SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 38
Download to read offline
welcome
Media in communication- role of mass media in dissemination of farm
technology, effect of media mix for rural people
Contents
 Mass Media
 Advantages and disadvantages of mass media
 Types of media
 Media mix in rural development
 Conclusion
 References
Types of communication
 Individual communication method
 Group communication method
 Mass communication method
Mass Media
 Mass media is a relatively new idea in human
culture.
 Mass Media incorporates all those mediums through
which information is distributed to the masses.
 Today, mass media is generally categorised into 7
branches. These "seven mass media", in order of
their introduction are :
internet and mobile, are often called collectively as digital media &
radio and TV, as broadcast media.
Characteristics of mass media
 Communication is mostly one way
 Audience has great deal of choice
 Reach large & vast audience
 Aim messages to attract largest audience possible
 Influence society & are in
 turn influenced by society
Functions of Mass media
 Information
 Consensus
 Entertainment
 Symbolic Function
 Advertising
Development
Development communication that focuses on the
needs of the underprivileged & oppressed & their
socio-economic & cultural interests & needs.
Advantages of Mass Media
 Reaches many people quickly
 Low cost per person reached
Can be used to
 Tell people about new ideas & services
 Agenda setting & advocacy
 Created favourable climate of opinion
Disadvantages of Mass Media
 Difficult to make specific to local community
 Fixed message
 Can be easily misunderstood
 Access often difficult
 Lacks feedback
Less appropriate for :
 Changing behaviours rooted in culture or reinforced by social norms
 Promoting empowerment
 Learning practical skills
 Developing skills of informed decision making
Mass Media in Agriculture
• Information on agriculture, both crop and livestock was
communicated among farmers from ancient times.
• However, with the development in agricultural research, need
arises to transfer new information and technologies to the
users i.e. farmers.
• To fulfil this need, mass media like newspapers, magazines
radio, TV film and internet play a vital role.
• What we know about the new information on technologies,
public figures and public affairs is largely dependent upon
what the mass media told us about it.
The major objective of mass media in Agriculture
development is
 to communicate the feasible farm technologies in such a
manner to attract the attention of farmers,
 help them to understand and remember the message and
 ultimately facilitate them to take appropriate decision.
Introduction
 Print medium was the first to be used as mass media for
communicating the information.
 first newspaper to be published was ‘Bengal Gazette’ also called
‘Calcutta General Advertiser” in 1780.
 Since then the use of newspapers and magazines kept on increasing
in terms of their number, variety, circulation and readership.
 Quite often new newspapers and magazines are introduced while the
older ones change their pattern of presentation.
 A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and
advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It
may be general or of the special interest, most often published daily
or weekly.
 News paper
 Magazine ( general & public
interest)
 Journals
 Books
 Other: are leaflets, circular letters,
news letters, folders, banners, wall
news papers.
 Gives extensive coverage to a
large no. of items of interest
 Can be read by literate audience.
Print media in Agricultural Development
 Among the several mass media, newspaper and farm magazine are
commonly used.
 cheap & affordable; read as per convenience.
 permanent medium, permanently imprinted message with high storage
value making them suitable for reference and research also.
 ↑ rate of literacy in the country offers new promises & prospects for
utilising print medium as a means of mass communication.
Conti..
 plays a vital role in the communication of Agri. Information among the
literate farmers on improved agricultural practices and also to inform the
public in general
Agricultural journalism is of recent origin in India.
It came into existence just 5 decades ago. It is now gaining importance,
particularly after the establishment of AUs.
 Technical info. needs to be provided to the farmers at the right time and in
the right way, so that the productivity can be increased.
 India has farm magazines in every state, published mostly in local
languages.
Popular magazine published from India
• Indian Horticulture (semi-technical, bi-monthly magazine
in English)
• Indian Farming(monthly magazine in English)
• Kheti(monthly magazine in Hindi)
• Phal Phool(bi-monthly magazine in Hindi)
• Krishika(a half-yearly peer reviewed research journal in Hindi)
• Horticulture today
• Agriculture Today
• Agro India
• Modern Kheti
• Liesa India
• Farm Food
Contd..
• ICAR Reporter, English,
Quarterly
• ICAR News, English, Quarterly
• ARIS News, English, Quarterly
• Krishi Chayanika, Hindi,
Quarterly
Tamil
• Pasumai Vikatan, Fortnightly
• Naveena Velaanmai, Monthly
Telulgu
• ANNADATA, Monthly
Kannada
• KRISHIK BANDHU, Monthly
