PortfolioShusei Kakimoto
CONTENTS
State of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~
The Census Report Lancaster County/Ci...
1
Introduction
Section 0-1 Background and Purpose of Research
Recently, Japan is facing the problem of population decline....
2
foreign assistance group was obtained as well. A classification of commu-
nity type and cluster area will be in section ...
3
As an example, the number of Brazilians who migrate to Japan varies
drastically as the laws change (Figure 1-5). In 1995...
4
Section 1-3 The Number of Residents of Each Nationality Living in To-
kyo’s 23 Wards
It shows a tendency of immigrants t...
5
meetings for immigrants to improve the services provided to immigrants,
and inform the immigrants of the services availa...
6
The Tokyo International exchange Association hosts meetings for mutual
cooperation between the various organizations bot...
7
Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society
~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008)
very...
8
communities due to immigration of foreigner of various nationalities. The
immigrants of each community always have some ...
9
	 o	 Indian community in Edogawa ward
Indians gather here because of the Indian community, and a good public
transport s...
10
Section 4 Themed Community Outline
of a community and the method of establishment are both factors in how
much interact...
11
Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society
~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008)
sit...
12
Section 4-2 Conclusion of Section 4
Figure 4-2 shows an analysis of the community’s and cluster area’s size and
interch...
13
Kimchi Grill Korean food Korean clothes+folcraft products+small articles
Grill+Korean food Church Multiple (eat and dri...
14
Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society
~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008)
Gri...
15
Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society
~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008)
the...
16
This project has been done for Lincoln/Lancaster County Planning Depart-
ment.
•	 http://lincoln.ne.gov/city/plan/repor...
17
Race
According to Census Bureau, “Some Other Race” includes all other re-
sponses not included in the White, Black or A...
18
Comparison of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino
The population of Hispanic or Latino has been increasing. I...
19
Age and Race Comparison
White: The age distribution of the White population is nearly the same as
the total population ...
20
0.0%
2.0%
4.0%
6.0%
8.0%
10.0%
12.0%
14.0%
under5
5to9
10to14
15to19
20to24
25to29
30to34
35to39
40to44
45to49
50to54
5...
21
Age Distribution of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino
Hispanic or Latino: The Hispanic or Latino population...
22
Age Distribution of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino
Asian (Not Hispanic or Latino): The percent change of...
23
Hispanic or Latino Population
The majority of Mexican has become stronger among the origin of His-
panic or Latino popu...
24
Housing Characteristics Part One
The non-institutionalized Group Quarters population has been growing
and scattering th...
25
Housing Characteristics Part Two
The number of housing units has been increasing, therefore, the occupied
housing units...
26
Households Characteristics
The majority of Householders are White, but there have been significant
increases in other H...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Portfolio: Community Research

737 views

Published on

1. The State of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society
2. Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County

Published in: News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
737
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Portfolio: Community Research

  1. 1. PortfolioShusei Kakimoto
  2. 2. CONTENTS State of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ The Census Report Lancaster County/City of Lincoln 1 16 Community Research
  3. 3. 1 Introduction Section 0-1 Background and Purpose of Research Recently, Japan is facing the problem of population decline. There is an increasing ratio of older population to younger population. It is expected that Japan will have to be more open to immigration in order to handle the work load. As a result, immigration law is currently changing in Japan. It is easier to get a permit (similar to the U.S. VISA) now, as there are new types of their permit. There are a lot of more immigrants now in Japan than in the past. Because this is so recent, the Japanese people, including the gov- ernment, are still fairly ignorant of the foreign community. For the purpose of this paper, “community” is a term used to describe a group of people which meet, and does not refer to people living in the same area who do meet. “cluster area” is used to describe people of one race living in the same area. Most foreigners live in Tokyo, as it is the economic center, and has the most services like public transportation, and a few foreigners live in the country side. It is becoming necessary to increase understanding and acceptance be- tween the Japanese and the the foreign community. It will require a lot of compromise to develop relations between the Japanese and the immi- grants. The research for this paper centers on Tokyo 23 Wards as this area has the highest number of immigrants, and studies the government administration programs for helping them. It also looks into the charity assistance dedicat- ed to the foreign community, and how the foreign community is organized. Section 0-2 Research Methods and Organization This paper shows the result of research of the situation of the foreign community in Japanese society. This paper will show the date regarding the immigrants in the 23 Wards: their general background, purpose, in section 1. Section2 will cover the assistance programs available to them. The immigration information for section 2 was obtained from the offices of Immigrant Registration in each ward, as well as the main Tokyo Immigrant Registration office. Information from a government endorsed charitable Introduction Section 0-1 Background and Purpose of Research Section 0-2 Research Methods and Organization Section 1 The Situation of Foreign in The 23 Wards of Tokyo Section 1-1 The Situation of The 23 Wards of Tokyo Section 1-2 Background of Foreigners Section 1-3 The Number of Residents of Each Nationality Living in Tokyo’s 23 Wards SSection 1-4 Conclusion of Section 1 Section2 Government Administration Service Section 2-1 Tokyo Local Government Service Section 2-2 Services for Immigrants in Each Ward Section 2-3 Unique Services Section 2-4 The Conclusion of Section 2 Section3 Foreign Community Section 3-1 Cluster by Nationality Section 3-2 Community in The Wards Section 3-3 Distribution and Background of Method of Community Section 3-4 Outline of Clustered Areas in The Wards Section 3-5 Characteristics and Classification of Community and Cluster Areas Section 3-6 Conclusion of Section 3 Section 4 Themed Community Outline Section 4-1 Themed Communities Section 4-1-1 Natural Establishment Section 4-1-2 Japanese Establishment Section 4-1-3 Advertisement Section 4-2 Conclusion of Section 4 Section 5 Analysis of Foreign Community and The Issues Which Occur Section 5-1 Comparison of The Korean Cluster Areas Section 5-3 Contact Between The Foreign Community and The Surrounding Japanese Residents Section 5-2 The Issue of Concession, or Right of Use of Land in Edagawa 1 Chome, in Koto Ward Section 5-4 Government Administration and Community Section 5-5 Conclusion of Section 5 Section 6 Overall Conclusion 外国人登録者数(H18) 東京 大阪 愛知 神奈川 埼玉 兵庫 千葉 東京 大阪 愛知 神奈川 埼玉 兵庫 千葉 Immigrants Population (2006) Tokyo Tokyo Kana gawa Kanagawa Osaka Osaka Aichi Aichi Sai tama Saitama Hyogo Hyogo Chiba Chiba Figure 1-1 Figure 0-1 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  4. 4. 2 foreign assistance group was obtained as well. A classification of commu- nity type and cluster area will be in section 3. Section 4 will contain an analysis of the foreign community based on their classification. Section 5 will Figure 1-1 shows the top 7 states for immigration. explore the issues existing between the Japanese and foreign communities. Section 6 will be the main conclusion. Section 1 The Situation of Foreign in The 23 Wards of Tokyo This section contains an analysis of immigrant information: background, permit type, etc. Section 1-1 Background and Purpose of Research Section 1-1 The Situation of The 23 Wards of Tokyo Figure 1-2 is the immi- grant population in Tokyo. Figure 1-3 shows breakdown of immigration population by ward. Tokyo is the number 1 state in Japan for immigrant population with 350,000 immigrants. The top 5 states have more than half of the immi- grants in Japan. Most of the foreigners in Tokyo live in the 23 Wards.The immigrant population is rising in every ward. Section 1-2 Background of Foreigners Figure 1-4 is a comparison of the foreign population in Tokyo from 1981 to 2004. Figure 1-5 is a breakdown of the immigrant population by purpose of im- migration. Figure 1-6 shows the percentage of immigrants by their permit type in2006. We can see that during the years that Japan has experienced economic difficulties, the number of immigrant job did not decrease. We can classify the immigrants by 2 groups: old comers and new comers. Old comers are immigrants from before the San Francisco treaty of 1952 and their descendents. All foreigners lost their citizenship in 1952. Those who migrated to Japan relatively recent years are in the newcomer category. Immigration law is a big factor on what kind of immigrants come to Japan. 