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Women's empowerment in india


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Women's empowerment in india

  1. 1. Made By: Shwetketu Rastogi [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women and girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life”. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>More violent forms, such as </li></ul><ul><li>femicide, acid attacks, ritual rapes and murders, </li></ul><ul><li>gang rapes, abductions, defilement and forced early marriages, </li></ul><ul><li>Military sexual slavery, rape as a weapon of war, trafficking in women and girls and </li></ul><ul><li>ill-treatment of widows have become more widespread. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In spite of treaties, (the Protocol to the the African Charter) conventions, legislation and policies against some cultural practices the situation of women in Africa continue to be vulnerable to harmful traditional practices and customs such as FGM and widow inheritance, which expose them to the risk of HIV and AIDS </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>There is a palpable feeling that legislation alone is not enough to achieve equality in Africa, that it is not sufficient to change perceptions, or cultures of sexism – the types of cultures which are permissive to gendered violence happening. Even with an increasing number of women in parliament in some of the countries and increasing legislation to prevent discrimination and violence on the basis of gender, a culture of masculinity prevails. Why is that? Unequal power relationships continue </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Obtaining data on violence against women – use these to show the economic and social cost of VAW as well as emotional and psychological impact on the affected person </li></ul><ul><li>It is important that the extent, nature and root causes of such violence are well-documented. By analyzing such information, concrete steps can be taken, both legal and charitable, to reduce the occurrence of such violence and reduce its effects. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Increase access to opportunities for women- empower women to avoid abusive relationships - empower women, free them to leave behind abusive relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Build capabilities of women- including physical capabilities/ create awareness/ prevention programmes/ crisis counselling & support groups </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Make ending VAW every one’s concern; everyone’s business: The boys in your life need your time and energy. Your son, grandson, nephew, younger brother, your male colleague. The boys you teach, coach and mentor. All need you to help them grow into healthy men. The girls in your life what are you teaching them above all what do they see! </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>THE UN has identified violence against women and girls &quot;the most pervasive&quot; human rights violation that we know today. Statistics from the world over, paint a clear picture of the social and health consequences of violence against women. </li></ul><ul><li>According to the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), violence against women is a major cause of death and disability for women aged 16 to 44 years </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The economic costs are considerable. Such violence impoverishes not only individuals, but families, communities, and governments, and stalls economic development of each nation </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>We had our first argument last night, and he said a lot of cruel things that really hurt me. </li></ul><ul><li>I know he is sorry and didn’t mean the things he said, because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>I got FLOWERS TODAY.  It wasn’t our anniversary or any other special day. </li></ul><ul><li>Last night he threw me into a wall and started to choke me. </li></ul><ul><li>It seemed like a nightmare, I couldn’t believe it was real. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>I woke up this morning sore and bruised all over. </li></ul><ul><li>I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>I GOT flowers today, and it wasn’t Mother’s Day or any other special day. </li></ul><ul><li>Last night, he beat me up again, it was much worse than all the other times </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>If I leave him what will I do?  How will I take care of my kids? </li></ul><ul><li>What about money?  I am afraid of him and scared to leave. </li></ul><ul><li>But I know he must be sorry because he sent me FLOWERS TODAY How do you help someone like this? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Paulo Freire speaks about conscientisation process: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in dialogue/ Reflection </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to Action </li></ul><ul><li>Is your Neighbour, your sister, your friend being abused? How do you engage to facilitate empowerment? </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The answer to ending violence against women is first and foremost based on unequal power relations…The answer to end violence lies with you as it is such a complex issue </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Background: Facts about India </li></ul><ul><li>Place of Women in Indian Society </li></ul><ul><li>Indian Women in Modern Times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trivia: Famous Faces Indian Women </li></ul><ul><li>Introspection </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Largest democracy in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Land boundaries with Bangladesh, Bhutan, Myanmar, China, Nepal and Pakistan </li></ul><ul><li>Area: 3,287,590 (slightly more than one-third the size of US) </li></ul><ul><li>Coastline: 7,000 k.m. </li></ul><ul><li>Population: 1,065,070,607 (Growth rate of 1.44%)-second largest population in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Sex ratio: 1.07 male (s)/female </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy at birth: 63.25 years (male) and 64.77 years (female) </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% </li></ul><ul><li>Religions: Hindu (81.3%), Muslim (12%), Christian (2.3%), Sikh(1.9%), Others (2.5%) </li></ul><ul><li>Languages: 18 major languages; 216 languages in total and several thousands dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: 59.5% (total population); 70.2% (male); and 48.3% (female) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>The Goddess ( Devi ) </li></ul><ul><li>The mother </li></ul><ul><li>The sister </li></ul><ul><li>The wife </li></ul><ul><li>The tawaif </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender gaps: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences across states </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Kerala has highest female literacy; Rajasthan, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh have the lowest) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between rural and urban areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parental preference for boys going to school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher dropout rate among girls </li></ul></ul></ul>Female Male 1971 22% 46% 1991 39% 64% 2003 48% 70%
  22. 23. <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender gaps in higher education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About 1 percent of total women population has college education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women account for a third of the students at college/university level </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In engineering and business, the proportion of female students is much smaller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In education, nearly half of the students are women </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Barriers to Female Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty: one-fourth of India’s population lives below the poverty line (2002) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social values and parental preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate school facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortage of female teachers: 29 percent at the primary level and 22 percent at the university level (1993) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender bias in curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to get an overall picture of employment among women in India </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most women work in the informal sector </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women accounted for only 23 percent of the total workers in the formal sector in 1991 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of female workers has increased