• Adike Patrike, Monthly
• Sahaja Samrudha
• Siri Samruddhi
• Sujatha Sanchike, Monthly
• Sahaja Saaguvali, Bi-Monthly
• Krishi Mithra, Monthly
Malayalam
• Bhoomi,
Conti…
 Among the various types of mass media sources, newspapers can
support extension by publishing news of various extension activities,
guidance and recommendations, achievements, market news, research
findings, successful achievements and problem faced by farming
community etc.
 The green revolution and white revolution could not have been come
about so quickly without the use of media like print media and radio.
• Information Super Highway &
The Network of Networks
• Helps in
– getting information
– Disseminate info by publishing, extension & teaching
– Compile information
2. Internet
(World wide web)
Uses of Internet
• knowledgesharing betweenthe
agriculture research institutes,
• access tointernationalbestpractices,
• informationsharingon public
domain,
• onlinetradingand import-export.
Web-based ICT approaches
• Unilever’s iShakti
– they are attached to kiosks, known as telecenters
• aAQUA
– that work entirely online
wide range of web portals that act as information repositories
• TAU’s Agritech web portal.
• AGMARKNET
– launched during the 9th five-year plan, provides marketing information on the latest commodity
prices from 2,800 major agricultural produce wholesale markets.
• Agropedia
• AGRISNET,
• DACNET,
• e-Krishi,
• the agribusiness portal Agriwatch,
• iKisan by the Nagarjuna fertilizer group (Saravanan 2010)
• e-krishaksahyogi by ISAP
Anytime, Anywhere Mobile
• Mobile phones are multifunctional devices.
• Extension can reach more clients through mobile-based
learning platforms—textual or richer platforms, such as
video—that provide tips to farmers to improve agri-
cultural skills and knowledge.
• MMS, GPRS, WAP & GPS can also be utilised effectively for
extension.
Various Roles for Mobiles in Agriculture
GOAL METHOD
Education and
awareness
Information provided via mobile phones to
farmers and extension agents about good
practices, improved crop varieties, and pest or
disease management
Commodity prices and
market information
Prices in regional markets to inform decision
making throughout the entire agricultural
process.
Data collection Applications that collect data from large
geographic regions.
Pest and disease
outbreak warning &
tracking
Send and receive data on outbreaks.
Benefits
• Get you connected To markets
• Getting better prices
• Increasing yield
• Getting advices from experts
• Get connected to Kisaan call centres
Impact on adoption (Fischer et.al, 2009); De Silva et.al (2010)
•Important role to improve adoption of technologies at early stage
• Improves social and business network and help in faster spread of knowledge and
technology.
RADIO
TELEVISION
• Can show recorded and live programs
• 1967-Krishi Darshan programme by Vikram Sarabhai
• Photojournalism is an area
of photography dedicated
to taking accurate shots of
current events.
• The basic mission of a
photojournalist is to take
pictures to accompany a
news story (whether it is
broadcast or published in
a newspaper).
Media mix in rural development
• There are many occasions wherein we have to use a single aid
which will serve our purpose. But more often, we have to
combine different aids so that we can effectively communicate
and transfer information.
• Thus a proper communication strategy for any rural
developmental activity involves an appropriate mix of various
media
• Several studies on different media-mix for effective agricultural and rural
development strategy have shown the following results :
• 1) The audio-visual aids are effective in dissemination and transfer of
improved practices.
• However, care should be taken to select appropriate aid according to
educational activities. The following gives the effective media-mix for the
different purposes of communication with regard to adoption of improved
farm practices :
Purposes of Communication Effective media-mix
Increase in knowledge
and awareness
Radio + posters + publication
(booklet, folders)
Improvement of skill Method demonstration + flash
cards + models
Change of attitude Slides + information folders +
photographs.
Change of behaviour to
accept improved practices
Result demonstration + Field trips +
slides + booklet
• About the effectiveness of Media-mix, studies have pointed out the following
• combinations as most effective for communication under various circumstances
(Singh, YP 1990) :
• a) Printed material + group discussion
• b) Slides + audio tapes
• c) Flash chards + lecture
• d) Television + discussion
• e) Field trip + slide show.
• With regard to three media combination the following mix was found to be most
effective(Singh, YP. 1990):
• a) Radio + slid; show + field trip
• b) Leaflet + individual contact + group discussion ,
• c) Demonstration + individual contact + field. visit
• d) Field trip + demonstration + film
• e) Individual contact + booklet + demonstration
References
• Mass media in agricultural extension by B.Lahiri,
S.D.Mukhopadhyay, M.M.Adhikari
• Communication techniques in farm by Dr.T. Rathakrishan,
Dr.M.Israel Thomus and Dr.L.Nirmal
• www.google.com
• www.youpublisher.com
media in communication