外国人登録者数の遷移 東京都 総数 区部 市部 外国人登録者数の遷移 23区 千代田区 中央区 港区 新宿区 文京区 台東区 墨田区 江東区 品川区 目黒区 大田区 世田谷区 渋谷区 中野区 杉並区 豊島区 北区 荒川区 板橋区 練馬区 足立区 葛飾区 江戸川区 Registered Foreigners Tokyo Ward Area City Area Change of Registered Foreigners Chiyoda Chuo Minato Shinjuku Daito Bunkyo Shinagawa Koto Sumida Meguro Ota Setagaya Shibuya Suginami Nakano Kita Toyoshima Arakawa Itabashi Nerima Adachi Katsushika Edogawa Population and Registered Foreigners(*10000) (*1000000) Population in Japan (Right) Registered Foreigners (Left) 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 Figure 1-2 Figure 1-3 Figure 1-4 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  5. 5. 3 As an example, the number of Brazilians who migrate to Japan varies drastically as the laws change (Figure 1-5). In 1995, Japanese made a law restricting the number of performers that could enter the country. This caused the number of Pilipino immigrants to drop a lot. In 2004, the refu- gee application was changed, causing an increase in Burmese immigrants coming to Japan. In the last few years we have seen a big increase in the number of foreign- ers coming to Japan to study or attend a trade school. The percentage of immigrants in 2006 who took Permanent Resident (including normal and special permanent resident) in Japan is 40.2%, which is 837,521 people. Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Special Permanent Residents Permanent Residents Long-term Residents Spouse of Japanese Study abroad Visiting Family Training Specialist in humanities, International services School Techinologies Others Ratio of Status of Residence Figure 1-6 Background of visiting Japan Population of registered residence and Korean residence Korean Chinese Filipinos Burmese Brazillian Registered residence Korean 1959 NewcomersOldcomers 1964 1969 1974 1979 1984 1989 1994 1999 2004 Change of immigration law 1990: Japnese Brazillian get a right to work as Japanese do. Economic Depression in Brazil, Bubble economy in Japan: Many Brazillian came to Japan. Chinese immigrants have increased for more than 10 years: Due to the Location, Economic Development in China, Japanese enterprise to China, move of production base Korean Chinese Brazillian Filipinos About 10,000 Korean applicants to be naturalized Japanese: every year: due to Korean Japanese assimilate Japanese society. There is decrease of Korean having Korean nationality. Increase of Koreans from Korea: Extend of financial gap, the boom of study abroad in Japan by plan of 100,000 student studying abroad, liberalization of travels in Korea culturalexchangeforlongtimeasaneighboringcountry, DuringWWII,manyk=KoreanscametoJapan Chinese has many reasons to stay in Japan such as study abroad, marriage, training, work Chinese has experienced rapid economic growth: There might be more chinese P u r p o s e F u t u r e Short work contract workers who are indirect employment most brazilians work for manufacture: Although manufacture is effective by business fluctuations, but it has higher standard of salary Secure freedom of work and live Increase of Brazilian residents will slow down one of reasons is manufacture industry move to other countries Most refugees in Japan did not choose Japan Reason why some refugees chose Japan Acquaintances come from Japan Good experience by Japanese people Information form Burmese communities The number of refugees will increase 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 198219851988199119941997200020032006 2006 2005 2004 2003 Burmese Turk Bangladeshi Burgher Iranian Chinese Other Applicants Certified Improvement of refugee certification scheme in 2004 by emigration and immigration agency: Increase of applicants and certified refugees Majority of refugees in Japan is Burmese Changeofimmigrantsfromcountriesthathavehiger immigrantspercentageinJapan Thehighestreasonofstutasofresidencyisspouse andthesecoundhighestreasonisshowbusinesses Japanesegovernmentdecreseissueofshowbusinessvisa SpouseofJapanesehasincreased Figure 1-5 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  6. 6. 4 Section 1-3 The Number of Residents of Each Nationality Living in To- kyo’s 23 Wards It shows a tendency of immigrants to cluster together within a ward (Fig- ure 1-7). As a result, different wards have different groups of foreigners. Section 1-4 Conclusion of Section 1 The laws dictating the number of immigrants allowed of each permit type control the country’s immigrant growth. The research of this paper shows a breakdown of new comers by permits type. Every year, the number of immigrants taking Permanent Residence in Japan increases. Also, the number of naturalized citizens of Japan from Korean or Chinese increases every year. Therefore, the people who take temporary residence in Japan are staying longer than in the past. These facts could indicate that Japan is a more attractive option for people to live in than in the past, or that the laws are less restrictive, or possibly both. In any case case, the immigration laws are certainly less restrictive. The newer policies regarding immigra- tion favor those staying in Japan longer. Usually short term foreigners in Japan do not participate in regional activities such as community events or meetings: nor do they contribute to the area. Because of the new policies for longer term foreigners and the higher participation of the immigrants in the community, the relationship between these immigrants and Japanese people might improve. Immigrants of a certain nationality tend to cluster together within a ward. However, in some wards, many races live together. This gives each ward a unique characteristic. Section2 Government Administration Service This section contains research and analysis of the government services for Tokyo, the 23 wards within, and the organization officially endorsed by each ward. Section 2-1 Tokyo Local Government Service Table 1 shows the government services for immigrants in Tokyo. Recently, the Tokyo government has begun having Tokyo residential Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Foreign worker's employee manual 2007~ prevent hiring of illegal immigration explain how to prevent hiring illegal immigrants Reception of foreign student from Peking and many other Asian cities. Propection of friendly relation between these students and the Japanese Employee situation reporting system 10.1.200 7~ management can submit a report to be collected and analysed for improvement the manager is required to report new hires, and when the employee leaves. They report name, VISA type, and how long they are staying in Japan. If they fail to report, they are fined up to $3000. Foreign resident meeting 1997~ They hold meetings to expand policy making Here requests and ideas are gathered from immigrants, and they try to improve the area for the immigrants Area Internationali zation 2001~ Discussions are held between immigrants and professional. They make decions on improvements to be implented Each year they have a different theme for area of improvement. They have discussions and make new policies throughout the year Establishmen t of Tokyo Area Disaster Information Center To prepare immigrants for major disasters occuring in Tokyo In the case of a major natural disaster, the state of Tokyo major will set up the Tokyo Disaster Center Measure Department, who will extinguish fires, help residents escape, treat injuries, and collect and give information.In addition, they will set up the Tokyo Area Disaster Information center for immigrant.Bilingual volunteers will assist in this process in this center. Foreign worker's handbook(En glish, Chinese) 11/2005 ~ prevention of problems from illegal immigrant workers six worker consulting information(enters are set up for employers and workers to discuss issues, laws, procedures, or get information) Management of Ota Memorial Hall after establish Friendship between Japanese and China 2002 Tokyo Internatinal Excange association 2005~ to promote international exchange, international corporation, and deepen mutual understanding by participation and connection of residents in Tokyo to provide information to promote international excange and international corporation. after collecting information from every International Exchange association and some nonprofit charity groups, they put the information on website. They also edit the magazines doe providing information. they exchange opinion with charity groups. They support some lectures for improving international relationship. They implement the project that immigrants are able to consult with some professionals about law, education, and medical treatment Tokyo resident corporation project aid 2004~ To stregthen the connection between the Japanese and other asians, making Tokyo a more comfortable place for immigrants Residents in this area are asked to assist in the project Promotion of International Exchange and International Corporation 2004~ To promote the international exchange and international corporation, and deepen international relations Distribution of literature encouraging the spread of enlightenment on how to promote international relations. They keep contact info and attempt to build relationships for mutual benefit. Table 1 Table 1 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  7. 7. 