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Behavioral aspects of open spaces in campus design

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Behavioral aspects of open spaces in campus design

  1. 1. Behavioral aspects of open spaces in campus design Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  2. 2. Defining Open space • There is no single definition for an open space. Each of books have different definition for an open space. • The definition proposed by Richard Forman is quite broad. According to Forman “an open space plan is the one that provides for an integrated system of land and water resources and should be supported by a rational basis for land use decision making” (1995:462). An open space plan is prepared by locating and analyzing broad patterns of vegetation and land uses in a landscape. The connectivity and functions of these areas are also considered in the open space plan. This forms the basis for planning open spaces. • According to Lewis (1996), open space for regional areas includes areas with timber, rivers, small farms, and historic sites. These areas are located between large urban constellations. Open spaces are areas that play an active part in air and water quality improvement (Lewis, 1996). Based on general classification there are 3 types of open space found on a campus. Formal: • Tree-lined, well-defined, rectangular spaces, Symbolic core of campus, Social gathering place, Passive recreational activities, Classical, Relatively flat or controlled topography. Well-defined exterior spaces similar to interior rooms Natural • The natural features of the site along with native trees are retained. A Composite of the two. • Park-like settings are defined by edges. Trees are informally placed. Elements are more rustic (for examples, walls and seating). Passive recreational activities take place. Settings are romantic. Topography ranges from flat to steep. Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  3. 3. Effects of Landscape open spaces Landscape open spaces give identity to campuses • Without great landscape spaces, there would be no great campuses. • These are spaces shared by students, staff, and faculty as they move around campus, socialize, recreate, and study. • These spaces connect buildings and establish the image of the university. It is the treatment of this campus landscape that forms the opinions, impressions, and attitudes of the institution. Provide settings for all kinds of campus activities • Activities on campuses vary from relaxing to formal/informal events (university wide, group, class, sports, commencement, etc.), including quiet study, people watching, enjoying nature, meditation, chatting with friends, picnic, games, taking photographs and so on. • The landscape spaces encourage the maximum number of impromptu encounters with other students, with other faculty members, with visitors, with works of art, with books, and with activities • Landscape spaces are essential to alleviate stress among students and university employees, making the intensity or boredom of classes, and office work more tolerable. Protect nature environment • Landscape nature spaces can help the restoration and protection of wildlife habitat, that is an ecological concern nowadays within the university and in the surrounding communities. Aesthetic pleasure • The visual quality of the campus has a profound influence on the quality of people's experiences on campuses. A university can attract and retain faculty and students, advance educational and research programs, energize fund- raising appeals to alumni and friends, demonstrate environmental design concepts. Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  4. 4. Landscape & open spaces From various books & case studies I have taken a few spaces as which shape the open spaces of a campus. Courtyards : outdoor spaces shaped by buildings. Quadrangles: spaces shaped by group of buildings Gardens: vary in size but are usually bounded spaces with specific & special identities Streets: are linear in nature, providing access, address & service, as well as air, light & views to or from adjacent properties. Walks: designate appropriate route between buildings or through open spaces, courtyards, quadrangles, parks & gardens. Fields: on a campus are large, relatively level, open areas of turf used primarily for recreation & athletics. Surface Parking lots: rarely constitute a permanent land use. I have taken some open spaces in SRM university, Chennai as a study area ( case study) as a primary area of Observation . The users of the spaces are students, faculty & staff of SRM University. The following are the spaces which I observed and found out interesting facts based on the user activity. Courtyard: in the architecture department Entrance Passageways: Entrance façade of the Architecture department Garden: in front of the techpark Streets: next to the garden The reason behind taking these spaces are these are the spaces in the campus where the users are of multi disciplinary ( management, Engineering, Architecture & Interior Design). Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  5. 5. Garden Street Passageway Courtyar d Area of Observatio n Garden Street Passageway Courtyar d Approximate Time of Observation: 8:00-8:30 am 2:00-2:30pm 10:00-10:30am 4:00-4:30pm 12:00-12:30pm 6:00-6:30pm Each spot was studied for an time interval of 5 min on Friday/Mondays & Saturday/Sundays Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  6. 6. Courtyard: in the architecture department Approximate Time of Observation: 8:00-8:30 am 2:00-2:30pm 10:00-10:30am 4:00-4:30pm 12:00-12:30pm 6:00-6:30pm The spot was studied for an time interval of 5 min on Friday & Saturday Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Food court MBA Block New Block Architectu re Block Annexe block-1 Annexe block -II Courtyard Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  7. 7. Activities • Playing Badminton • Student - Student Interaction • Student – Faculty Interaction • Floor - floor interaction • Playing Instruments • Official Maintenance activities Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign MBA Block New Block Architecture Block Annexe block-1 Connecting passageway b/w the blocks Passage to the maintenance Passageway used as badminton court Landscape d area Courtyard: in the architecture department Space used for seating Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  8. 8. Entrance Porch: Entrance façade of Architecture department Approximate Time of Observation: 8:00-8:30 am 2:00-2:30pm 10:00-10:30am 4:00-4:30pm 12:00-12:30pm 6:00-6:30pm The spot was studied for an time interval of 5 min on Friday & Saturdays. Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Food court MBA Block New Block Architectu re Block Annexe block-1 Annexe block -II Entrance Porch Courtyard Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  9. 