Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development


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  • Social Experiences – process of interacting with other people
  • Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

    1. 1. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>According to Piaget, there are some fundamental aspects to human development. </li></ul><ul><li>Specifically, we learn to adapt to our world cognitively through two processes:- </li></ul><ul><li>i) Assimilation </li></ul><ul><li>- individuals incorporate and experience in the environment into an existing scheme </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Accomodation </li></ul><ul><li>- individuals modify an existing scheme and create a new one in response to experience </li></ul>
    3. 3. Factors Influencing Development <ul><li>Experience with the physical world </li></ul><ul><li>Social Experiences (e.g.: school experiences) </li></ul>
    4. 4. Stages of Development <ul><li>Some key points regarding the stages of development: </li></ul><ul><li>Movement from one stage to another represents a qualitative difference in thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Each stage forms the foundation for movement for the next stage </li></ul><ul><li>Stages cannot be skipped </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of progressing from stage to stage varies between individual </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g.: same chronological age  different stage of development) </li></ul>
    5. 5. 4 Stages of Development <ul><li>Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Operational Stage (11 Years to Adult) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Sensorimotor Stage (0 to 2 Years) <ul><li>Children use senses and motor capacities to understand the world </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire object permanence later in the stage </li></ul><ul><li>Object permanence: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to understand that even if an object is no longer visible, it continues to exist. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) <ul><li>Stage is characterized by perception </li></ul><ul><li>Children make large progress in language development but have limited notions of abstract concepts (e.g.: fairness, democracy, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Children lack conservation; they t end to center and they lack transformation and reversibility </li></ul><ul><li>Conservation: The recognition that certain properties of objects (e.g.: weight/volume) are not altered by superficial changes in appearance, such as in length or shape. </li></ul><ul><li>Centration: Focusing on one aspect of a situation to the exclusion of others </li></ul><ul><li>Transformation: Ability to mentally record the process of moving from one state to another </li></ul><ul><li>Reversibility: Ability to mentally trace the process of moving from an existing state back to a previous state </li></ul>
    8. 8. Preoperational Stage (2 to 7 Years) <ul><li>Children in this stage are egocentric . This means that they have difficulty seeing from others’ perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Egocentrism: </li></ul><ul><li>The difficulty or inability of young children to distinguish between their own perspective and that of others </li></ul>
    9. 9. Concrete Operational Stage (7 to 11 Years) <ul><li>Children in this stage can think logically about concrete objects </li></ul><ul><li>They also overcome some of the egocentrism of preoperational thinkers (i.e.: better at perspective taking) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop classification and seriation and therefore transitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Classification: Process of grouping objects on the basis of common characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Seriation: Ability to order objects according to increasing or decreasing length, weight or volume </li></ul><ul><li>Transitivity: Ability to infer a relationship between two objects based on knowledge of their relationship with a third object </li></ul>
    10. 10. Formal Operational Stage (11 Years to Adult) <ul><li>Able to think logically beyond concrete objects to hypothetical situations </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of formal thought (P.Miller, 2002): </li></ul><ul><li>- Thinking abstractly </li></ul><ul><li>- Thinking systematically </li></ul><ul><li>- Thinking hypothetically </li></ul>
    11. 11. Strengths and Criticisms <ul><li>The description of stages are not valid (K. Fischer & Bidell, 2006; Halford & Andrews, 2006; Siegler, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget underestimated the abilities of young childeren </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abstract directions and conservation of number task </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piaget overestimated the abilities of older learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Think logically in the abstract </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piaget’s work is context-free and failed to adequately examine the influence of culture on development </li></ul>