5 meetings for immigrants to improve the services provided to immigrants, and inform the immigrants of the services available to them. Some Liter- ature is distributed to the immigrants, such as Foreigner Worker Employ- ment Manual, to prevent illegal immigration, and the Foreigner Worker’s Handbook. The police department and the ministry of justice are con- cerned that the increase of government activity to help foreigners will also increase foreign criminal activity because of a higher immigrant popula- tion. Table 2 shows the organizations which are part of Tokyo International Exchange Association, and the services they provide. In April of 2003, the project of international exchange and International corporation were transferred from Tokyo International Foundation to To- kyo by becoming officially endorsed by the government. Tokyo sets Tokyo International Exchange Association in the office and begun to extend their services. The purpose of the association is to provide services to immi- grants, and deepen mutual understanding between Japanese residents and foreigners by hosting events which both Japanese and immigrants can attend. The number of registered foreigners by nationality Korean Brazillian American Indian Burmese British Minato Minato Minato Minato Minato Shinjuku Nakano Nakano Nakano Kita Adachi Adachi Adachi Ota Ota Setagaya Setagaya Setagaya Setagaya Edogawa EdogawaEdogawa Meguro Meguro Shibuya Shibuya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinagawa Koto Katsushika Figure 1-7 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008)  ●  ●  ● Chuo district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Minato district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Shinjuku district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Bunkyo district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Daito district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Shinagaw a district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Meguro district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Nakano district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Suginami district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Itabashi district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● Arakawa district  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ●  ● deepenmutual understanding, events international corporation, etc support foreigners Table 2 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  8. 8. 6 The Tokyo International exchange Association hosts meetings for mutual cooperation between the various organizations both inside the Association and out, and they make lists of organizations so that they will be able to contact each other. They also created the Foreigner Consulting department, for immigrants to talk about the problems they face. There are consulting windows for the immigrants to go to meet someone face to face, as well as events that immigrants can attend where they can meet a network of professionals for assistance. The Tokyo International Exchange Association also endeavored to promote the network. Section 2-2 Services for Immigrants in Each Ward Information on table 3 was collected by interview in the local government offices in each ward. There are not enough workers to handle the workload, so the services are restricted. There were only two people in some offices. Sometimes the wards work together with affiliated volunteer organizations or outsource services provided. The offices in each ward provide nearly the exact same services. As a result, they lack the ability to handle the unique needs of their district, which has a different population mix than other wards. Volunteer organizations usually operate independently, rather than in cooperation with other organizations. Creating a network to connect these organizations should be a priority for local government or. Section 2-3 Unique Services Figure 2-1 shows for unique services. All of them cater to the needs of the ward, rather than simoly mirroring the services of the other ward. Section 2-4 The Conclusion of Section 2 The services in Tokyo and in each ward are increasing. Tokyo is passing laws to make it clearer for employers to know how to hire foreign workers legally. The result should be an increase of employment of foreign work- ers. The government services in each ward is influenced by the number of workers in each department, the existence of affiliate organizations, and the number of foreign residents in each ward. The services in each ward are 日 本 語 教 室 団 体 の 活 動 を 記 載 さ れ た 物 を 置 く 多 言 語 で の 情 報 提 供 多 言 語 で の 便 利 帳 ・ 生 活 情 報 誌 の 発 行 国 際 交 流 イ ベ ン ト 通 訳 派 遣 日 本 の 伝 統 ホ ム ス テ イ 姉 妹 ・ 友 好 都 市 と の 交 流 ア ン ケ ト 調 査 相談窓口 の頻度(語 数) 区が設ける施設等 新宿区 2個 (財)新宿文化・国際 交流財団 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週5日( ) しんじゅく多文化共 生プラザ コリアンタウン(韓人 会、新宿ムクゲ会)、ロ シアクラブ、箪笥町フラ ンス人 江戸川区 0個 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週1日(2)多文化共生センターインド人会 足立区 0個 ● ● ● ● ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ● ● 週5日(3) 港区 74個 港区国際交流教会 ● ● ● ▲ ● 週3日(1 江東区 1個(教育 部) 江東区国際友好連 絡会(IFC) ▲ ● ● ▲ ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ● 週5日(3) 大田区 0個 ● ● ● ● ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ● 週2日(2)山王会館 板橋区 0個 (財)板橋区文化・国 際交流財団 交流課 ● ● ● ▲ ● 週2日(2) 世田谷区 5個 JCA (Japan Culture Association) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ▲ ● 週5日(3)国際交流会館 北区 0個 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週2日(2) 荒川区 0個 荒川区国際交流委 員会、多文化共生セ ンター ● ● ● ● ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ● 週1日(3) 葛飾区 0個 かつしかシンフォ ニーヒルズ(葛飾区 文化施設指定管理 者) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週1日(2) かつしかシンフォ ニーヒルズ 練馬区 0個 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週3日(2) 品川区 10個 品川区国際友好協 会 ● ● ● ● 週2日(2) 子連れグループ(東大 井) 渋谷区 19個 ● ● ● ● ● ● 週5日(1) 中野区 0個 中野区国際交流協 会(ANIC ● ● ● ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ● 週3日(2) 中野区国際交流 協会・商工会館 杉並区 0個 杉並区交流協会 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週1日(3) 台東区 1個 台東区国際(TICC ) ● ● ● ● ▲ ▲ ▲ ▲ ● 週1日(3) キムチ横丁、インド人 墨田区 0個 墨田区国際化推進 クラブ(SIPC) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 週1日(2) 目黒区 11個(主 にアフリ カ) 目黒区国際交流教 会(MIFA ) ● ● ● ● 週5日(4) 虹の会 文京区 0個 ぶんきょう多文化 ねっと ● ● ● ● 週2日(2) 中央区 1個 中央区文化・国際交 流振興協会 ● ● ● ● 千代田区 18個 千代田区男女共同 参画センターMIW (ミュウ) ● ● ● ● 豊島区 0個 国際交流ボランティ アfam、国際交流の おみこしを担ぐ会 ● ● ● ● ● 随時(1) 存在が確認されて いる外国人コミュニ ティ 区内の 大使館 の数 連携団体 区で行われている取り組み The number of embassy in a ward Cooperation Groups Approaches by a ward Existing foreigner communities found Institutions established by a ward 2 0 0 74 (educational division) 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 19 10 0 0 1 0 11 0 1 18 0 1 (Mainly African embassy) 5 days a week (3) Symbiotic mutial culture plaza koreantown (Kanjinkai, Shinjuku Mukuge kai), Russia Club,Tansu Town French Shinjuku Cultural Internation Change Fundation Minato Internatinal Change Church Koto International Friendship Coordination Committee 5 days a week(3) 5 days a week (3) 5 days a week(3) 5 days a week(1) 5 days a week(4) A day a week(2) A day a week (3) A day a week (2) A day a week(3) A day a week(3) A day a week(2) 2 days a week(2) 2 days a week(2) 2 days a week(2) 2 days a week(2) 2 days a week(2) 3 days a week(1) 3 days a week(2) 3 days a week(2) Symbiotic Mutial Culture Center Sano Hall Internatinal Change Hall Katsushika Symphony Hills Nakano Internatinal Change Association, Commerce and Industry Hall Indian Association Itabashi Culture Internation Change Fundation Exchange Department Japan Cultural Association Arakawa International Change Committee Symbiotic Mutial Culture Center Shinjuku Edogawa Adachi Minato Koto Ota Itabashi Setagaya Kita Arakawa Katsushika Nerima Shinagawa Shibuya Nakano Suginami Taito Sumida Meguro Bunkyo Chuo Chiyoda Toyoshima Katsushika Symphony Hills Shinagawa Internation Friendship Association Association for Nakano International Communication Suginami Exchange Association Taito International Communication Committee Sumida International Promotion Club Meguro International Friendship Association Bunkyo Multiple Cultural Net Chuo Cultural and Internatinal Exchange Association Man and Woman Cooperation and Particiation Center Volunteer of International Exchange fam Association pf Carring Portable Shrines of Internation Chgange Everyday (1) JapaneseClass ActivityReport Informationinmultiplelanguages Guideinmultiplelanguages InternationalCommunicationEvents DispatchofInterpretation JapaneseTradition HomeStay Interactionwithsistercities QuestionnaireSurvey ConsultationCounter (VarietyofLanduages) Table 3 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  9. 9. 