The relationship between different things or
parts with respect to comparative
size, number, or degree
a part considered with respect to the whole
The interrelationship of all parts of an
According to Euclid ancient Greek
mathematician a ratio refers the quantitative
comparison of similar things, while
proportion refers to the equality of ratios.
Example golden section, classical
orders, ken, modular, anthropometry, scale &
Refers to size of something relative to
some known standard or recognized
Mechanical scale : calculation of
objects physical size according to
standard system of measurement
Visual/human scale: refers to
difference found when one objects
compared to others visually
Monumental scale: feeling of
smallness when we compare
ourselves to a exterior or interior
Stability of an arrangement
Arrangement appears secure and stable
Balance must be both visual and actual
visual balance refers to the way an arrangement appears to the
Symmetrical balance: arrangement of identical elements
corresponding in size, shape & relative position about a
common axis. Also called as axial or bilateral symmetry
Asymmetrical balance: lack of correspondence in size, shape
or relative position among the element of a composition.
Radial balance: results from arrangement of elements about
WHAT KIND OF BALANCE IS ILLUSTRATED IN THIS
PAINTING ORIENTAL POPPIES, BY GEORGIA O’KEEFE?
IF YOU COULD VISUALLY DIVIDE THE PAPER IN HALF. THERE
WOULD BE A POPPY ON BOTH SIDES. NO ONE SIDE DOMINATES
NEITHER POPPY APPEARS TO BE MORE IMPORTANT THAN THE
WHAT TYPE OF BALANCE IS SHOWN IN THIS PAINTING, ARRANGEMENT IN GREY AND
BLACK: PORTRAIT OF THE PAINTER'S MOTHER (COMMONLY KNOWN AS WHISTLER’S
MOTHER), BY JAMES WHISTLER?
, ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE
THE LARGE FORM OF THE WOMAN IS "VISUALLY
EQUAL" TO THE BLACK CURTAIN AND WHITE PAINTING
ON THE WALL. THIS MAKES THE PAINTING APPEAR
WHAT TYPE OF BALANCE IS SHOWN IN THIS STAINED GLASS ARTWORK, ROSE WINDOW?
RADIAL BALANCE! LOOK AT THE SPIRAL OR SPINNING EFFECT OF THE PATTERN. THE
AXIS IS THE CENTER POINT AND THE DESIGN OR PATTERN APPEARS TO "RADIATE" FROM
Placing parts or combination of parts in a composition.
Harmony is the visually satisfying effect of combining
similar, related elements.
UNITY & VARIETY
Relating the design elements to the idea
Variety is achieved when the elements
are combined in various ways to
increase visual interest.
For instance, an assortment of shapes
that are of a variety of sizes attracts
more attention than an assortment of
shapes all the same size.
Repetition of elements in space & time.
Repetition not only creates visual unity but
also includes a rhythmic continuity of
Graded in size, color, value to give direction
of an interior
shape, size, c
olor & value.
space of a