More Related Content

What's hot

Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1
Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1
Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1Suchitra Patnaik
 
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed Presentation
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed PresentationMass Media and Communication- Detailed Presentation
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed PresentationDepartment of English MKBU
 
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1akn4fotos
 
The Impact Of Media In The Society
The Impact Of Media In The Society The Impact Of Media In The Society
The Impact Of Media In The Society Faruk Nasir
 
Mass Media and it's importance P-15
Mass Media and it's importance P-15Mass Media and it's importance P-15
Mass Media and it's importance P-15umabagohil
 
Development communication
Development communicationDevelopment communication
Development communicationKajalsing23
 
E governance and its role in Development Communication
E governance and its role in Development CommunicationE governance and its role in Development Communication
E governance and its role in Development CommunicationVijayta Kapoor
 
Process of communication
Process of communicationProcess of communication
Process of communicationSweetp999
 
Electronic media presentation
Electronic media presentationElectronic media presentation
Electronic media presentationJunaid Ali Kazmi
 
Communication concepts
Communication conceptsCommunication concepts
Communication conceptsRatish Kakad
 
Communication Process
Communication ProcessCommunication Process
Communication Processrajat patel
 
Types of media
Types of mediaTypes of media
Types of mediasevianj
 
Introduction to mass communications
Introduction to mass communicationsIntroduction to mass communications
Introduction to mass communicationsDa Professa
 
Communication tools & technices
Communication tools & technicesCommunication tools & technices
Communication tools & technicesJen Maha
 

What's hot (20)

Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1
Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1
Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1
 
Communication ppt
Communication pptCommunication ppt
Communication ppt
 
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed Presentation
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed PresentationMass Media and Communication- Detailed Presentation
Mass Media and Communication- Detailed Presentation
 
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1
Intro to Mass Communication: CH 1
 
Role of mass communication
Role of mass communicationRole of mass communication
Role of mass communication
 
The Impact Of Media In The Society
The Impact Of Media In The Society The Impact Of Media In The Society
The Impact Of Media In The Society
 
Mass Media and it's importance P-15
Mass Media and it's importance P-15Mass Media and it's importance P-15
Mass Media and it's importance P-15
 
Development communication
Development communicationDevelopment communication
Development communication
 
E governance and its role in Development Communication
E governance and its role in Development CommunicationE governance and its role in Development Communication
E governance and its role in Development Communication
 
Theories of communication
Theories of communicationTheories of communication
Theories of communication
 
Process of communication
Process of communicationProcess of communication
Process of communication
 
Electronic media presentation
Electronic media presentationElectronic media presentation
Electronic media presentation
 
Electronic media
Electronic mediaElectronic media
Electronic media
 
Communication concepts
Communication conceptsCommunication concepts
Communication concepts
 
Communication Process
Communication ProcessCommunication Process
Communication Process
 
Types of media
Types of mediaTypes of media
Types of media
 
Unit 1 Mass media and its importance
Unit 1 Mass media and its importanceUnit 1 Mass media and its importance
Unit 1 Mass media and its importance
 
Introduction to mass communications
Introduction to mass communicationsIntroduction to mass communications
Introduction to mass communications
 
Communication tools & technices
Communication tools & technicesCommunication tools & technices
Communication tools & technices
 