7 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) very similar. There is a restriction of services in each ward due to a limited number of workers in each ward. Therefore, many of the services are out- sourced to nonprofit organizations. Section3 Foreign Community This section contains research and classification of the foreign community and the area they gather in. Section 3-1 Cluster by Nationality Figure 3-1 shows the relationship between the areas. Table 4 shows the dif- ferences between Indian and Korean immigrants: why they came to Japan, and the area they live in. Research indicates that immigrants from the same race tend to cluster together. The process of collecting date for this paper turned up three Korean cluster areas, two Indian cluster areas, and one France cluster areas. The areas which had Koreans had many signs written in Korean. Korean stores and restaurants were numerous in this area. However, the areas of the Indian communities looked similar to the rest of Japan, with only few Indian restaurants. This difference is related to their background and pur- pose. The establishment of a cluster area is influenced by the history and environment of that area. The development occurs over a long period of time and change gradual- ly, as similar people are attracted to the area. The exception is Edogawa 1 chome, where the Japanese forced the Koreans to move. Part of what makes a community develop is when acquaintances, friends and family move nearby. Even if a foreigner has no acquaintances, he is more likely to move near others of his race. The area of a cluster is an ideal target for advertise- ment for that race. Section 3-2 Community in The Wards Table 5 shows the basic information found in each community. The re- search is based on relatively new community because most of them are new communities in the wards. These communities actively seek to build rela- tionships with the Japanese community. There is a lot of demand for new Case1 Case2 Case3 Case4 Shinjuku Nerima Chuo Ota Symbiotic mutial culture plaza Circle Guide Book Onigiri Club Round Table Conference 10 Countries Guide Book Symbiotic mutial culture plaza100 Countries 107 Countries Establish Utili- zation Shinjuku Ward Circle Onigiri Club Make a rendezvous Information interchange Place for cultural exchange Lighthearted Place Demands Gathering Places Make links Circle Exchange of opinions Make a relationship LinkDispersion Figure 2-1 Communities Offering Target To an area that acquaintances live To an area that people who are same race live Foreigners Communities Collective residential quarters Factors of collective Human factor Environmental factor Facility factor Histrical factor Majority of foreigners belongs collective residential quarters Figure 3-1 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  10. 10. 8 communities due to immigration of foreigner of various nationalities. The immigrants of each community always have some purpose for coming to Japan, which means they have a need to interact with the Japanese people. Section 3-3 Distribution and Background of Method of Community Figure 3-2 shows the result of the analysis of the distribution and back- ground of immigrants from section 3-1 and 3-2. The factor of distribution and background of the establishment of the community is influenced by demand (needs of immigrants), and purpose of the community. People that place value on giving and receiving aid for daily life (borrowing a cup of sugar or asking information of stores, for example) tend to live near each other, whereas those that simply share a common purpose may not require this proximity. If a community was developed through advertisement, that its range depends on the content of the advertisement as well as how wide spread the advertisement is. The expansion of a Japanese initiated foreign community depends on the community’s purpose. For this reason, a Japa- nese community or one started through advertisement may or may not live close proximity to each other. Section 3-4 Outline of Clustered Areas in The Wards Table 6 shows the cluster areas found in the wards. Table 7 shows the current issues of Edogawa 1 chome. • There are several factors which play into how a cluster is formed. o Okubo-Korean Town Attractions to Koreans are a Korean clusters of Korean, a lot of churches, a good public transport system, and many Korean restaurants and stores. Many communities are formed here, such as the Kanjin community and Shinjuku mukuge community. o Kimuchi alley in Daito ward Many Koreans live here. There is a good public transport system and many Korean restaurants and markets. This is just one street in Daito ward. Both of these areas might expand in the future, as Koreans contine to move them. Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Background Distribution Factors Mutual-aid purpose Advertisement Purpose contents Advertisement purpose Formation by Japanese Range of advertisement Purpose of formation Methods of collection Mutual-aid life Range of demands Demand Purpose Background Collective residential quarter Figure 3-2 Indian permission of VISA Work changing environ ment small Koren old comer since the colonial Diverse Koren towns becomin big Table 4 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  11. 11. 9 o Indian community in Edogawa ward Indians gather here because of the Indian community, and a good public transport system. Most of the Indians here are IT technicians who work in the town of Ote, which is easily accessible train from West Kasai, Edogawa ward. This is the reason the Indian community initially began here. o Shinjuku-sasatsuka, French area The French gather here because of a Japanese-French school. Most of the French population is near the school. • Japanese created community: mandatory method This is a community formed when Japan forced immigrants to move. o Edagawa 1 chome in Koto ward Tokyo is developing the seaside and other areas nearby, but is currently making no improvements to this area, so the buildings and roads are old. Relations between Korean and Japanese resident in this area are favorable, so there is little need for themed communities to improve them. Edagawa 1 chome had three main issues, but only one remains. This issue is the need for a new school building. Part of issue is a need for re-zoning. Together, the Korean and Japanese residents made a formal demand for re-zoning. Section 3-5 Characteristics and Classification of Community and Clus- ter Areas Figure 3-3 shows the classification of communities and cluster area. The cluster areas are classified according to the process which established them. The cluster area establishment process can be broken into two methods: natural establishment and Japanese establishment (establishment forced by the Japanese government). The communities are also three methods: natural establishment, Japanese establishment (Japanese encourage to establish a foreign community), and advertisement. Section 3-6 Conclusion of Section 3 So now it is clear how cluster areas and communities are formed, and the relationship between the two has also been covered. Classification of clus- ter areas and communities is similar, but the content is different. The size Table 5 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) 国籍 名称 期間 区域 集合理由 形態 主な住民 交流 交流 度合 交流内容 コミュ ニ ティ 今後の 計画 韓人 会 新宿 ムクゲ 会 不明 仏学園の存在・交 通の便 教会・集合的居住 区域の存在・交通 の便 集合的居住区域 の存在 強制移住 交通の便・インド 人会の存在 不明 ※ピンク:複数のコミュニティが存在 消極 的 少な い 店に来た客 不明 仏学園では 防災訓練 (参加自 由) 不明 不明 江戸川区イ ンド人会 H12.8 ~ 江戸川区西 葛西(大) 区域 韓国 交流会・近 所との挨拶 インド ジュエリータ ウン 不明 台東区御徒 町の一角 (小) 区域 ニューカマー ニューカマー 消極 的 不明 区域 オールドカ マー 積極 的 韓国の分 会、日本の 町会に互い に出席 なし 学校を新 校舎に し、避難 地にする 少な い 通り 良好 短い 台東区昭和 通りの筋違 い(小) インド 人会 なし ニューカマー 積極 的 良好 1941~ 枝川1丁目 (小) ニューカマー 積極 的 区の会議 や日本の 町会に韓 国人が出 席 店に来た客 台東区キム チ横丁(親 善マーケッ ト) 江東区枝川 1丁目 今の状 態を保つ 不明 大久保韓国 人タウン 90年以 降増加 新宿区大久 保(大) 一部 良好 区域 フラン ス 新宿フランス 人 不明 箪笥町 区域 ニューカマー 積極 的 少な い Nationality Korea India French Shinjuku Ward Okubo District Newcomers Increase since 90’s Okubo Korean Town Positive Partially Good Attending Ward meetings and Japanese neigborhood association Existing conditions such as churches, collective residential district, transportation Kanjinkai ShunjukuMukugekai Unknown Taito Ward Kimchi side street Short A side street of Taito Ward Showa Street Collective residential district Side street Newcomers PassiveLittle Customers coming to the stores UnknownNo Koto Ward Edogawa 1 Chome 1941~ Edogawa 1 Chome Forced to live there District Oldcomers Positive Good No KoreanandJapaneseattendlocal KoreanbranchandJapanese neigborhoodassociationeachother The school-house will be newly built to make a port of distress Edogawa Ward Indian Society 8/2000~ Edogawa Ward Nishikatsushika West Existence of transportation services and Indian society District Newcomers Positive Good Cultural Exchange Meeting and greeting to neigbors Indian Society Keep the current condition Jewelry Town Unknown Part of Okachimachi, Taito Ward Unknown District Newcomers PassiveLittle Customers coming to the stores Unknown Unknown Shinjuku French Unknown Tansucho Existence of French School and transportation services District Newcomers PositiveLittle Unknown Unknown Emergency drill in the French school (free for all) Name Period District Gathering Reasons Form Main dwellers Interaction Degree of interaction Content of interaction Communities Future Plan Pink:There are multiple communities Table 6 issue 1 complete issue 2 complete issue 3 wait maintenance of a lot Table 7 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  12. 12. 10 Section 4 Themed Community Outline of a community and the method of establishment are both factors in how much interaction they have with the Japanese. Based on the classification of section 3, this section is an analysis of com- munities researched. Section 4-1 Themed Communities Table 8 shows the main summary of the communities researched. Table 9 shows how active a relationship they have with the Japanese. Their relationship with the Japanese varies greatly based on how they were formed and how big they are. Section 4-1-1 Natural Establishment Table 10 shows the background of members of communities formed by natural establishment: their demand a community, what it is that they need and why. Immigration law, and changes to it play a major factor in these communities because it controls the flow foreign populace enters the coun- try, they are looking for help, and communities are naturally formed. • Indian community in Edogawa ward (big, active with Japanese) Figure 4-1 shows the Indian community system and hoe it functions. The Indian community system is built on sharing information. Both infor- mation and questions are sent by email to all members on the distribution list simultaneously. Everyone reads it, and someone who knows the answer can respond. Indian community is there for work, and is therefore taking residence in Japan temporarily.as a result, there is a respectful distance maintained be- tween the Indian and Japanese