Peace Studies, Separatism, and Civilian Peace Corps


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Presentation made at the University of Graz in September 2008, on the topic of Reconciliation in the Western Balkans.

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Peace Studies, Separatism, and Civilian Peace Corps

  1. 1. Ethnic Reconciliation in the Western Balkans What Role for Academia? University of Graz 05-06/09/2008
  2. 2. Towards a European Network of University Centers for Peace & Conflict Prevention Promoting Civil Peace Corps in a broader European context
  3. 3. Peace Studies <ul><li>Born after World War I </li></ul><ul><li>Grown up with World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Matured after the end of the Cold War </li></ul>
  4. 4. A starting point (Johan Galtung) <ul><li>Peace Studies investigate the conditions of Working for Peace. </li></ul><ul><li>Working for Peace aims to reduce violence by peaceful means . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Peace Research is a discipline explicitly </li></ul><ul><li>based on values. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concepts of Peace <ul><li>Negative Peace </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Peace </li></ul>
  7. 7. Science for Peace Data Theories Values Empirical Peace Studies Critical Peace Studies Projectual Peace Studies
  9. 9. 1. RECIPROCITY
  10. 10. 2. DETERRENCE
  12. 12. 4. OPPOSITION
  13. 13. 5. CREATIVITY
  14. 14. Contributions to Peace Studies <ul><li>May come from the widest possible </li></ul><ul><li>range of disciplines. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reconciliation <ul><li>A complex process </li></ul><ul><li>that requires concience, </li></ul><ul><li>willing and time </li></ul>
  16. 16. Medicine <ul><li>The best therapy is prevention </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion 1: Peace Research <ul><li>Peace Research is a trans-disciplinary </li></ul><ul><li>field of studies which tackles sistematical </li></ul><ul><li>research and education about the roots of </li></ul><ul><li>war and the conditions of creating peace by </li></ul><ul><li>peaceful means. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Peace Studies an empirical assumption <ul><li>Humans are generally </li></ul><ul><li>social and cooperative beings </li></ul>
  19. 19. Conflict Studies an empirical assumption <ul><li>The fact that humans gather into communities </li></ul><ul><li>does not itself prevent violent conflicts </li></ul>
  20. 20. Main conflictual issues in our complex societies Military Economic Political Cultural
  21. 21. Contentious Politics (Tilly/Tarrow) Conflict Collective Action Politics Contentious Politics Any kind of reivindication - from a timid petition to a harsh claim Any coordinate initiative to promote shared interests or programs Any interaction with governmental agencies or actors
  22. 22. Minority Rights (Issues) <ul><li>Guaranteed by the States </li></ul><ul><li>Violated by the States </li></ul>
  23. 23. Dissolution of Jugoslavia “Balkanization”
  24. 24. Autonomism <ul><li>Generally legitimate under the Right to Self-Determination and the Right of Indigenous Peoples </li></ul>
  25. 25. Separatism & Secessionism <ul><li>Generally illegitimate under </li></ul><ul><li>International Law </li></ul>
  26. 26. Separatist/secessionist reivindications in the larger European area Ulster Western Sahara Kabyle Euskadi Kosova Rep. Srpska Transdniestr Turkish Rep. North Cyprus Palestinian Authority Kurdestan Chechenia Abkhazia, South Ossetia Nagorno-Karabakh
  27. 27. Unrecognized Nations & Peoples Organization (UNPO) <ul><li>57 members between nations, peoples & unrecognized (de facto) states: </li></ul><ul><li>Abkhazia, Chechen Ichkeria, Crimean Tatars, Greek minority in Albania, Hungarian Minority in Romania, Iranian Kurdistan, Iraqi Kurdistan, Kosova, Sanjak, Scania. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening the World to de facto States (European Parliament 15/05/08) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Admission to International Community <ul><li>Recognition of the right to sovereignty over local natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Normalized International Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Support from the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>and its Specialised Agencies </li></ul>
  29. 29. Organization of the United Nations <ul><li>Does it comprise indipendent states </li></ul><ul><li>or rather interdipendent states? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Conclusion 2: Peace & Future Studies <ul><li>From the perspective of Peace Studies, dominant ideas in </li></ul><ul><li>Security Studies and International Relations cannot be </li></ul><ul><li>used as they are; they have to be thought again from the </li></ul><ul><li>very principle. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Security Studies <ul><li>A field strictly connected to Peace (UN Charter) </li></ul><ul><li>How we implement Security? </li></ul>
