to deal with a child’s temper tantrum is to ignore it resulting in extinction
  69. 69. Schedules of ReinforcementSchedules of Reinforcement  Continuous Reinforcement  reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs  Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement  reinforcing a response only part of the time  results in slower acquisition  greater resistance to extinction
  70. 70. Reinforcement Schedules C o n t in u o u s I n t e r v a l R a t io F ix e d R a t io I n t e r v a l V a r ia b le I n t e r m it t e n t T y p e s o f R e in fo r c e m e n t S c h e d u le s Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon
  71. 71. Schedules ofSchedules of Reinforcement:Reinforcement: Frequency and PredictabilityFrequency and Predictability Fixed Ratio: reinforcer given after fixed number of behaviors Variable Ratio: reinforcer given after unpredictable number of behaviors Fixed Interval: reinforcement only at certain periodic times Variable Interval: reinforcement at some times but not others Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  72. 72. Francis sells jewelry to a local gift shop. Each time he completes 10 pairs of earrings, the shopkeeper pays him for them. This is an example of a ___________ schedule of reinforcement. • A. Fixed ratio • B. Variable ratio • C. Fixed interval • D. Variable interval Sandra’s mail is delivered every day at 10:00. She checks her mailbox several times each morning, but only finds mail the first time she checks after 10:00. This is an example of a __________ schedule of reinforcement • A. Fixed ratio • B. Variable ratio • C. Fixed interval • D. Variable interval
  73. 73. Vernon is practicing his golf putting. On the average, it takes him four tries before the ball goes in the hole. This is an example of a _________ schedule of reinforcement • A. Fixed ratio • B. Variable ratio • C. Fixed interval • D. Variable interval Paula is an eager third-grader, and loves to be called on by her teacher. Her teacher calls on her approximately twice each period, although Paula is never sure when her turn will come. This is an example of a __________ schedule of reinforcement • A. Fixed ratio • B. Variable ratio • C. Fixed interval • D. Variable interval
  74. 74. Role of Consequences:Role of Consequences: ReinforcementReinforcement “If you eat your vegetables, you may have dessert.” Premack Principle (“Grandma’s Rule”): promoting less-desired activities by linking them to more-desired activities Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  75. 75. Applied Behavioral Analysis Reinforcement: Prompts and Shaping Prompts: Added stimuli that are given just before the likelihood that the behavior will occur. ─Get behavior going. ─Once desired behavior is consistent, remove prompts. Shaping: Involves teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior. ─First, reward any response. ─Next, reward responses that resemble the desired behavior. ─Finally, reward only target behavior. 81
  76. 76. Real World Example Training a cat to use the toilet will involve: Shaping. Preparing “the training arena.” Positive reinforcement on a variable schedule. LO 5.23 Real world example use of conditioning Menu
  77. 77. Operant Chamber Skinner Box chamber with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a food or water reinforcer contains devices to record responses
  78. 78. Applied Behavioral Analysis Applied Behavioral Analysis: Applying the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior. 84
  79. 79. Classroom Uses of Reinforcement 1. Identify behaviors you want from your students, then reinforce them when they occur. 2. Tell students which behaviors you want; when they occur, reinforce them and explain why the behavior is desirable. 3. Reinforce appropriate behavior immediately. Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  80. 80. Maintenance of Behavior inMaintenance of Behavior in the Classroomthe Classroom When teaching a new behavior/skill, reinforcement for correct responses should be: •Frequent •Predictable When a behavior/skill is established, reinforcement for correct responses should be: •Lessfrequent •Lesspredictable Copyright Allyn & Bacon 2006©
  81. 81. Applied Behavioral Analysis Reinforcement Guidelines for the Classroom: ─Initial learning is better with continuous reinforcement. ─Students on fixed schedules show less persistence, faster response extinction. ─Students show greatest persistence on variable- ratio schedule. 87
  82. 82. Applied Behavioral Analysis Increasing Desirable Behaviors . 1. Choose effective reinforcers. 4. Consider contracting. 2. Make reinforcers contingent and timely. 5. Use negative reinforcement effectively. 3. Select the BEST reinforcement schedule. 88
  83. 83. Reward Chart Token Economy
  84. 84. Applied Behavioral Analysis Decreasing Undesirable Behaviors 1. Use differential reinforcement by reinforcing more appropriate behavior. 2. Withdraw positive reinforcement from a child’s inappropriate behavior. 3. Remove desirable stimuli through “time-out and response cost.” 4. Present aversive (unpleasant) stimuli. 90
  85. 85. Social, Cognitive, and Behavioral factors play important roles in learning. Observational Learning occurs when a person observes and imitates someone else’s behavior. 91 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory
  86. 86. Menu LO 5.21 Bandura’s classic Bobo doll study
  87. 87. Social Cognitive Approaches to Learning Bandura’s Contemporary Model . Production Poor motor ability inhibits reproduction of the model’s behavior. Help improve skills. Motivation When given a reinforcement, modeling increases. 93 Attention Students are more likely to be attentive to high status models (teachers). Retention Student retention will be improved when teachers give logical and clear demonstrations.
  88. 88. Modeling Violence Research has shown that viewing media violence does lead to increased expression of aggression. Children modeling after pro wrestlers BobDaemmrich/TheImageWorks Glassman/TheImageWorks
  89. 89. Nick frequently gets out of his seat and entertains his classmates with humorous remarks. Mr. Lincoln often scolds Nick for his behavior. However, Nick’s classmates laugh when Nick makes remarks. The scolding rarely has any impact. Nick continues with his antics. After several days of this, other boys in the class begin to get out of their seats and make humorous remarks as well. Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory Theory into Practice Q.1: Why do the other boys begin to misbehave? Explain. Q.2: What does this say about Nick? 7.31
  90. 90. Social Cognitive Approaches to Learning Classroom Use of Observational Learning Decide the type of model you will be Use peers as effective models Demonstrate and teach new behaviors Use mentors as models Consider the models children observe in the media 96

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