residents, which eliminates a lot of friction. The Indian community is large due to a high demand for it. • AUN (small, active with Japanese) This is a collection of several small communities led by the Burmese community in Japan. Refugee Support Association is a nonprofit organiza- tion led by Japanese to assist this community. They hold workshops which leaders from about thirty small communities participated for the refugee populace where they can learn about medical services and the legal Communties CommuntiesType1 Natural Establishment Collective residential quarter Collective residential quarter Elements Elements Person Person EnvironmentPurpose Historical Background Historical Background Typology was method of forming How communities have been established and how collective residential quarters have been established are different Only communities Making Flyers and putting them on many places Type3 Advertisement Type2 Japanese Establishment Forced movement Foreigners invited Collective residential quarterForeignersJapanese Communities Forced movement Collective residential quarter Compellation Invitation Formation of a community The method of forming is ①’s contents Range of recruitment Appeal to foreignersIt is formed by purpose of Japanese people Community establish ment has one extra type which is the advertisement Figure 3-3 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) AUN unknown unknown mutual assistanc AUN is dividing into smaller groups. It is made of many races, making it difficult to remain as a single group Indian Commun less 30 about 200 mutual assistanc Indian community supports its members in daily life. The Indian in the Edogawa district came to Japan for work. The Japanese establish Shinjuku- Mukuge 20's 10 introduc e culture The mambers come and go. Community continues as Koreans who want to teach are added to the group natural establish ment advertise ment Niji communi 40 to 50 27 introduc eand Doho communi unknown Nerima rememb er Made mainly of naturalized citizens who are trying to remember the chinese culture and language Made mainly of Korean housewives. They are familiar with both Korean and Japanese culture Table 8 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  13. 13. 11 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) situation in Japan. The community primarily consists of Burmese, but is open to all foreigners. The refugees have to keep their whereabouts secret from their home country, so information is difficult to get from them. this limits the assistance they can get from the refugee support association. Section 4-1-2 Japanese Establishment • Shinjuku-Mukuge community(small, active with Japanese) In the Yotsuya ward center, a Japanese teacher working as a volunteer asked the Korean students if they wanted to teach Korean to the Japanese. The students discussed it with their friends, and a community was created where Koreans began teaching the Korean language to Japanese. In February of 2007, they named the community Mukuge community. They begun a trial class, which consisted of 10. The trial was a success, so they had a second series of sessions from December of 2007 to March of 2008. Section 4-1-3 Advertisement • Niji community(small, active with Japanese) This community was organized by Korean women in Japan. These women come to Japan for marriage or work, or were born in Japan. The group is for Korean women who feel lonely, helpless, or just want to participate in some activity. Common activities include socializing with Japanese people, socializing with other immigrants, going to events, or studying together. Advertisement for this community is in the Ota and Minato wards, well as Kawasaki city. Most of the members live in the Ota ward and Kawasaki city. There are plans to expand the future. • Doho community(small, active with Japanese) This is a community of Chinese immigrants who gather to consult each other and have lectures for the purpose of remembering China. 日本人からにくい 消極的交流 日本人との交流 積極的交流 大規模 広く周囲から認知されてい るため交流が盛んである 小規模・自然形成コミュニティからのアプロー チがないと接触は難しい 日本人形成 形成時から日本人が関わっ ているため 募集 募集しているため区などが 把握している場合が高い Interaction with Japanese Possitive Interaction Passive Interaction A large scale Japanese Establishment It is widely known, therefore, they have good relationship with Japanese Advertisement A small scale Natural establishment Japanese has been involved since it was established They are advertised, therefore, it is highly possiblethe city recognize them. It is hard to find them It is hard to be in contact if there is no approach from them Table 9 Indian 2000 Burmese 2004 issue new type of VISA(to IT technicians )new environment improvement of refugee laws support refugees and membe Table 10 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  14. 14. 12 Section 4-2 Conclusion of Section 4 Figure 4-2 shows an analysis of the community’s and cluster area’s size and interchange with Japan. The size and activity of each group depends on the people’s background, purpose, and demand, as these three things are the biggest factors deter- mining the identity of the community or cluster area. The purpose affects how actively the group communicates with Japanese, the demand affects the size of the group, and the background affects both. Government administrative policy is a major influence on the foreign com- munity. Section 5 Analysis of Foreign Community and The Issues Which Occur This section will discuss the issues arising between the Japanese and the foreiners, and the existing services to deal with them. Section 5-1 Comparison of The Korean Cluster Areas Figure 5-1, 5-2, and 5-3 show Korean stores in Okubo Korean town, Kimuchi alley in Daito ward, and Edagawa 1 chome. A comparison of the Okubo and Daito areas reveals a big difference in the type of stores found because of a different history and land characteristics. Edagawa 1 chome is unique because it has a unique history, as the Koreans were forced to move to the area. The buildings here have unique characteristics, there is a lot of municipal housing here, as well as very old style homes and floor coverings (a row house with ten-tatami ). The building codes (coverage ratio) were ignored, and the area is generally crowded. Section 5-2 The Issue of Concession, or Right of Use of Land in Edagawa 1 Chome, in Koto Ward Figure 5-4 shows the problem area in Edagawa 1 chome. In 1995, Tokyo was going to make improvements to the area, including maintenance, but the issue of the right of concession arose. In 2000 the Japanese government put the land up for sale at 7 % of the value. In 2003, Tokyo demolished part of the Tokyo Korean #2 elementary school building, because part of the building was on land belonging to Tokyo, and Tokyo required the use of Asking questions through emal Asking questions through emal Indian Society Questioners Questioners Respondents Figure 4-1 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Demand PurposeBackground Communities Collective residential quarter Size Interaction Figure 4-2 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  15. 15. 13 Kimchi Grill Korean food Korean clothes+folcraft products+small articles Grill+Korean food Church Multiple (eat and drink) Beauty+clothes Bar+Club Food(sign in Hangul) Service Obscure (sign in Hangul) Multiple Deaprtment store+duty free store Facilities Real estate+apartment Others Figure 5-1 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Kimchi(side dishes) Grill Korean food Buchimgae Meet sales Grill+food Korean clothes+folk handicraft products+small articleKimchisidestreet Figure 5-2 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  16. 16. 14 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) Grill Beauty Municipal housing Korean food Side dishes Tokyo Korean Secondary Elementary School Figure 5-3 1941 1945 1945~ 2000 2007 The land which is targeted for the trial Property The land which was not sold in 2000 Figure 5-4 Result of Questionnaires in Shinjuku Ward Non- response Non- response Non- response Participated Participated Participated Never participated Never participated Never participated Activities of PTA and/or Parent’s association Events of neighborhood associationEvents of racial groups and/or events host by foreigners from the same country Figure 5-5 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  17. 17. 