1U.S. - JAPAN ALLIANCE:ASSESSMENT AND PROSPECTS
2Question• What is the article5 in The alliance of U.S- Japan. • Secretary of State Hillary Clinton “Our alliance with Japan remains the cornerstone of American engagement with the region,” Jan 18, 2013• Why Japan and the U.S. government emphasis on alliance and Treaty article5?
31945-1950• “Truman Doctrine”…Communism “containment”• The U.S. decided to make Japan production plant of western countries.• During the China and Soviet opposed holding “A Peace preliminary conference with Japan”, Director of Policy Planning G.F. Kennan intervened occupation policy of Japan. Kennan claimed before conclude a treaty with Japan, The U.S. must intensify economic political stabilization of Japan. That makes Japan to protect fall into The Soviet sphere of influence.
4The Korean War (1950) “Oh! Communists keep moving south!”
51945-1950• In 1949, A Peace conference with Japan negotiation progressed at a snails pace. Macarthur obtain consensus from Joint Chiefs of Staff to conclude peace treaty with Japan in exchange for a policy of to use the whole territory of Japan with free.• Break out of Korean War• Macarthur dispatched the Eighth United States Army to the Korean War and command to Japan Government to make Police Reserve Force to make up for deterioration of public order.• President Truman considered Japan’s remilitarize is indispensable, so he opposed the peace treaty with Japan. But if anything, Dulles considered to conclude a treaty with Japan is important as an ally. Finally, Truman was persuaded.
61951 Treaty of San Francisco(Treaty of Peace with Japan)• Prime minister Yoshida precede rebuilding of an economy. He opposed the demand of rearmament.• In Japan, Abe Yoshishige, Maruyama Masao, other intellectual and the Socialist Party clamed an overall peace (include the Soviet and China) based on pacifism in the Constitution of Japan.• October, This matter has been debated in the diet deliberations. The government party LDP and Democrats agreed but the Socialist couldn’t settle the matter, so the Socialist party broke up.
71951 Treaty of San Francisco(Treaty of Peace with Japan)• September 8th Prime Minister Yoshida signed Treaty of Peace with Japan, and Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan.
81951 Treaty of San Francisco(Treaty of Peace with Japan)• Prime minister Yoshida didn’t want to do remilitarize but, If Japan don’t comply with a request, it is difficult to propel peace treaty, so Yoshida met the demand.• About Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan (1951), the U.S. didn’t have obligation of defense of the Japan territories.• “Far East clause”… The U.S. can use bases in Japan to keep security of far east.
9The difference of two treaties 1951 and1960 Security Treaty Treaty of Mutual Between the United Cooperation and States and Japan Security between the (1951) United States and Japan (1960)The obligation to NO YES (Act to meet thedefense of Japan common danger:Article5)The article of internal YES ( The U.S. can put NOdisturbance down large-scale internal riots and disturbances :Article1)Japan will not grant to YES (Article2) NOany third powerThe expiration of treaty NO YES (Article10)
101945-1950 Conclusion• In 1951, Japan signed “One side peace” and “Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan ”, this meant officially belonged to Western Bloc.• The U.S. had expectations and anxiety to Japan, because as the Japanese economic military power developed, Japan might behave freely. Such a behavior not always accord the U.S. interests. (U.S. Objectives and Courses of Action with Respect to Japan NSC125/1)
11Cold War and U.S – Japan relationship• China and Soviet take a peace offensive to Japan, and also Indochina tail spinning made the U.S. uneasiness.• President Dwight D. Eisenhower argued “The domino theory” and , declared “Japan is the key of defense”.• Japan was regarded as keystone of containment policy in far east. The U.S. consider Japan important country in terms of technical and economic potential power.
12The U.S. as guardian of Japan andcomeback to international society• A principle of non-compensation.• Entry into IMF, the World Bank and GATT(1952)• Treaty of commerce and navigation(1953, Apr)• The U.S. wished Japan’s economic independence, because aid toward Japan and special procurements came from U.S. citizen’s taxes.
13The U.S. as guardian of Japan andcomeback to international society• The U.S. forced Japan to embargo on the export to China, but it is unwelcome to import Japan’s cheep goods, so the U.S. support Japan to join World economy system.• As rising strategic importance of Japan in Asia, the U.S. behaved as Japan’s guardian.
14Soviet – Japan relationship in 1954-1956• Prime minister Hatoyama started the recovery of Japanese-Soviet diplomatic relations negotiation in 1954.• Secretary of State Dulles “If Japan make a concession with Soviet, it is possible to make Okinawa eternal territory of the U.S.”• Finally, Hatoyama went to Moscow, pigeonholed the Northern Territories issue and signed a treaty of Soviet– Japanese Joint Declaration of 1956.
