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Communication Models and  Advertising Research
AIDA Model Awareness  Interest     Desire  Action
Hierarchy of Effects        Unaware         Aware      Comprehension        & Image         Attitude         Action
New Adopter Hierarchy        Awareness         Interest        Evaluation          Trial        Adoption
Lavidge and Steiner model         Awareness         Knowledge           Liking          Preference         Conviction     ...
Research stream 1• Exposure, Salience, Familiarity – Zazonc• Exposure – Preference is created by mere  exposure• Salience ...
Research stream 2• Low Involvement Learning- Krugman,Ray  For normal products  Cognitive       Attitudinal      Behavioura...
Familiarity – Attitude Grid    High                  Imported goods,           Popular FMCG                  Endorsement p...
Central vs Peripheral routes to             processingCentral processing• Depth of information processing• Rational and lo...
Research stream 3Elaboration Likelihood Model – Richard E.  Petty and John T. Cacioppo Consumers are more likely to proces...
Elaboration Likelihood Model to       Attitude change    Advertisement     Motivation to       No     Process             ...
Factors that shape motivation and                  ability•   Ad medium•   Involvement or motivation (ad story)•   Knowled...
Research stream 4• The Cognitive Response ModelAdvertising exposure and processing leads  to consumers forming SAs and CAs...
Cognitive Response Model               CAs      CAsSAs                  SAs            Exposure
Implications of the CR modelThe objective of the advertiser would be to  stimulates SAs and minimise CAsTherefore this is ...
Research Stream 5Recall and Persuasion – David W. Stewart and  John G. Lynch• Recall is a necessary but not a sufficient  ...
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Communication models and advertising research

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communication models

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Communication models and advertising research

  1. 1. Communication Models and Advertising Research
  2. 2. AIDA Model Awareness Interest Desire Action
  3. 3. Hierarchy of Effects Unaware Aware Comprehension & Image Attitude Action
  4. 4. New Adopter Hierarchy Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption
  5. 5. Lavidge and Steiner model Awareness Knowledge Liking Preference Conviction Action
  6. 6. Research stream 1• Exposure, Salience, Familiarity – Zazonc• Exposure – Preference is created by mere exposure• Salience – ‘TOMA’ for mature brands. Reminder advertising for others• Familiarity – Comfort, Security, Ownership, Intimacy – Perceptual Fluency• Implications – High level of ad repetition – for low involvement products
  7. 7. Research stream 2• Low Involvement Learning- Krugman,Ray For normal products Cognitive Attitudinal Behavioural For L.I. products Cognitive Behavioural AttitudinalImplications – For L. I. products, greater awareness and branding is required to build preference (Wayne D. Hoyer)
  8. 8. Familiarity – Attitude Grid High Imported goods, Popular FMCG Endorsement products Big brandsAttitude Recently Paints, launched Lubricants, etc products Low Low High Familiarity
  9. 9. Central vs Peripheral routes to processingCentral processing• Depth of information processing• Rational and logical thinking• High involvementPeripheral processing• Holistic thinking• Associating –ve or +ve cues from ads• Cognitive ‘short-cuts’
  10. 10. Research stream 3Elaboration Likelihood Model – Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo Consumers are more likely to process centrally when motivation and ability to process is high. When either or both is low, peripheral processing is likely to take place.
  11. 11. Elaboration Likelihood Model to Attitude change Advertisement Motivation to No Process Peripheral cue information Yes present Ability to No process information Yes Peripheral Central route route
  12. 12. Factors that shape motivation and ability• Ad medium• Involvement or motivation (ad story)• Knowledge level• Comprehension• Distraction• Emotion• Need for cognition
  13. 13. Research stream 4• The Cognitive Response ModelAdvertising exposure and processing leads to consumers forming SAs and CAs. These are the thoughts that go on in the consumer’s mind which are cognitive responses• SAs change beliefs and attitudes• CAs strengthens existing beliefs and attitudes
  14. 14. Cognitive Response Model CAs CAsSAs SAs Exposure
  15. 15. Implications of the CR modelThe objective of the advertiser would be to stimulates SAs and minimise CAsTherefore this is to be managed• Repetitions. CAs rise and SAs fall with too much repetition. Therefore there is an optimal level beyond which advertising should not take place (ad wearout)• Don’t expect to win over a hostile audience easily• Strength of argument promotes SAs• Emotion – Positive moods generates SAs
  16. 16. Research Stream 5Recall and Persuasion – David W. Stewart and John G. Lynch• Recall is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for persuasion• For L.I. products, recall is necessary for comprehension and comprehension is necessary for persuasion• For H. I. products, message content indicating superiority over competitive products and recall are both necessary

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