15 Foreign Communities in JapanThe States of Foreign Communities in Japanese Society ~In the 23 Wards of Tokyo~ (2008) the land. Tokyo filed a suit against the Korean school for compensation for use of the land, as the contract for use of the land ended in 1990, and no payments had been made since that time. The suit was for 400,000,000 yen, the quivalent of $4,000,000. The frial continued for 3 years and 3 minths, during which the media widely covered the issue in both Japan and Korea, gaining the support of the Japanese and Korean people for the school. In 2007, a settlement was reached for 170,000,000 yen, or $1,700,000, which the school paid. Section 5-3 Contact Between The Foreign Community and The Sur- rounding Japanese Residents Table 11 shows the main problems foreigners have in Japan. Interview research indicated friendly relations between the foreign com- munity and the Japanese, as they greet each other warmly. The Shinjuku ward wanted their foreign and domestic residents to have a symbiotic relationship, so they conducted research to determine how the Japanese residents and the immigrants viewed each other. They determined that the foreign residents felt a lot of prejudice from the Japanese in many situations. In addition, the Japanese felt that the immigrants were bad mannered and had many criminals. A questionnaire distributed to both the Japanese and foreign populace yielded many inconsistencies in the answers. Section 5-4 Government Administration and Community Figure 5-5 shows the result of a questionnaire regarding events in Shinjuku for immigrants. The services for immigrants in Shinjuku are increasing, but there is little awareness of these services, so participation is low. Niji community have been refused to put advertisements for the community in some offices. Section 5-5 Conclusion of Section 5 In this section, the results of the Japanese and foreign relationship is clari- fied. Foreigners tend to view Japan as the coldest country. There are many problems that immigrants face, and prejudices to overcome. The govern- ment administration is increasing services and attempting to consider immigrant problems, but immigrants are fairly ignorant of the available services. Section 6 Overall Conclusion These are the topics which were covered and clarified in this paper Overall situation of immigrants was explained by increasing number of im- migrants, background of immigrants, and cluster areas. The problems government administration has were defined by government administrative services, the service of each ward, and the service of each nonprofit organization. The found communities and cluster areas of background, purpose of estab- lishment, details, size, activity, etc, and distribution were cleared, and the characteristics of the methods of establishment were shown. The characteristics of each community were compared by classification, and the factors related to size and activities in each community were prov- en. Each cluster areas were compared, and the problems between Japanese and foreigners were shown. The government administration and communities were analyzed, and the relationship between foreign communities and Japan were defined. they are required to carry the a certification ofresistration they are required to be fingerprinted(1992 it was repealed in part ofarea 、1999 it was competely repealed) the right to vote Table 11 Foreign Communities in Tokyo, Japan
  18. 18. 16 This project has been done for Lincoln/Lancaster County Planning Depart- ment. • http://lincoln.ne.gov/city/plan/reports/reports/Rpt.pdf • http://lincoln.ne.gov/city/plan/reports/reports/App.pdf Lancaster County/Lincoln The population both in Lancaster county and in Lincoln has been increas- ing. The percentage difference in age groups between 2000 and 2010 in Lin- coln and Lancaster County, Nebraska The population of older people has been obviously increased. The popula- tion of young people has been increased as well. Generation X and Y are visible here, as well as the echo boom of Generation Y. 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 Comparison of Age Distribution ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 0 5,000 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 Comparison of Age Distribution ~Lincoln 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 Year Total Population Total Change Ten Yr. Annualized Change Ten Percent Change Ten 1960 155,272 Growth in 1960's 12,700 1,270 0.79% 1970 167,972 Growth in 1970's 24,912 2,491 1.39% 1980 192,884 Growth in 1980's 20,757 2,076 1.03% 1990 213,641 Growth in 1990's 36,650 3,665 1.60% 2000 250,291 Growth in 2000's 35,116 3,512 1.32% 2010 285,407 10 Year 35,116 3,512 1.32% 20 Year 71,766 3,588 1.46% 30 Year 92,523 3,084 1.31% 40 Year 117,435 2,936 1.33% 50 Year 130,135 2,603 1.22% Growth Rates: Year Total Population Total Change Ten Yr. Annualized Change Ten Percent Change Ten 1960 128,521 Growth in 1960's 20,997 2,100 1.52% 1970 149,518 Growth in 1970's 22,414 2,241 1.41% 1980 171,932 Growth in 1980's 20,040 2,004 1.11% 1990 191,972 Growth in 1990's 33,609 3,361 1.63% 2000 225,581 Growth in 2000's 32,798 3,280 1.37% 2010 258,379 10 Year 32,798 3,280 1.37% 20 Year 66,407 3,320 1.50% 30 Year 86,447 2,882 1.37% 40 Year 108,861 2,722 1.38% 50 Year 129,858 2,597 1.41% Growth Rates: Lancaster County Lancaster County Lincoln Lincoln Baby Boomers Baby Boomers -20.0% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% Comparison of Age Distribution ~Percent Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln Baby Boomers Generation X Generation Y Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  19. 19. 17 Race According to Census Bureau, “Some Other Race” includes all other re- sponses not included in the White, Black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander race categories described above. Respondents reporting entries such as multiracial, mixed, interracial, or a Hispanic or Latino group (for example, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, or Spanish) in response to the race question are included in this category. Comparison of Race The racial majority Lancaster County and Lincoln is white. The percent change by race between 2000 and 2010 However, if you look at the percent change of race, you can see which races has been rapidly increased. Two more race could be increased quickly because it would be any mixed races. Therefore, whoever got married with another race, their child would be two or more races. As long as Some Other Race has such a big change, we need to know what is the majority in Some Other races because there might be new race which influences on the majority of race alone. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparison of Race ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparison of Race ~Lincoln 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 225,426 90.1% 7,052 2.8% 1,599 0.6% 7,162 2.9% 149 0.1% 4,225 1.7% 4,678 1.9% Comparison of Race ~Lancaster County 2000~ White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races 248,615 87.1% 9,920 3.5% 2,140 0.7%9,961 3.5% 150 0.1% 6,736 2.4% 7,885 2.8% Comparison of Race ~Lancaster County 2010~ White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races 10.3% 40.7% 33.8% 39.1% 0.7% 59.4% 68.6% 10.4% 41.1% 34.9% 38.7% 4.3% 61.0% 70.6% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparisonof Race ~Percent Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  20. 20. 18 Comparison of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino The population of Hispanic or Latino has been increasing. It has nearly doubled in the last ten years. The percent change by Hispanic or Latino (any race) and each ethnical categories of Not Hispanic or Latino between 2000 and 2010 One of the reasons American Indian and Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, and Some Other Race have increased is the His- panic or Latino population. As a result, the increment of these three races is much higher than increment of these three races which is not Hispanic or Latino. On the contrary, the Asian is less likely to be Hispanic or Latino than other races. According to Census Bureau, nationally, ninety seven percent of Some Other Race is Hispanic or Latino. We can probably say the majority in Some Other Race in Lincoln and Lancaster County is Hispanic or Latino because there are huge difference in percent change between Some Other Race including Hispanic Latino and Some Other Race which is Not His- panic or Latino. 10.3% 40.7% 33.8% 39.1% 0.7% 59.4% 68.6% 10.4% 41.1% 34.9% 38.7% 4.3% 61.0% 70.6% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparison of Race ~Percent Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln 95.6% 8.4% 40.7% -4.3% 48.0% -42.5% 30.7% 63.4% 95.0% 8.5% 41.8% -3.4% 46.6% -42.6% 29.8% 66.2% -60.0% -40.0% -20.0% 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% 120.0% Hispanic or Latino (any race) White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparisonof Hispanic or Latinoand not Hispanic or Latino Percent Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln (NotHispanic orLatino) 8,532 222,097 6,851 1,750 6,685 228 290 3,858 16,685 240,702 9,636 1,674 9,895 131 379 6,305 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Hispanic or Latino (any race) White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparison of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 (Not Hispanicor Latino) 8,532 3.4% 222,097 88.7% 6,851 2.7% 1,750 0.7% 6,685 2.7% 228 0.1% 290 0.1% 3,858 1.5% Comparisonof Hispanic or Latinoand not Hispanic or Latino ~Lancaster 2000~ Hispanic or Latino (any race) White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races NotHispanicorLatino 8,299 197,951 6,729 1,667 6,622 223 272 3,679 16,182 214,739 9,541 1,611 9,711 128 353 6,114 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 Hispanic or Latino (any race) White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Comparison of Hispanic or Latino and not Hispanic or Latino ~Lincoln 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 (Not Hispanicor Latino) 16,685 5.8% 240,702 84.3% 9,636 3.4% 1,674 0.6% 9,895 3.5% 131 0.0% 379 0.1% 6,305 2.2% Comparisonof Hispanic or Latinoand not Hispanic or Latino ~Lancaster 2010~ Hispanic or Latino (any race) White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races NotHispanicorLatino Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  21. 21. 19 Age and Race Comparison White: The age distribution of the White population is nearly the same as the total population because it is the majority race. The peak of age co- hort is 20 to 24. As you saw, eighty seven percent of the total population is white. This would be largely due to the college population, but also coin- cides with the Generation Y boom which in general is more pronounced among the White population. Black: The Black population has more younger people and fewer older people than the age distribution of total population. American Indian and Alaska Native: This is a similar trend to the Black population. Asian: The peak of age distribution is 20 to 29 because there are many Asian college students, many of which are from abroad. It seems like there are many Asians like me studying in grad school. 