faster than the number of male workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Female unemployment rates are similar to male unemployment rates </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>Barriers to Female Employment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Restrictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical society (caste system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Purdah system: the veiling and seclusion of women </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination at Workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More prevalent in fields where male competition is high </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less prevalent in fields where competition is low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of employment opportunities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>Empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Social Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There is no direct relationship between education and work force participation; but may affect their participation in household decision making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Independence: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economic independence does not imply significant improvement in social standing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Culture and tradition play an important role </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A small fraction has opened up towards Western values </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Economic Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Patriarchal society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the household </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In businesses </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Political Empowerment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in democratic institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government reservations policy for women: the constitutional amendment of 1990s </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Recognize Famous Faces </li></ul>
  30. 32. <ul><li>Indira Gandhi </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Teresa </li></ul><ul><li>Mira Nair </li></ul><ul><li>Kalpana Chawla </li></ul><ul><li>Gurinder Chadha </li></ul><ul><li>Arundhati Roy </li></ul><ul><li>Jhumpa Lahiri </li></ul><ul><li>Aishwarya Rai </li></ul><ul><li>Sushmita Sen </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>Faces of an Indian woman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bread earner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compassionate member of the society </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>“ The origin of a child is a mother, a woman. ….she shows a man what sharing, caring, and loving is all about. That is the essence of a woman.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Sushmita Sen, Miss Universe 1994 </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>… but that is just a beginning …. </li></ul>
  34. 36. <ul><li>Women specific Legislations </li></ul><ul><li>Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 </li></ul><ul><li>The Maternity Benefit Act 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 </li></ul><ul><li>Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act, 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>The Commission of Sati (Prevention)Act, 1987 </li></ul><ul><li>Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005 </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>1985 - Ministry of Human Resource Development set up </li></ul><ul><li>Department for Women and Child Development constituted in HRD Ministry </li></ul><ul><li>27 major women specific schemes identified for monitoring to assess quantum of funds/benefits flowing to women </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>The Eighth Plan (1992-97) for the first time highlighted the need to ensure a definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women </li></ul><ul><li>It commented: </li></ul><ul><li>“ … special programmes on women should complement the general development programmes. The latter in turn should reflect greater gender sensitivity ” </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Women’s Component Plan - 30% of funds were sought to be ear-marked in all women related sectors – inter-sectoral review and multi-sector approach </li></ul><ul><li>Special vigil to be kept on the flow of the earmarked funds/benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifies performance under Women’s Component Plan in Ninth Plan-Approach Paper Tenth Plan indicates 42.9% of gross budgetary support in 15 women related Ministries/Departments has gone to women </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>   Reinforces commitment to gender budgeting to establish its gender-differential impact and to translate gender commitments into budgetary commitments. </li></ul><ul><li>Aims at initiating immediate action in tying up the two effective concepts of Women Component Plan (WCP) and Gender Budgeting to play a complementary role to each other, and thus ensure both preventive and post-facto action in enabling women to receive their rightful share from all the women-related general development sectors. </li></ul>
  39. 42. Health & Nut . Education Water & San. Skills Technology Credit Political Participation Marketing Asset base
  40. 43. <ul><li>Women availing services of public utilities like road transport, power, water and sanitation, telecommunication etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Training of women as highly skilled workers- top end skills </li></ul><ul><li>Research/Technology for women </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the work force </li></ul><ul><li>Asset ownership by women </li></ul><ul><li>Women as Entrepreneurs </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Implementation of Laws like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal remuneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum Wages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Factories Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for women like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water and sanitation at workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Women Hostels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>“ It is more important to create a general awareness’ and understanding of the problems of women’s employment in all the top policy and decision making and executive personnel. There is also the special problem facing women like the preference for male children for social and cultural reasons. This will require awareness, understanding and action. The best way to do so is to educate the children, orient the teachers, examine the text books and teaching-aids and ensure that the next generation grows up with new thinking.” </li></ul><ul><li>(6 th Five Year Plan ) </li></ul>
  43. 46. 2005-06 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3)
  44. 47. <ul><li>Not only are fewer women than men literate but fewer are also regularly exposed to media </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage of men and women age 15-19 regularly exposed to print media, TV, radio, or cinema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Men 88% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women 71% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Disparity 19% </li></ul></ul>
  45. 48. Type of worker Occupational Distribution (%) Women Men Professional 7 7 Sales 4 14 Service 7 5 Production 22 37 Agricultural 59 33 Other 2 4
  46. 49. Women’s report about their own earnings Men’s report about their wife’s earnings Mainly wife Husband & wife jointly Mainly husband Percent
  47. 50. Percent of currently married women Residence Wealth Index Education Age
  48. 51. <ul><li>Limited freedom of movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gender norms that promote men’s control over women. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wife beating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A husband’s right to have sex with his wife irrespective of his wife’s wishes </li></ul></ul>
  49. 52. The majority of women have little freedom of movement. Only one-third go alone to all three destinations: the market, health facility and outside the village or community.
  50. 54. <ul><li>Women are disadvantaged absolutely and relative to men in terms of access to education, media exposure, and employment for cash. </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of married women do not have the final say on the use of their own earnings or all other household decisions asked about. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional gender norms, particularly those concerning wife beating, remain strongly entrenched. </li></ul>
  51. 55. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>