Journalism
JournalismJournalism
Journalism
 

Viewers also liked

Communication media
Communication mediaCommunication media
Communication medialijomoljose
 
Role of mass media
Role of mass mediaRole of mass media
Role of mass mediaEkta Belwal
 
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011Santhi K
 
Thendral december 2014
Thendral december 2014Thendral december 2014
Thendral december 2014Santhi K
 
Media and international communications
Media and international communicationsMedia and international communications
Media and international communicationsCarolina Matos
 
Lecture 3 network communication media and devices
Lecture 3 network communication media and devicesLecture 3 network communication media and devices
Lecture 3 network communication media and devicesAlbert Abbosey
 
soil health cards
soil health cards soil health cards
soil health cards krishnadk
 
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a product
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a productRural Marketing- Acceptability for a product
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a productPriya Soni
 
Marketing Study On Castrol
Marketing Study On Castrol Marketing Study On Castrol
Marketing Study On Castrol Kavan Oza
 
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah Now Presenting
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah    Now PresentingShankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah    Now Presenting
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah Now Presentingshankaraiah, N
 

Viewers also liked (20)

Communication media
Communication mediaCommunication media
Communication media
 
Role of mass media
Role of mass mediaRole of mass media
Role of mass media
 
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011
Jc syllabus launch_h1tl&tlb_2011
 
Thendral december 2014
Thendral december 2014Thendral december 2014
Thendral december 2014
 
Technology upgradation and its impact on banks
Technology upgradation and its impact on banksTechnology upgradation and its impact on banks
Technology upgradation and its impact on banks
 
Media and international communications
Media and international communicationsMedia and international communications
Media and international communications
 
2. A study of rural product mix
2. A study of rural product mix2. A study of rural product mix
2. A study of rural product mix
 
Rm Ppt
Rm PptRm Ppt
Rm Ppt
 
Ppt. deepi
Ppt. deepiPpt. deepi
Ppt. deepi
 
Nikesh Gadewar
Nikesh GadewarNikesh Gadewar
Nikesh Gadewar
 
Lecture 3 network communication media and devices
Lecture 3 network communication media and devicesLecture 3 network communication media and devices
Lecture 3 network communication media and devices
 
soil health cards
soil health cards soil health cards
soil health cards
 
Chik shampoo
Chik shampooChik shampoo
Chik shampoo
 
Fashion Media Communication
Fashion Media CommunicationFashion Media Communication
Fashion Media Communication
 
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a product
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a productRural Marketing- Acceptability for a product
Rural Marketing- Acceptability for a product
 
Marketing Study On Castrol
Marketing Study On Castrol Marketing Study On Castrol
Marketing Study On Castrol
 
Scientific Method and Models of Mass Communication Research: By Abid Zafar Ms...
Scientific Method and Models of Mass Communication Research: By Abid Zafar Ms...Scientific Method and Models of Mass Communication Research: By Abid Zafar Ms...
Scientific Method and Models of Mass Communication Research: By Abid Zafar Ms...
 
Castrol
CastrolCastrol
Castrol
 
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah Now Presenting
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah    Now PresentingShankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah    Now Presenting
Shankaraiah N :Hod Ppt Shankaraiah Now Presenting
 
E- agriculture : Community Radio to Communicate Agricultural Information in B...
E- agriculture : Community Radio to Communicate Agricultural Information in B...E- agriculture : Community Radio to Communicate Agricultural Information in B...
E- agriculture : Community Radio to Communicate Agricultural Information in B...
 

Similar to media in communication

Agricultural journalism introduction
Agricultural journalism introductionAgricultural journalism introduction
Agricultural journalism introductionDrVReetaRao
 
Presentation (3).pptx
Presentation (3).pptxPresentation (3).pptx
Presentation (3).pptxParnabKhan
 
Mass media
Mass mediaMass media
Mass mediaREKHASM
 
Role of mass communication in extension education
Role of mass communication in extension educationRole of mass communication in extension education
Role of mass communication in extension educationDr. Shalini Pandey
 
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif Ali
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif AliRole of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif Ali
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif AliMdSharbar
 
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1Rhea Gupta
 
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDSMASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDSIVRI
 