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ White Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Black or African American Total White: The Median Age for the White Population is 34.3 years old The Median Age for the Total Population is 32.6 years old The Median Age for the Black or African American Pop- ulation is 26.6 years old 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover Age Comparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ American Indian and Alaska Native Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Asian Total The Median Age for the Ameri- can Indian and Alaska Native Population is 26.8 years old The Median Age for the Asian Population is 28.6 years old Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) The population of not white has been increasing since about 40 years ago. Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  22. 22. 20 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Some Other Race Total The Median Age for the Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Pop- ulation is 30.3 years old The Median Age for the Some Other Race Popu- lation is 24.9 years old The Median Age for the Total Population is 32.6 years old Age and Race Comparison Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander: This age distribution is interesting because this is a really sporadic distribution with very little pat- tern. Other races were similar to the age distribution of total population, but this is totally different. This is largely due to the extremely small Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander population; just a few people or fami- lies can make a very large impact when the come or go. Some Other Race: The population of Some Other Race has a unique popu- lation curve with two waves. Two or More Races: The population of Two or More Races is very young and follows a natural curve. 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% 16.0% 18.0% 20.0% 22.0% 24.0% 26.0% 28.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Two or More Races Total The Median Age for the Two or More Races Population is 13.8 years old 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Raceand TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Total Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  23. 23. 21 Age Distribution of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino Hispanic or Latino: The Hispanic or Latino population is young compared to the total population. There are 2,278 people in Lancaster County in the Hispanic or Latino under 5 age cohort, which represent 13.7% of the total Hispanic or Latino population in Lancaster County for 2010. White (Not Hispanic or Latino): Due to the size of this population, it is very similar to the distribution of total population. However, there is a lower percentage of young people and slightly higher percentage of older people. Black (Not Hispanic or Latino): This is as same as the age distribution of black or African American. American Indian and Alaska Native (Not Hispanic or Latino): This shows young American Indian and Alaska Native are likely Hispanic or Latino. Younger population of American Indian and Alaska Native which is not Hispanic or Latino is much lower than younger population of Amer- ican Indian and Alaska Native. 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Hispanic or Latino Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ White(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Black or African American(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ American Indian and Alaska Native(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total The Median Age for the Hispanic or Latino Pop- ulation is 23.2 years old The Median Age for the White/Not His- panic or Latino Population is 34.8 years old The Median Age for the Black or African American/Not Hispanic or Latino Popu- lation is 26.9 years old The Median Age for the American Indi- an and Alaska Native/Not His- panic or Latino Population is 29.0 years old The Median Age for the Total Population is 32.6 years old Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  24. 24. 22 Age Distribution of Hispanic or Latino and Not Hispanic or Latino Asian (Not Hispanic or Latino): The percent change of Asian not Hispan- ic or Latino, population is much higher than the percent change of Asian population. Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (Not Hispanic or Latino): This also shows younger population of Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander is likely Hispanic or Latino. Some Other Race:Younger age distribution in some other race is much lower than younger age distribution in some other race, not Hispanic or Latino, even though there are many people who are some other race , His- panic or Latino. 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Asian(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total 0.0% 2.0% 4.0% 6.0% 8.0% 10.0% 12.0% 14.0% under5 5to9 10to14 15to19 20to24 25to29 30to34 35to39 40to44 45to49 50to54 55to59 60to64 65to69 70to74 75to79 80to84 85andover AgeComparison between Ethnicity and TotalPopulation ~Percentin each cohortLancaster County 2010~ Some Other Race(Not Hispanic or Latino) Total The Median Age for the Asian/Not His- panic or Latino Population is 28.7 years old The Median Age for the Native Hawai- ian and Other Pacific Islander/ Not Hispanic or Latino Popu- lation is 31.2 years old The Median Age for the Some Other Race/Not His- panic or Latino Population is 21.9 years old The Median Age for the Two or More Races/ Not Hispanic or Latino Popula- tion is 13.7 years old Two or More Races: The age distribution of Two or More Races is almost same as Two or More Races, Not Hispanic or Latino. The races which have higher percent change in past ten years seems to be distributed by younger population. This result makes us think there would be much more these races in our future. In addition, any races except white has younger median age than the median age of total population. And the younger median age of a race is the higher percent change they will have. Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  25. 25. 23 Hispanic or Latino Population The majority of Mexican has become stronger among the origin of His- panic or Latino population. Central American has been increasing a lot as Hispanic or Latino origin likely due to smaller numbers in 2000 relative to Mexican. According to Adriana Garcia’s report, Non-Hispanic whites will become a minority in the United States by 2050. She said “Of the 117 mil- lion people added to the population in this period due to the effect of new immigration, 67 million will be the immigrants themselves and 50 million will be their U.S.-born children or grandchildren,” the study said. Accord- ing to Censes Data, this is already happening in California. The population of not Hispanic or Latino white in California is 14,956,253. the total pop- ulation in California is 37,253,956. Not Hispanic or Latino white popula- tion is only forty percent of the total population in California. According to CBS NEWS, “as recently as 1970, non-Hispanic whites accounted for nearly 80 percent of the state’s population.” United States has followed this trend. And we are obviously able to see this trend in Lincoln and Lancaster County as well. But there are still strong white majority in Lincoln and Lancaster County. 65.1%3.9% 1.7% 0.2% 4.9% 3.7% 20.5% Originfor the Hispanic or Latinopopulation ~Lancaster County 2000~ Mexican Puerto Rican Cuban Dominican (Dominican Republic) Central American (excludes Mexican) South American Other Hispanic or Latino 74.4% 3.0% 1.4% 0.3% 8.8% 4.3% 7.8% Originfor the Hispanic or Latinopopulation ~Lancaster County 2010~ Mexican Puerto Rican Cuban Dominican (Dominican Republic) Central American (excludes Mexican) South American Other Hispanic or Latino -50% 0% 50% 100% 150% 200% 250% 300% Mexican PuertoRican Cuban Dominican (Dominican Republic) CentralAmerican (excludesMexican) SouthAmerican OtherHispanicor Latino Comparison of Origin for the Hispanic or Latinoby Percent Change between Lincoln and LancasterCounty Lancaster County Lincoln Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  26. 26. 24 Housing Characteristics Part One The non-institutionalized Group Quarters population has been growing and scattering throughout the community. Much of this has been due to the new student housing at UNL and Nebraska Wesleyan since 2000. Population in Group Quarters has increased more in Lincoln than in Lancaster County. Non-family households will likely continue to increase in the future based on trends. We do not see much change of household size and family size between 2000 and 2010. There were much more change between 1990 and 2000. 