Values are important and lasting beliefs or ideals shared by
the members of a culture about what is good or bad and
desirable or undesirable.
a person's behavior and attitude and serve
broad guidelines in all situations.
statements are grounded in values and define how
people want to behave with each other in the organization
Values are different form
Values are general beliefs
Whereas attitude are
directed towards specific
objects, events, or people.
Value statements describe
actions, which are the living
enactment of the
fundamental values held by
most individuals within the
*Types of values
Terminal Value: Terminal Values include things like happiness, self respect, family
security, recognition, freedom, inner harmony, comfortable life, professional excellence, etc.
Aesthetic: Values form grace and harmony and emphasises the artistic aspects of life.
Instrumental Value:These include
honesty, sincerity, ambition, independence, obedience, imaginativeness, courageousness, competitiveness, and also
some negative traits too.
Theoretical: Values the discovery of truth and emphasises critical and
rational approach to problem.
Economic: Values utility and practicality and emphasises standard of
Social: Values love of people and altruism and emphasises competition
*IMPORTANCE OF VALUES IN AN
Contribute to the shared meaning in the organization.
Binds people together as a community.
Provides people with a common language.
Tell people how to behave to achieve the organization‟s vision.
Organizational values help each person establish priorities in their daily
Values guide every decision that is made once the organization has
cooperatively created the values and the value statements.
Organizational values are unique to each company.
Values should represent the culture of the business. It‟s okay to be
competitive and profit driven.
As you‟re starting to plan for next year, think about your organizational
values and whether they‟re representative of your organization.
Rewards and recognition within the organization are structured to
recognize those people whose work embodies the values the
Contribute to organization‟s vitality and performance.
Sir Edward Taylor‟s definition in 1871 (first use of this term):
“that complex whole which includes
knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities
and habits acquired by man as a member of society”
Kroeber and Kluckhohn (1952)
Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior
acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive
achievement of human groups, including their embodiment in
artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e.
historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached
values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as
products of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further
It simple words it is described as “the dominant values espoused by
The word „culture‟ comes from Latin „cultura „, which refers to cult
In management aspect, ‟culture „means acquired knowledge that
people use to interpret experience and generate social behaviour.
This knowledge forms values, creates attitudes, and influences
Culture is characterised by learning, sharing, transgenerational, symbolic, patterned and adaptive in nature.
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or
different cultures, as opposed to
monoculture, as in the global monoculture, or
a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural
The phrase cultural diversity can also refer to
having different cultures respect each other's
The phrase "cultural diversity" is also
sometimes used to mean the variety of
human societies or cultures in a specific
region, or in the world as a whole.
The many separate societies that emerged around the globe differed
markedly from each other, and many of these differences persist to
As well as the more obvious cultural differences that exist between
people, such as language, dress and traditions, there are also
significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, in
their shared conception of morality, and in the ways they interact with
Cultural diversity can be seen as analogous to biodiversity
Symbols: Words, gestures, objects that carry a particular meaning which is only
recognized by those who share the culture.
Heroes: Persons, alive or dead, real or imaginary, who possess characteristics
which are highly prized in a culture and who thus serve as models for behavior.
Rituals: Collective activities, considered socially essential.
Values: Basic assumptions about how things should be in society. They are
convictions regarding right or wrong, good or bad, important or trivial. Learned
implicitly. Cannot be discussed
Practices: What is visible to an outsider.
Individualism can be defined as the extent to which a person values
independence and personal uniqueness.
The main characteristics of individualism are 1) identity is based on the
individual 2) Tasks prevail over relationships 3) speaking one's mind is
a sign of honesty.
Whereas collectivism is the extent to which people value duty to
groups to which they belong and to group harmony.
The main characteristics of collectivism are 1) identity is based on the
group to which one belongs 2) relationships prevail over tasks 3) direct
confrontations should be avoided.
Power distance can be defined as the extent to which people accept
unequal distribution of power in a society and in an organization.
Provides good basis to management for better business decisions.
Improves provided services to partners/customers real needs.
Facilitate innovation to support organization competitiveness .
Strong awareness of value culture, with good understanding of
Good knowledge of business/ organization KPIs .
Enhance communication and the efficiency of teamwork.
Commitment from partners/customers and stakeholders.