History of Journalism [Class 1]
History of Journalism  [Class 1]History of Journalism  [Class 1]
History of Journalism [Class 1]GBPUA&T, Pantnagar
 
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATION
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATIONEXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATION
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATIONAyush Mishra
 
The Role of mass media in the caribbean
The Role of mass media in the caribbeanThe Role of mass media in the caribbean
The Role of mass media in the caribbeanJevaughan Edie
 
Effects of media mix for rural people
Effects of media mix for rural peopleEffects of media mix for rural people
Effects of media mix for rural peopleDevegowda S R
 
Various Medium for Advertisements
Various Medium for AdvertisementsVarious Medium for Advertisements
Various Medium for Advertisementsgoswamigayatri
 
Communications in MAIZE AFS
Communications in MAIZE AFS Communications in MAIZE AFS
Communications in MAIZE AFS CIMMYT
 
Census communication and publicity
Census communication and publicityCensus communication and publicity
Census communication and publicityFAO
 
social media in agricultural extension
social media in agricultural extensionsocial media in agricultural extension
social media in agricultural extensionMurali Krishnan L
 

Similar to media in communication (20)

Agricultural journalism introduction
Agricultural journalism introductionAgricultural journalism introduction
Agricultural journalism introduction
 
Presentation (3).pptx
Presentation (3).pptxPresentation (3).pptx
Presentation (3).pptx
 
Mass media
Mass mediaMass media
Mass media
 
Role of mass media in agricultural development
Role of mass media in agricultural developmentRole of mass media in agricultural development
Role of mass media in agricultural development
 
Role of mass communication in extension education
Role of mass communication in extension educationRole of mass communication in extension education
Role of mass communication in extension education
 
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif Ali
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif AliRole of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif Ali
Role of Mass Media in transfer of technology, FEX-502, Md Kaif Ali
 
Role of mass media in agriculture
Role of mass media in agricultureRole of mass media in agriculture
Role of mass media in agriculture
 
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1
Module 1 (Future of communication studies) This is just a topic in Module 1
 
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDSMASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS
MASS METHOD & PROJECTED VISUAL AIDS
 
Types of media ppt week 2.pptx
Types of media ppt week 2.pptxTypes of media ppt week 2.pptx
Types of media ppt week 2.pptx
 
Basics of journalism
Basics of journalismBasics of journalism
Basics of journalism
 
Basics of Journalism
Basics of JournalismBasics of Journalism
Basics of Journalism
 
History of Journalism [Class 1]
History of Journalism  [Class 1]History of Journalism  [Class 1]
History of Journalism [Class 1]
 
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATION
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATIONEXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATION
EXTENSION TEACHING METHODS AND MASS COMMUNICATION
 
The Role of mass media in the caribbean
The Role of mass media in the caribbeanThe Role of mass media in the caribbean
The Role of mass media in the caribbean
 
Effects of media mix for rural people
Effects of media mix for rural peopleEffects of media mix for rural people
Effects of media mix for rural people
 
Various Medium for Advertisements
Various Medium for AdvertisementsVarious Medium for Advertisements
Various Medium for Advertisements
 
Communications in MAIZE AFS
Communications in MAIZE AFS Communications in MAIZE AFS
Communications in MAIZE AFS
 
Census communication and publicity
Census communication and publicityCensus communication and publicity
Census communication and publicity
 
social media in agricultural extension
social media in agricultural extensionsocial media in agricultural extension
social media in agricultural extension
 