0.0% 5.0% 10.0% 15.0% 20.0% Total Institutionalized Non-institutionalized In Group Quarters ~Percent Change Comparison between Lincoln and Lancaster County~ Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Total 250,291 225,581 285,407 258,379 35,116 32,798 14.0% 14.5% Total 238,094 213,938 271,591 244,800 33,497 30,862 14.1% 14.4% Total 12,197 11,643 13,816 13,579 1,619 1,936 13.3% 16.6% Institutionalized 4,061 3,689 4,320 4,236 259 547 6.4% 14.8% Non-institutionalized 8,136 7,954 9,496 9,343 1,360 1,389 16.7% 17.5% in Group Quarters In Households Housing Characteristics Household Population Change between 2000 and 2010 2000 2010 Absolute Percentage(%) 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 2000 2010 Total 250,291 285,407 72.9 72.0 22.3 23.1 4.9 4.8 12,197 13,816 4,061 4,320 8,136 9,496 CT 2000 1.00 3,745 3,364 73.6 70.2 25.7 29.1 0.7 0.7 27 23 0 0 27 23 2.01 4,604 4,654 77.6 73.8 22.4 25.9 0 0.4 0 17 0 17 0 0 2.02 4,376 4,351 51.3 54.8 33.1 25.9 15.6 19.3 682 839 0 0 682 839 3.00 3,695 3,352 60.9 65.8 39.1 34.2 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4.00 5,124 5,145 70.4 71.9 28.6 27.8 1 0.3 51 16 0 0 51 16 5.00 1,495 1,648 34.4 29.7 60.7 56.3 4.8 14.0 72 230 0 0 72 230 6.00 5,035 6,413 0.5 0.0 1 0.0 98.5 100.0 4,960 6,410 0 0 4,960 6,410 7.00 2,752 2,570 47.9 46.8 42.3 46.5 9.8 6.7 270 171 0 52 270 119 8.00 3,752 3,497 68.3 73.9 31.3 26.1 0.3 0.1 13 2 10 0 3 2 9.00 3,946 3,749 55.6 53.7 32.7 34.8 11.7 11.5 463 430 7 0 456 430 10.00 8,033 7844 66.4 67.5 31.8 32.2 1.8 0.3 145 23 67 16 78 7 11.00 7,286 8,011 86.3 85.0 13.7 15.0 0 0.1 0 5 0 0 0 5 12.00 6,040 6,155 82.4 80.5 17.5 19.5 0.1 0.0 4 2 0 0 4 2 13.01 3,869 3,669 73.2 73.0 26.8 25.8 0 1.1 0 42 0 25 0 17 13.02 3,007 2,900 86.9 82.9 13.1 17.1 0 0.1 0 2 0 0 0 2 14.00 4,899 4,694 71.5 70.6 24.7 25.1 3.8 4.2 185 198 185 189 0 9 15.00 4,745 4,612 70.7 73.2 25 23.0 4.4 3.8 208 176 104 109 104 67 16.00 5,889 5,712 72.5 74.2 27.3 25.6 0.1 0.2 8 12 0 0 8 12 17.00 5,348 4,949 52.2 57.8 45.5 41.7 2.3 0.6 121 28 96 5 25 23 18.00 2,021 1,715 55.8 51.0 43.3 42.9 0.9 6.1 18 105 0 0 18 105 19.00 941 993 13.7 14.3 41.8 47.3 44.5 38.4 419 381 0 0 419 381 20.00 5,554 5266 36.6 40.8 59.4 51.9 4 7.2 222 381 214 302 8 79 21.00 2,160 2,148 70.8 76.9 28.9 22.2 0.2 1.0 5 21 0 0 5 21 22.00 5,751 5,504 61 66.2 34 28.8 5 5.0 286 273 286 272 0 1 23.00 6,203 6,013 70.5 70.3 29.2 27.4 0.3 2.3 21 140 0 103 21 37 24.00 3,585 3,098 79.3 86.7 10.6 13.3 10.1 0.0 361 0 361 0 0 0 25.00 5,449 5,311 76.5 76.2 23.3 23.8 0.2 0.1 9 3 0 0 9 3 27.01 3,278 3,168 58.1 58.0 25.6 27.6 16.2 14.4 532 457 0 27 532 430 27.02 5,742 5,394 82 80.8 14.5 17.2 3.5 2.0 201 108 153 108 48 0 28.00 5,436 5,131 75.5 75.5 24.5 24.5 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 29.00 2,469 4,968 56.9 59.4 41.7 40.6 1.4 0.1 35 3 0 0 35 3 30.01 3,819 6,748 82 79.5 18 20.4 0 0.1 0 6 0 0 0 6 30.02 3,565 3,345 72.5 71.8 27.4 28.0 0.1 0.1 3 5 0 0 3 5 30.03 4,685 4,947 78.2 79.1 20.1 19.4 1.7 1.5 78 75 0 63 78 12 31.01 7,805 7508 73.4 78.1 26.6 21.9 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 31.02 5,331 5,900 84.4 85.4 15.6 14.6 0 0.0 2 0 0 0 2 0 32.01 246 165 0.8 2.4 1.2 0.6 98 97.0 241 160 241 160 0 0 32.02 3,355 3,156 88.7 91.2 11.3 8.8 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 33.00 4,404 7949 74.7 70.8 25.3 28.9 0 0.3 0 24 0 12 0 12 34.00 7,479 12021 72.9 75.1 17.4 14.8 9.7 10.1 726 1,212 719 1,212 7 0 35.00 222 212 0 0.0 0 0.0 100 100.0 222 212 187 212 35 0 36.04 1,802 2,787 88.2 90.7 11 8.6 0.8 0.7 14 19 0 0 14 19 36.05 (36.01) 4,754 4,678 61.3 61.8 13.2 12.8 25.5 25.4 1,214 1,187 1,214 1,183 0 4 36.06 3,057 7064 81.3 86.9 18.7 13.1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37.04 5,363 5,254 69.2 71.6 30.7 28.3 0.1 0.1 5 3 0 0 5 3 37.06 5,332 5,864 79.9 74.0 18.4 24.1 1.7 2.0 90 116 85 111 5 5 37.07 6,205 7,660 92.1 86.0 7.7 13.9 0.2 0.2 12 12 12 0 0 12 37.08 4,164 4,121 85.9 81.9 14.1 18.1 0 0.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 37.09 5,543 5,008 89.6 86.6 10.2 13.3 0.1 0.1 7 5 0 0 7 5 37.10 4,169 7605 92.2 89.3 7.8 10.0 0 0.8 0 58 0 58 0 3 37.11 2,143 4539 95 93.6 4.6 6.4 0.4 0.1 9 3 0 0 9 0 37.12 4,466 9756 90.9 88.8 8.7 10.9 0.4 0.3 16 32 16 0 0 32 38.01 4,509 4,684 83.3 79.0 16.6 20.9 0 0.1 2 3 0 0 2 3 38.02 3,007 2,990 86.4 85.2 13.6 14.8 0 0.0 1 0 0 0 1 0 101.00 4,999 6,030 90.1 90.4 8.9 8.7 1 0.8 50 50 50 50 0 0 102.00 4,190 7742 88.5 81.2 8.4 18.4 3.2 0.3 133 25 0 0 133 25 103.00 3,238 3,855 88.4 89.2 11.6 8.8 0 2.0 0 77 0 0 0 77 104.00 6,210 7,821 90 90.7 9.1 8.9 0.9 0.4 54 34 54 34 0 0 Total Popultion Group Quarters Population Total Institutionalized Population Noninstitutionali zed Population LancasterCounty In Households In Families Nonfamily Householders and Non-Relatives of Householder In Group Quarters Percent of Total Population Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Total 99,187 90,485 113,373 103,546 14,186 13,061 14.3% 14.4% Family household 60,702 53,580 68,210 60,300 7,508 6,720 12.4% 12.5% Non-family household 38,485 36,905 45,163 43,246 6,678 6,341 17.4% 17.2% Household Characteristics Household Population Change between 2000 and 2010 2000 2010 Absolute Percentage(%) Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Lancaster County Lincoln City Average household size 2.40 2.36 2.40 2.36 0.00 0.00 0.0% 0.0% Average family size 3.00 2.99 3.01 3.01 0.01 0.02 0.3% 0.7% Household Characteristics Average Size (Mean) Change between 2000 and 2010 2000 2010 Absolute Percentage(%) Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  27. 27. 25 Housing Characteristics Part Two The number of housing units has been increasing, therefore, the occupied housing units also has increased. However, the percentage of vacant hous- ing units has increased. Both renter occupied units and owner occupied units have increased because the number of occupied housing units has also increased. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 2000 2010 99,187 113,373 5,030 7,502 Housing Occupancy Characteristics Comparison ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ Vacant housing units Occupied housing units 95.2% 93.8% 4.8% 6.2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2000 2010 Housing Occupancy CharacteristicsComparison ~Lancaster County 2000 and 2010~ Vacant housing units Occupied housing units 59,990 69,309 39,197 44,064 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 2000 2010 TotalOcuupiedHousingUnits OcuupiedHousing Characteristics Comparison ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ Renter occupied Owner occupied 60.5% 61.1% 39.5% 38.9% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 2000 2010 Occupied Housing Characteristics Comparison ~Lancaster County 2000 - 2010~ Renter occupied Owner occupied Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County
  28. 28. 26 Households Characteristics The majority of Householders are White, but there have been significant increases in other Householders. Minority Householders are increasing more rapidly than White. It is also worth noting here that the “White” (and all other populations) includes Hispanic or Latino, so their increases are even less than indicated on these graphs. More than half of householders do not have a spouse. The economic situation in America may be a factor of influence on these changes.It appears that some people have started living together with their grand parents, parents, grand children and other relatives. The relationship between households and people living within households has become more complex. While this appears to be a new trend in habitation in Lincoln and Lancaster County, this increase is still only small in number. It is difficult to predict how this trend may or may not continue with the uncertainty of the economy. 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Hispanic or Latino 92,098 2,275 460 2,085 41 1,124 1,104 2,326 103,056 3,196 669 2,981 50 1,902 1,519 4,475 Householder Race inOccupiedHousing Units ~Lancaster County~ 2000 2010 Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Lancaster County Lincoln Total Housing Units 104,217 95,199 120,875 110,546 16,658 15,347 16.0% 16.1% Total Householders 99,187 90,485 113,373 103,546 14,186 13,061 14.3% 14.4% White 92,098 83,515 103,056 93,381 10,958 9,866 11.9% 11.8% Black or African American 2,275 2,258 3,196 3,171 921 913 40.5% 40.4% American Indian and Alaska Native 460 444 669 653 209 209 45.4% 47.1% Asian 2,085 2,060 2,981 2,950 896 890 43.0% 43.2% Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 41 41 50 49 9 8 22.0% 19.5% Some Other Race 1,124 1,099 1,902 1,867 778 768 69.2% 69.9% Two or More Races 1,104 1,068 1,519 1,475 415 407 37.6% 38.1% Hispanic or Latino 2,326 2,275 4,475 4,365 2,149 2,090 92.4% 91.9% Occupied housing units Household Characteristics Number Change between 2000 and 2010 2000 2010 Absolute Percentage(%) 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 White Black or African American American Indian and Alaska Native Asian Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander Some Other Race Two or More Races Hispanic or Latino Comparisonof Race ~Householder Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln 0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0% White BlackorAfrican American AmericanIndianand AlaskaNative Asian NativeHawaiianand OtherPacificIslander SomeOtherRace TwoorMoreRaces HispanicorLatino Comparison of Householder Race ~Percent Change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 Householder Spouse Under18years 18yearsandover Grandchild Brotherorsister Parent Otherrelativesof householder Housemateor roommate Unmarriedpartner Othernonrelatives Comparisonof Household Relationship ~PopulationLancaster 2000 - 2010~ 2000 2010 Child Nonrelative of householder 0.0% 10.0% 20.0% 30.0% 40.0% 50.0% 60.0% 70.0% 80.0% Householder Spouse Under18years 18yearsandover Grandchild Brotherorsister Parent Otherrelativesof householder Housemateor roommate Unmarriedpartner Othernonrelatives Comparisonof Household Relationship ~percent change 2000 - 2010~ Lancaster County Lincoln Child Nonrelative of householder Census ReportThe Census Report Lancaster County/ City of Lincoln (2011) Census Report City of Lincoln/Lancaster County

×