  32. 32. Promoting Security <ul><li>By the way of State/military intervention </li></ul><ul><li>(violent, top-down) </li></ul><ul><li>By the way of spontaneous/nonviolent </li></ul><ul><li>involvement (nonviolent, bottom-up) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Civil Peace Corps <ul><li>Endorsed from the United Nations since 1992 (‘An Agenda for Peace’) along with UN peace-keeping, peace-building, peace-making missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Successfully implemented by e.g. the OSCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Presented as a draft law by Alexander Langer (1995) and recommended by the European Parliament (02/02/1999 session). </li></ul>
  34. 34. Civil nonviolent interposition experiences <ul><li>Peace Brigades International </li></ul><ul><li>Nonviolent Peaceforce </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of other INGOs missions & grassroots initiatives (Manifestations, appeals & petitions for Peace etc.) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Tasks of the CPC in conflicts <ul><li>Prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Mediation </li></ul><ul><li>Confidence building </li></ul><ul><li>Interposition </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian aid </li></ul><ul><li>Economical stabilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Reconciliation </li></ul>
  36. 36. Purposes of institutionalisation <ul><li>Balance the importance of military sector in the security field. </li></ul><ul><li>Create reciprocal bindings between Governments & Civil Society in conflict management. </li></ul><ul><li>Establish clear code of conduct & discipline for peace missions. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a professional framework for parallel bottom experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster multilateral security agreements with non EU/non NATO countries or even non-State counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Get proper funding from the governments & proper information coverage from the media. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Ongoing institutional CPC projects <ul><li>Ziviler Friedensdienst (DE) – since 1998 government funded programme. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Interventi Civili di Pace (IT) – Developmental Education/Information government funded programme (2008) </li></ul>
  38. 38. Conclusion 3: Civil Peace Corps <ul><li>The project of the European Civil Peace Corps </li></ul><ul><li>is an advanced security solution, aimed at </li></ul><ul><li>spreading professional competences for </li></ul><ul><li>nonviolent settlement of ethno-political disputes </li></ul><ul><li>along the whole cycle of conflict. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Mission of Academia <ul><li>To spread the highest standards of Education into societies for their sustainable and desirable development </li></ul>
  40. 40. Academia and society Academia Economical Political Cultural Military
  41. 41. Promotion of Peace Studies <ul><li>Universities </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Departments </li></ul><ul><li>Specialised Institutes </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom Initiatives </li></ul>
  42. 42. Conclusion 4: ‘PRUDENCE’ <ul><li>To support the establishment of a </li></ul><ul><li>Peace Research University Departments’ European Network </li></ul><ul><li>for Conflict Engagement </li></ul>
  43. 43. AUSTRIA Wien Stadtschlaning Graz Innsbruck SWITZERLAND Fribourg ITALY Pisa Firenze Padova Trieste Bergamo Udine Rovereto Roma Bari PORTUGAL Coimbra BELGIUM Brussels Leuven Namur Antwerp FRANCE Paris Bordeaux Nice Grenoble Lion UK London Bradford Canterbury Coventry Lancaster Derby Belfast GERMANY Berlin Hamburg Bonn Marburg Heidelberg Bielefeld Duisburg Kiel Bremen Tübingen Magdeburg Konstanz Münster Bochum Trier NETHERLANDS Utrecht Nijmegen Maastricht Gröningen SPAIN Madrid Barcelona Castellón Granada Deusto Sevilla Córdoba La Laguna CZECH R. Prague Masaryk SLOVAKIA Bratislava HUNGARY Budapest POLAND Torun SWEDEN Uppsala Göteborg Lund NORWAY Oslo Tromsø FINLAND Helsinki Tampere Jyväskylä DENMARK København Aarhus IRELAND Dublin Limerick Peace Studies University Departments + UNESCO Chairs for Peace and Human Rights in the European Union GREECE Athinai Thessaloniki CYPRUS Nicosia ROMANIA Baia Mare BULGARIA Sofia Bourgas TURKEY Istanbul