media in communication

  • 2. Media in communication- role of mass media in dissemination of farm technology, effect of media mix for rural people
  • 3. Contents  Mass Media  Advantages and disadvantages of mass media  Types of media  Media mix in rural development  Conclusion  References
  • 4. Types of communication  Individual communication method  Group communication method  Mass communication method
  • 5. Mass Media  Mass media is a relatively new idea in human culture.  Mass Media incorporates all those mediums through which information is distributed to the masses.  Today, mass media is generally categorised into 7 branches. These "seven mass media", in order of their introduction are :
  • 6. internet and mobile, are often called collectively as digital media & radio and TV, as broadcast media.
  • 7. Characteristics of mass media  Communication is mostly one way  Audience has great deal of choice  Reach large & vast audience  Aim messages to attract largest audience possible  Influence society & are in  turn influenced by society
  • 8. Functions of Mass media  Information  Consensus  Entertainment  Symbolic Function  Advertising Development Development communication that focuses on the needs of the underprivileged & oppressed & their socio-economic & cultural interests & needs.
  • 9. Advantages of Mass Media  Reaches many people quickly  Low cost per person reached Can be used to  Tell people about new ideas & services  Agenda setting & advocacy  Created favourable climate of opinion
  • 10. Disadvantages of Mass Media  Difficult to make specific to local community  Fixed message  Can be easily misunderstood  Access often difficult  Lacks feedback Less appropriate for :  Changing behaviours rooted in culture or reinforced by social norms  Promoting empowerment  Learning practical skills  Developing skills of informed decision making
  • 11. Mass Media in Agriculture • Information on agriculture, both crop and livestock was communicated among farmers from ancient times. • However, with the development in agricultural research, need arises to transfer new information and technologies to the users i.e. farmers. • To fulfil this need, mass media like newspapers, magazines radio, TV film and internet play a vital role. • What we know about the new information on technologies, public figures and public affairs is largely dependent upon what the mass media told us about it.
  • 12. The major objective of mass media in Agriculture development is  to communicate the feasible farm technologies in such a manner to attract the attention of farmers,  help them to understand and remember the message and  ultimately facilitate them to take appropriate decision.
  • 13. Introduction  Print medium was the first to be used as mass media for communicating the information.  first newspaper to be published was ‘Bengal Gazette’ also called ‘Calcutta General Advertiser” in 1780.  Since then the use of newspapers and magazines kept on increasing in terms of their number, variety, circulation and readership.  Quite often new newspapers and magazines are introduced while the older ones change their pattern of presentation.  A newspaper is a publication containing news and information and advertising, usually printed on low-cost paper called newsprint. It may be general or of the special interest, most often published daily or weekly.
  • 14.  News paper  Magazine ( general & public interest)  Journals  Books  Other: are leaflets, circular letters, news letters, folders, banners, wall news papers.
  • 15.  Gives extensive coverage to a large no. of items of interest  Can be read by literate audience.
  • 16. Print media in Agricultural Development  Among the several mass media, newspaper and farm magazine are commonly used.  cheap & affordable; read as per convenience.  permanent medium, permanently imprinted message with high storage value making them suitable for reference and research also.  ↑ rate of literacy in the country offers new promises & prospects for utilising print medium as a means of mass communication.
  • 17. Conti..  plays a vital role in the communication of Agri. Information among the literate farmers on improved agricultural practices and also to inform the public in general Agricultural journalism is of recent origin in India. It came into existence just 5 decades ago. It is now gaining importance, particularly after the establishment of AUs.  Technical info. needs to be provided to the farmers at the right time and in the right way, so that the productivity can be increased.  India has farm magazines in every state, published mostly in local languages.
  • 18. Popular magazine published from India • Indian Horticulture (semi-technical, bi-monthly magazine in English) • Indian Farming(monthly magazine in English) • Kheti(monthly magazine in Hindi) • Phal Phool(bi-monthly magazine in Hindi) • Krishika(a half-yearly peer reviewed research journal in Hindi) • Horticulture today • Agriculture Today • Agro India • Modern Kheti • Liesa India • Farm Food
  • 19. Contd.. • ICAR Reporter, English, Quarterly • ICAR News, English, Quarterly • ARIS News, English, Quarterly • Krishi Chayanika, Hindi, Quarterly Tamil • Pasumai Vikatan, Fortnightly • Naveena Velaanmai, Monthly Telulgu • ANNADATA, Monthly Kannada • KRISHIK BANDHU, Monthly • Adike Patrike, Monthly • Sahaja Samrudha • Siri Samruddhi • Sujatha Sanchike, Monthly • Sahaja Saaguvali, Bi-Monthly • Krishi Mithra, Monthly Malayalam • Bhoomi,