16The revision of the U.S.-Japan SecurityTreaty in 1960.• Prime minister Kishi want to make U.S – Japan as equal relationship.• At that time in Japan, the Socialist party united and conservative parties also united. (1955-system established of two-party system)
17The revision of the U.S.-Japan SecurityTreaty in 1960.• A Principle of Macarthur’s Treaty Revise opinion1. Make a new treaty2. If possible the U.S. make Japan as a partner besides retain “most important” military power and supply facilities, It is not important to send reinforcements to the U.S. except for limited area.
18“Japan-U.S. Security Treaty brochure”• Premise1. Japans security can not defend their own.2. Japans security is linked with regional security.• Main modification from 19501. Clarify the obligations of the United States against Japan defense2. For the sake of peace and security in the Far East, allowing the use of facilities and bases in the U.S. military.• Common understanding between Japan and the U.S.1. Cooperation between Japan and the United States is an important pillar in Asia.2. Japan-US security arrangements are essential to world peace and stability in Asia. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan
19The difference of two treaties 1951 and1960 Security Treaty Treaty of Mutual Between the United Cooperation and States and Japan Security between the (1951) United States and Japan (1960)The obligation to NO YES (Act to meet thedefense of Japan common danger:Article5)The article of internal YES ( The U.S. can put NOdisturbance down large-scale internal riots and disturbances :Article1)Japan will not grant to YES (Article2) NOany third powerThe expiration of treaty NO YES (Article10)
20The revision of the U.S.-Japan SecurityTreaty in 1960.• “Joint communique of Japanese Prime Minister Kishi and U.S. President Eisenhower”• 「The President reaffirmed the United States position that Japan possesses residual sovereignty over these islands (Ryukyu). He pointed out, however, that so long as the conditions of threat and tension exist in the Far East the United States will find it necessary to continue the present status.」• In Japan, started campaign against the Japan‐U.S. Security Treaty. (Peace movement?)
22The revision of the U.S.-Japan SecurityTreaty in 1960.• China and Soviet welcomed this campaign, called “Victory of Japanese people”. This event gave the U.S. a shock.• Reischauer analyzed “Japan’s democracy is fragile. It is important to promote Japanese economic growth.”• Reiscauer’s analysis and Japanese Prime minister Ikeda’s policy “income doubling plan” are compatible idea.• Arrival of economic season
23Independent diplomacy of Japan in 70’s• In 1972, Seven months after the Nixon surprise visit to China, Prime minister Tanaka established normalization with China earlier than U.S. . The presidential aide Henry Kissinger showed displeasure about this.• In 1973, The oil crisis happened. Japan rely on almost oil in Arab, so Japan affirm the Arab States middle east policies. Kissinger at that time also checked Japan’s independent oil policy.
24Redefinition of U.S. - Japan SecurityTreaty after the end of cold war.• After the end of cold war, The U.S. could not keep the hegemony no longer, but the U.S – Japan alliance not always much this post-hegemony period.• Clinton Administration strengthened economic and security policy with growing Asia countries.
25Redefinition of U.S. - Japan SecurityTreaty after the end of cold war.• In 1994, informal gathering for discussions on defense published “Higuchi report” in Japan. This report shows “Japan should more cooperate with international society than U.S.”• Joseph Samuel Nye redefined a position of east Asia of U.S. and emphasize importance of the U.S. – Japan alliance. This report called “1st Nye report”.
26Japan’s two major tides of diplomacywith U.S.• There are two major tides of diplomacy of Japan.• “The U.S. is one of the important country of Japan.”• ⇨ Independence from U.S.. (ex. Tanaka, Hatoyama, Ozawa…)• “The U.S. is special friendly country of Japan.”•⇨ Pro-Americans conservatives.(ex. Yoshida, Ikeda, Koizumi…)
27Where the U.S. – Japan Alliance go?• “Equal relationship” has always been the key word on U.S – Japan relationship after WWII.• In 2005, “Security Consultative Committee Document U.S.-Japan Alliance: Transformation and Realignment for the Future”• In 2012, “The U.S-Japan Alliance ANCHORING STABILITY IN ASIA” This report called “3rd Nye report”• U.S. – Japan Alliance need for Peace and stability of Japan and Asia-Pacific region.• ⇨ Pro- Americans conservatives idea???
28My Answer• If the U.S. had not assured Japan on islands, alliance system would have collapsed in the near future. 1. If the super-conservatives have political force, they claim military expansion. They are not pro-Americans. (demand Nuclear arms…)