Hue – Attribute by which we recognize color (eg red, blue, yellow etc)
Value – amount of lightness & darkness, by mixing white or black.
Intensity – Brightness or dullness of a color.
Additive colors - An additive color
model involves light emitted directly from
a source or illuminant of some sort. The
additive reproduction process usually uses
red, green and blue light to produce the
other colors. Combining one of these
additive primary colors with another in
equal amounts produces the additive
secondary colors cyan, magenta, and
Subtractive colors - A subtractive color
model explains the mixing of paints, dyes,
inks, and natural colorants to create a full
range of colors, each caused by subtracting
(that is, absorbing) some wavelengths of
light and reflecting the others. The color
that a surface displays depends on which
colors of the electromagnetic spectrum are
reflected by it and therefore made visible.
Harmonious – colors
adjacent to each other on the
Contrast / complementary
– colors directly opposite to
each other on color wheel
Achromatic – Any color
that lacks strong chromatic
content is said to
be unsaturated, achromatic,
or near neutral.
After image – a ghost image
generated by the eye in
response to stimulation by a
single color in the absence
of its compliment.
Shade – pure color
made darker with
addition of black
Tint – pure color made
lighter with addition of
Tone – pure color to
which gray is added.
Primary colors – red blue
Secondary colors – obtained by
mixing of 2 primary colors.
Tertiary colors – obtained by
mixing of 2 secondary colors.
Warm & cool colors
Monochromatic – one color
in varying intensities
Complementary – directly
opposite to each other on color
Double complementary –
pair of complementary colors
Split complementary – one
hue from one side of the color
& the 2 hues adjacent to its
Analogous – 3 colors
side by side
equilateral triangle on
Tetrad – uses four
colors evenly spaced
on the color wheel
Color constancy –
involves our tendency to
compensate for the effect
of various light sources on
the color of the objects we
– when 2 complementary
colors are placed side by
side, it tends to heighten
each others saturation &
brilliance without any
apparent change in hue.
Optical mixture – when
an objects patches of color
are so small that they
pass below the threshold
of conscious perception,
we see the colors as
Spatial dimension –
when our brain add or
depending upon the colors
Yellow is the brightest of all colors and
has the greatest illuminating power.
It is warm and cheerful and stimulates
activity and communication, circulation
It can also, however, indicate a
tendency to be frivolous and superficial.
Feelings of detachment
Orange is a social and
exuberant color and represents
ripeness, warmth and
If used extensively, orange can
be a very forceful color.
Red is a traditional symbol of
love, romance, courage, danger,
passion and rage.
It gives an impression of richness
and luxury and is an adventurous
and ambitious color.
Exhaustion, fear, aggression & anger
Magenta can be mentally draining &
lead to arrogance.
Purple is the color of royalty and is associated with
noble traits such as love, truth and justice.
It is dramatic, sophisticated and sensual and
indicates an imaginative and lateral-thinking
It can also indicate a lack of realism and feeling of
It also has the ability to lower blood pressure
Blue is a color of peace, tranquility
and wisdom and can generate a
sense of well-being.
Blue gives the impression of space
and coolness and represents
serenity, loyalty and truth.
Feeling of isolation & laziness
Calming, depressing & can
lessen our motivation.
Green indicates a well-balanced personality & is
conservative, traditional and conventional.
It inspires feelings of restfulness, freshness &
Confusion & isolation, selfishness, jealousy,
depression, indecision & laziness.
White symbolizes light, triumph,
innocence and joy and it gives the
effect of enlarging a space.
White can indicate an individualistic
& idealistic personality and it creates
an atmosphere of coolness.
Feelings of emptiness & isolation.
Unfriendly, sterile & unapproachable.
Earthy, Home, Durability, Warm,
Common, Sincere, Masculine,
Lessen sense of vitality
Black represents an absence of light & color,
but can be a deep and restful contrast.
It is sophisticated, elegant, dramatic &
formal & gives a feeling of solid strength.
It can be powerful, aloof & intimidating.