  • 20. Conti…  Among the various types of mass media sources, newspapers can support extension by publishing news of various extension activities, guidance and recommendations, achievements, market news, research findings, successful achievements and problem faced by farming community etc.  The green revolution and white revolution could not have been come about so quickly without the use of media like print media and radio.
  • 21. • Information Super Highway & The Network of Networks • Helps in – getting information – Disseminate info by publishing, extension & teaching – Compile information 2. Internet (World wide web)
  • 22. Uses of Internet • knowledgesharing betweenthe agriculture research institutes, • access tointernationalbestpractices, • informationsharingon public domain, • onlinetradingand import-export.
  • 23. Web-based ICT approaches • Unilever’s iShakti – they are attached to kiosks, known as telecenters • aAQUA – that work entirely online wide range of web portals that act as information repositories • TAU’s Agritech web portal. • AGMARKNET – launched during the 9th five-year plan, provides marketing information on the latest commodity prices from 2,800 major agricultural produce wholesale markets. • Agropedia • AGRISNET, • DACNET, • e-Krishi, • the agribusiness portal Agriwatch, • iKisan by the Nagarjuna fertilizer group (Saravanan 2010) • e-krishaksahyogi by ISAP
  • 24. Anytime, Anywhere Mobile • Mobile phones are multifunctional devices. • Extension can reach more clients through mobile-based learning platforms—textual or richer platforms, such as video—that provide tips to farmers to improve agri- cultural skills and knowledge. • MMS, GPRS, WAP & GPS can also be utilised effectively for extension.
  • 25. Various Roles for Mobiles in Agriculture GOAL METHOD Education and awareness Information provided via mobile phones to farmers and extension agents about good practices, improved crop varieties, and pest or disease management Commodity prices and market information Prices in regional markets to inform decision making throughout the entire agricultural process. Data collection Applications that collect data from large geographic regions. Pest and disease outbreak warning & tracking Send and receive data on outbreaks.
  • 26. Benefits • Get you connected To markets • Getting better prices • Increasing yield • Getting advices from experts • Get connected to Kisaan call centres Impact on adoption (Fischer et.al, 2009); De Silva et.al (2010) •Important role to improve adoption of technologies at early stage • Improves social and business network and help in faster spread of knowledge and technology.
  • 27.
  • 28. RADIO
  • 29. TELEVISION • Can show recorded and live programs • 1967-Krishi Darshan programme by Vikram Sarabhai
  • 30.
  • 31. • Photojournalism is an area of photography dedicated to taking accurate shots of current events. • The basic mission of a photojournalist is to take pictures to accompany a news story (whether it is broadcast or published in a newspaper).
  • 32. Media mix in rural development • There are many occasions wherein we have to use a single aid which will serve our purpose. But more often, we have to combine different aids so that we can effectively communicate and transfer information. • Thus a proper communication strategy for any rural developmental activity involves an appropriate mix of various media
  • 33. • Several studies on different media-mix for effective agricultural and rural development strategy have shown the following results : • 1) The audio-visual aids are effective in dissemination and transfer of improved practices. • However, care should be taken to select appropriate aid according to educational activities. The following gives the effective media-mix for the different purposes of communication with regard to adoption of improved farm practices :
  • 34. Purposes of Communication Effective media-mix Increase in knowledge and awareness Radio + posters + publication (booklet, folders) Improvement of skill Method demonstration + flash cards + models Change of attitude Slides + information folders + photographs. Change of behaviour to accept improved practices Result demonstration + Field trips + slides + booklet
  • 35. • About the effectiveness of Media-mix, studies have pointed out the following • combinations as most effective for communication under various circumstances (Singh, YP 1990) : • a) Printed material + group discussion • b) Slides + audio tapes • c) Flash chards + lecture • d) Television + discussion • e) Field trip + slide show.
  • 36. • With regard to three media combination the following mix was found to be most effective(Singh, YP. 1990): • a) Radio + slid; show + field trip • b) Leaflet + individual contact + group discussion , • c) Demonstration + individual contact + field. visit • d) Field trip + demonstration + film • e) Individual contact + booklet + demonstration
  • 37. References • Mass media in agricultural extension by B.Lahiri, S.D.Mukhopadhyay, M.M.Adhikari • Communication techniques in farm by Dr.T. Rathakrishan, Dr.M.Israel Thomus and Dr.L.Nirmal • www.google.com • www.youpublisher.com