9. Activities • Dance practicing • Student - Student Interaction • Student – Faculty Interaction • Used mostly as access to other blocks • Car parking • Official Maintenan ce activities Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Food court MBA BlockNew Block Landscape d area Annexe block -II Entrance Porch Landscape d area Entrance Porch: Entrance façade of Architecture department Dance Practice Maintenanc e Activities Car Parking Interaction Zone Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  10. 10. Garden- in front of the techpark Approximate Time of Observation: 8:00-8:30 am 2:00-2:30pm 10:00-10:30am 4:00-4:30pm 12:00-12:30pm 6:00-6:30pm The spot was studied for an time interval of 5 min on Friday & Saturday Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Garden Street Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  11. 11. Activities • Taking Photograph s, movies etc • Student - Student Interaction • Intimate interaction • Sitting, Relaxing, Sleeping ( mostly by the maintenanc e staff). • Storage • Parking Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Garden- in front of the techpark Parking Pathway used for relaxing walking, Sitting etc Photography Interaction Zone Storage, relaxing sleeping, having lunch etc Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  12. 12. Streets: next to the garden Approximate Time of Observation: 8:00-8:30 am 2:00-2:30pm 10:00-10:30am 4:00-4:30pm 12:00-12:30pm 6:00-6:30pm The spot was studied for an time interval of 5 min on Friday & Saturday Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Garden Street Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  13. 13. Activities • Used mostly as access to other blocks • Student - Student Interaction • Student – Faculty Interaction • Used to setup stalls during events. • Space in b/w the curbs is used as storage by the gardeners Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Garden Street Streets: next to the garden Interaction zone Stalls Space Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  14. 14. Observations from the study Further steps • Further observations need to be done by changing the observation time . • Observation time to be followed are 8:45-9:00am, 10:25-10:35am, 12:15- 12:30pm, 1:25-1:30pm, 4:00-4:30pm & 5:30-5:45pm • The pattern of movement need to be studied . • The open spaces in the case study need to be evaluated and the positive & negative spaces need to be determined • In case of change in activity in the next observation, the factors affecting the change need to be studied. • In case of no activity during the changed observation time interval, the activity need to be captured and the time interval need to be specified. General Observations from the study • Mostly the activities happen wherever the space is shaded.-shading of open spaces contributes to most of the activity. • Even though the park is designed based on a concept the pedestrian pathway is mostly not utilized basically due to the absence of shades, most of the pedestrian paths are find shortcuts to access other blocks – short & clear pedestrian paths increases the usage of walkways. • All round the year changes in the landscaped areas are being done, this influences the user. A sense of ownership is lost – additions and deletions need to be included based on pattern of usage. • Maintenance work is done throughout the day, watering the plants & turfs is done even when someone is sitting on the turf- Maintenance works should be performed during specified periods and not while the peak hours. Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  15. 15. Methodology for investigating behavioral aspects in open spaces A multilayered methodology is utilized in this research to develop reliable results. It includes Direct Impressionistic Observation & Behavioral Mapping studies of key spaces. It is recognized that there is a high value of utilizing a comprehensive multi layered methodology, such a value can be exemplified by the avoidance of any shortcomings of using a singular method thereby reaching more reliable results. Direct Impressionistic Observation • Direct Observation is undertaken for two reasons: the first is to identify key issues to be explored, while the second is to verify the responses received. • Verification of the key issues can be done by the walk through evaluation & survey questionnaire. • Direct observation in this research involved touring the outdoor spaces several times within the campus while documenting the tour by photographing key spaces, key positive aspects & demerits found in the spaces. • This is conducted as perception of failures & successes of various aspects changes based on familiarity and in depth understanding of those aspects. Behavioral Mapping • Behavioral mapping is a systematic way of recording peoples location, such as where they sit, stand or where they spend their time. • In this research a combines unobtrusive mapping technique is used which integrates “place-centered” mapping & “individual-centered” mapping. • Place centered mapping aims at observing actions in a particular setting which are recorded on plans and diagrams. • Individual centered mapping aims at recording the tasks, activities & movements of people throughout the space. • It represents a systematic learning about a particular group of individuals whose activities are distributed throughout a specific period of time. Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University
  16. 16. Direct Impressionistic Observation • From the Direct Impressionistic Observation study the activity time has been confined to 7:00-8:00am , 8:45-9:00am , 10:25-10:35am, 12:00-12:15pm , 1:15-1:30 pm, 4:00 -4:30pm & 5:00-6:00pm. • The key study spaces has been confined to – Courtyard: in the architecture department – Entrance Passageways: Entrance façade of the Architecture department – Garden: in front of the Tech-Park – Streets: next to the garden • The activities observed from the study are – Courtyard: Playing Badminton , Student - Student Interaction, Student – Faculty Interaction, Floor - floor interaction , Playing Instruments & Other Maintenance activities. – Entrance Passageways: Dance practicing, Student - Student Interaction, Student- Faculty Interaction, Used mostly as access to other blocks, Car parking & Other Maintenance activities – Garden: Taking Photographs, movies etc, Student - Student Interaction, Intimate interaction, Sitting, Relaxing, Sleeping ( mostly by the maintenance staff), Storage & Parking – Streets: Used mostly as access to other blocks, Student - Student Interaction, Student – Faculty Interaction, Used to setup stalls during events. Space in b/w the curbs is used as storage by the gardeners • Key issues observed from the study are Imageability, behavioral variations &functional variations Behavioralaspectsofopen spacesincampusdesign Swetha.K Reg No:6661010001 M.Arch P.T SRM University

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